Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 156

Microstructure Related Abstracts

156 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys: A Review

Authors: S. K. Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar Shukla, R. Chandra


Friction stir welding is a solid state joining process. High strength aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft and marine industries. Generally, the mechanical properties of fusion-welded aluminum joints are poor. As friction stir welding occurs in the solid state, no solidification structures are created thereby eliminating the brittle and eutectic phases common in fusion welding of high strength aluminum alloys. In this review, the process parameters, microstructural evolution and effect of friction stir welding on the properties of weld specific to aluminum alloys have been discussed.

Keywords: Properties, Microstructure, Aluminum Alloys, friction stir welding (FSW)

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
155 Compatibility of Copolymer-Based Grinding Aids and Sulfonated Acetone-Formaldehyde Superplasticizer

Authors: Zhang Tailong


Compatibility between sulfonated acetone-formalehyde superplasticizer (SAF) and copolymer-based grinding aids (GA) were studied by fluidity, Zeta potential, setting time of cement pasts, initial slump and slump flow of concrete and compressive strength of concrete. ESEM, MIP, and XRD were used to investigate the changing of microstructure of interior concrete. The results indicated that GA could noticeably enhance the dispersion ability of SAF. It was found that better fluidity and slump-keeping ability of cement paste were obtained in the case of GA. In addition, GA and SAF together had a certain retardation effect on hydration of cement paste. With increasing of the GA dosage, the dispersion ability and retardation effect of admixture increased. The compressive strength of the sample made with SAF and GA after 28 days was higher than that of the control sample made only with SAF. The initial slump and slump flow of concrete increased by 10.0% and 22.9%, respectively, while 0.09 wt.% GA was used. XRD examination indicated that new products were not found in the case of GA. In addition, more dense arrangement of hydrates and lower porosity of the specimen were observed by ESEM and MIP, which contributed to higher compressive strength.

Keywords: Concrete, Microstructure, cement, Compatibility, copolymer-based grinding aids, superplasiticizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
154 Effect of Variation of Temperature Distribution on Mechanical Properties of Shield Metal Arc Welded Duplex Stainless Steel

Authors: Arvind Mittal, Rajesh Gupta


Influence of heat input on the micro structure and mechanical properties of shield metal arc welded of duplex stainless steel UNSNO.S-31803 has been investigated. Three heat input combinations designated as low heat (0.675 KJ/mm), medium heat (0.860 KJ/mm) and high heat (1.094 KJ/mm) and weld joints made using these combinations were subjected to micro structural evaluations and tensile and impact testing so as to analyze the effect of thermal arc energy on the micro structure and mechanical properties of these joints. The result of this investigation shows that the joints made using low heat input exhibited higher tensile strength than those welded with medium and high heat input. Heat affected zone of welded joint made with medium heat input has austenitic ferritic grain structure with some patchy austenite provide high toughness. Significant grain coarsening was observed in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of medium and high heat input welded joints, whereas low heat input welded joint shows the fine grain structure in the heat affected zone with small amount of dendritic formation and equiaxed grain structure where inner zone indicates slowly cooled grains in the direction of heat dissipation. This is the main reason for the observable changes of tensile properties of weld joints welded with different arc energy inputs.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, shield metal arc welded, duplex stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
153 Biochemical Characteristics and Microstructure of Ice Cream Prepared from Fresh Cream

Authors: S. Baississe, S. Godbane, A. Lekbir


The objective of our work is to develop an ice cream from a fermented cream, skim milk and other ingredients and follow the evolution of its physicochemical properties, biochemical and microstructure of the products obtained. Our cream is aerated with the manufacturing steps start with a homogenizing follow different ingredients by heating to 40°C emulsion, the preparation is then subjected to a heat treatment at 65°C for 30 min, before being stored in the cold at 4°C for a few hours. This conservation promotes crystallization of the material during the globular stage of maturation of the cream. The emulsifying agent moves gradually absorbed on the surface of fat globules homogeneous, which results in reduced protein stability. During the expansion, the collusion of destabilizing fat globules in the aqueous phase favours their coalescence. During the expansion, the collusion of destabilized fat globules in the aqueous phase favours their coalescence. The stabilizing agent increases the viscosity of the aqueous phase and the drainage limit interaction with the proteins of the aqueous phase and the protein absorbed on fat globules. The cutting improved organoleptic property of our cream is made by the use of three dyes and aromas. The products obtained undergo physicochemical analyses (pH, conductivity and acidity), biochemical (moisture, % dry matter and fat in %), and finally in the microscopic observation of the microstructure and the results obtained by analysis of the image processing software. The results show a remarkable evolution of physicochemical properties (pH, conductivity and acidity), biochemical (moisture, fat and non-fat) and microstructure of the products developed in relation to the raw material (skim milk) and the intermediate product (fermented cream).

Keywords: Biochemical, Microstructure, physicochemical, ice cream, sour cream

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
152 Influence of Brazing Process Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Nickel Based Superalloy

Authors: M. Zielinska, B. Daniels, J. Gabel, A. Paletko


A common nickel based superalloy Inconel625 was brazed with Ni-base braze filler material (AMS4777) containing melting-point-depressants such as B and Si. Different braze gaps, brazing times and forms of braze filler material were tested. It was determined that the melting point depressants B and Si tend to form hard and brittle phases in the joint during the braze cycle. Brittle phases significantly reduce mechanical properties (e. g. tensile strength) of the joint. Therefore, it is important to define optimal process parameters to achieve high strength joints, free of brittle phases. High ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values can be obtained if the joint area is free of brittle phases, which is equivalent to a complete isothermal solidification of the joint. Isothermal solidification takes place only if the concentration of the melting point depressant in the braze filler material of the joint is continuously reduced by diffusion into the base material. For a given brazing temperature, long brazing times and small braze filler material volumes (small braze gaps) are beneficial for isothermal solidification. On the base of the obtained results it can be stated that the form of the braze filler material has an additional influence on the joint quality. Better properties can be achieved by the use of braze-filler-material in form of foil instead of braze-filler-material in form of paste due to a reduced amount of voids and a more homogeneous braze-filler-material-composition in the braze-gap by using foil.

Keywords: Microstructure, Tensile Strength, diffusion brazing, superalloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
151 Microstructure and SEM Analysis of Joints Fabricated by FSW of Aluminum Alloys 5083 and 6063

Authors: Jaskirat Singh, Roshan Lal Virdi, Khushdeep Goyal


The purpose of this paper is to perform a microstructural analysis of Friction Stir Welded joints of aluminum alloys 6063 and 5083, also to check the properties of the weld zone by SEM analysis. FSW experiments were carried on CNC Vertical milling machine. The tools used for welding were the round cylindrical pin shape and square pin shape. It is found that Microstructure shows the uniformly distributed material with minimum heat affected zone and dense welded zone without any defect. Microstructures indicate that the weld material is defect free. The SEM shows the diffusion of material with base metal with proper bonding without any defect.

Keywords: Microstructure, Friction Stir Welding, Aluminum Alloy, SEM analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
150 Micro-Study of Dissimilar Welded Materials

Authors: Ezzeddin Anawa, Abdol-Ghane Olabi


The dissimilar joint between aluminum /titanium alloys (Al 6082 and Ti G2) alloys were successfully achieved by CO2 laser welding with a single pass and without filler material using the overlap joint design. Laser welding parameters ranges combinations were experimentally determined using Taguchi approach with the objective of producing welded joint with acceptable welding profile and high quality of mechanical properties. In this study a joining of dissimilar Al 6082 / Ti G2 was result in three distinct regions fusion area (FA), heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the unaffected base metal (BM) in the weldment. These regions are studied in terms of its microstructural characteristics and microhardness which are directly affecting the welding quality. The weld metal was mainly composed of martensite alpha prime. In two different metals in the two different sides of joint HAZ, grain growth was detected. The microhardness of the joint distribution also has shown microhardness increasing in the HAZ of two base metals and a varying microhardness in fusion zone.

Keywords: Microstructure, microharness, laser welding and dissimilar jointed materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
149 The Effect of Vanadium Addition on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of A319 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Musbah Mahfoud, Ibtisam Mustafa


The present work highlights some of our up-to-date findings on the effect of vanadium addition on the mechanical properties and microstructure of one of the most versatile aluminum-silicon alloys, i.e., A319. In terms of microstructure, it was found that in addition to its ability to refine some of the constituent phases, vanadium also helps in retarding the formation of some of the detrimental intermetallic compounds, such as those involving Al-Fe-Si. Preliminary studies of the effect of vanadium on the mechanical properties of A319 have shown that vanadium additions up to 0.4% cause slight increase in the yield and tensile strength. However, the vanadium addition did not show a significant effect on the hardness of the alloy.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Aluminium, vanadium, intermetallic

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
148 Alloying Effect on Hot Workability of M42 High Speed Steel

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha


In the present study, the effect of Si, Al, Ti, Zr, and Nb addition on the microstructure and hot workability of cast M42 tool steels, basically consisting of 1.0C, 0.2Mn, 3.8Cr, 1.5W, 8.5Co, 9.2Mo, and 1.0V in weight percent has been investigated. Tool steels containing Si of 0.25 and 0.5 wt.%, Al of 0.06 and 0.12 wt.%, Ti of 0.3 wt.%, Zr of 0.3 wt.%, and Nb of 0.3 wt.% were cast into ingots of 140 mm´ 140 mm´ 330 mm by vacuum induction melting. After solution treatment at 1150°C for 1.5 hrs. followed by furnace cooling, hot rolling at 1180 °C was conducted on the ingots. Addition of titanium, zirconium and niobium was found to retard the decomposition of the eutectic carbides and result in the deterioration of hot workability of the tool steels, while addition of aluminium and silicon showed relatively well decomposed carbide structure and resulted in sound hot rolled plates.

Keywords: Microstructure, high speed steels, alloying elements, eutectic carbides, hot workability

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
147 Interface Analysis of Annealed Al/Cu Cladded Sheet

Authors: Joon Ho Kim, Tae Kwon Ha


Effect of aging treatment on microstructural aspects of interfacial layers of the Cu/Al clad sheet produced by Differential Speed Rolling (DSR) process were studied by Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD). Clad sheet of Al/Cu has been fabricated by using DSR, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100°C with speed ratio of 2, in which the total thickness reduction was 45%. Interface layers of clad sheet were analyzed by EBSD after subsequent annealing at 400°C for 30 to 120 min. With increasing annealing time, thickness of interface layer and fraction of high angle grain boundary were increased and average grain size was decreased.

Keywords: Microstructure, aluminium/copper clad sheet, differential speed rolling, interface layer, annealing, electron back scattered diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
146 Effect of Y Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloy

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha


The effect of Yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, which has been attracting intensive focus as a Pb-free solder material, was investigated in this study. Phase equilibrium has been calculated by using FactSage® to evaluate the composition and fraction of equilibrium intermetallic compounds and construct a phase diagram. In the case of Sn-8.8 Zn eutectic alloy, the as-cast microstructure was typical lamellar. With addition of 0.25 wt. %Y, a large amount of pro-eutectic phases have been observed and various YZnx intermetallic compounds were expected to successively form during cooling. Hardness of Sn-8.8 Zn alloy was not affected by Y-addition and both alloys could be rolled by 90% at room temperature.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, yttrium, FactSage®

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
145 The Impact of Trading Switch on Price and Liquidity

Authors: Bel Abed Ines Mariem


Different stock markets keep changing their exchange structure for the only purpose of improving the functioning of their markets. This paper investigates the effects of the transfer from one trading category to another in the Tunisian Stock Exchange on market price and liquidity. The sample consists of 40 securities transferred from call auction to continuous auction and conversely during the period between 2004 and 2013. The methodology used is the event study. Empirical results show an interesting phenomenon observed; stocks transferred to the call system have experienced an improvement on their price and liquidity especially for less liquid ones. However, price and liquidity for stocks transferred from call system to continuous system have decreased.

Keywords: Microstructure, call auction, continuous auction, price, liquidity and event study

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
144 Food Foam Characterization: Rheology, Texture and Microstructure Studies

Authors: Rutuja Upadhyay, Anurag Mehra


Solid food foams/cellular foods are colloidal systems which impart structure, texture and mouthfeel to many food products such as bread, cakes, ice-cream, meringues, etc. Their heterogeneous morphology makes the quantification of structure/mechanical relationships complex. The porous structure of solid food foams is highly influenced by the processing conditions, ingredient composition, and their interactions. Sensory perceptions of food foams are dependent on bubble size, shape, orientation, quantity and distribution and determines the texture of foamed foods. The state and structure of the solid matrix control the deformation behavior of the food, such as elasticity/plasticity or fracture, which in turn has an effect on the force-deformation curves. The obvious step in obtaining the relationship between the mechanical properties and the porous structure is to quantify them simultaneously. Here, we attempt to research food foams such as bread dough, baked bread and steamed rice cakes to determine the link between ingredients and the corresponding effect of each of them on the rheology, microstructure, bubble size and texture of the final product. Dynamic rheometry (SAOS), confocal laser scanning microscopy, flatbed scanning, image analysis and texture profile analysis (TPA) has been used to characterize the foods studied. In all the above systems, there was a common observation that when the mean bubble diameter is smaller, the product becomes harder as evidenced by the increase in storage and loss modulus (G′, G″), whereas when the mean bubble diameter is large the product is softer with decrease in moduli values (G′, G″). Also, the bubble size distribution affects texture of foods. It was found that bread doughs with hydrocolloids (xanthan gum, alginate) aid a more uniform bubble size distribution. Bread baking experiments were done to study the rheological changes and mechanisms involved in the structural transition of dough to crumb. Steamed rice cakes with xanthan gum (XG) addition at 0.1% concentration resulted in lower hardness with a narrower pore size distribution and larger mean pore diameter. Thus, control of bubble size could be an important parameter defining final food texture.

Keywords: Rheology, Microstructure, Texture, food foams

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
143 Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steels

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha


Continually increasing working temperature and growing need for greater efficiency and reliability of automotive exhaust require systematic investigation into the thermal fatigue properties especially of high temperature stainless steels. In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 300 series austenitic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800°C and 200-900°C. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. Load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property.

Keywords: Microstructure, austenitic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, load relaxation

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
142 Effect of Al Addition on Microstructure and Physical Properties of Fe-36Ni Invar Alloy

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


High strength Fe-36Ni-base Invar alloys containing Al contents up to 0.3 weight percent were cast into ingots and thermodynamic equilibrium during solidification has been investigated in this study. From the thermodynamic simulation using Thermo-Calc®, it has been revealed that equilibrium phases which can be formed are two kinds of MC-type precipitates, MoC, and M2C carbides. The mu phase was also expected to form by addition of aluminum. Microstructure observation revealed the coarse precipitates in the as-cast ingots, which was non-equilibrium phase and could be resolved by the successive heat treatment. With increasing Al contents up to 0.3 wt.%, tensile strength of Invar alloy increased as 1400MPa after cold rolling and thermal expansion coefficient increased significantly. Cold rolling appeared to dramatically decrease thermal expansion coefficient.

Keywords: Microstructure, Aluminum, tensile properties, invar alloy, phase equilibrium, thermal expansion coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
141 Microstructure and High Temperature Deformation Behavior of Cast 310S Alloy

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha


High temperature deformation behavior of cast 310S stainless steel has been investigated in this study by performing tensile and compression tests at temperatures from 900 to 1200°C. Rectangular ingots of which the dimensions were 350×350×100 in millimeter were cast using vacuum induction melting. Phase equilibrium was calculated using the FactSage®, thermodynamic software and database. Thermal expansion coefficient was also measured on the ingot in the temperature range from room temperature to 1200°C. Tensile strength of cast 310S stainless steel was 9 MPa at 1200°C, which is a little higher than that of a wrought 310S. With temperature decreased, tensile strength increased rapidly and reached up to 72 MPa at 900°C. Elongation also increased with temperature decreased. Microstructure observation revealed that σ phase was precipitated along the grain boundary and within the matrix over 1200°C, which is detrimental to high temperature elongation.

Keywords: Microstructure, High temperature deformation, Mechanical Properties, stainless steel, STS 310S

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
140 Mechanical Properties of Die-Cast Nonflammable Mg Alloy

Authors: Myoung-Gon Yoon, Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha


Tensile specimens of nonflammable AZ91D Mg alloy were fabricated in this study via cold chamber die-casting process. Dimensions of tensile specimens were 25mm in length, 4mm in width, and 0.8 or 3.0mm in thickness. Microstructure observation was conducted before and after tensile tests at room temperature. In the die casting process, various injection distances from 150 to 260mm were employed to obtain optimum process conditions. Distribution of Al12Mg17 phase was the key factor to determine the mechanical properties of die-cast Mg alloy. Specimens with 3mm of thickness showed superior mechanical properties to those with 0.8mm of thickness. Closed networking of Al12Mg17 phase along grain boundary was found to be detrimental to mechanical properties of die-cast Mg alloy.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, non-flammable magnesium alloy, AZ91D, die-casting

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
139 Characterization of High Phosphorus Gray Iron for the Stub- Anode Connection in the Aluminium Reduction Cells

Authors: Mohamed M. Ali, Adel Nofal, Amr Kandil, Mahmoud Agour


High phosphorus gray iron (HPGI) is used to connect the steel stub of an anode rod to a prebaked anode carbon block in the aluminium reduction cells. In this paper, a complete characterization for HPGI was done, includes studying the chemical composition of the HPGI collar, anodic voltage drop, collar temperature over 30 days anode life cycle, microstructure and mechanical properties. During anode life cycle, the carbon content in HPGI was lowed from 3.73 to 3.38%, and different changes in the anodic voltage drop at the stub- collar-anode connection were recorded. The collar temperature increases over the anode life cycle and reaches to 850°C in four weeks after anode changing. Significant changes in the HPGI microstructure were observed after 3 and 30 days from the anode changing. To simulate the actual operating conditions in the steel stub/collar/carbon anode connection, a bench-scale experimental set-up was designed and used for electrical resistance and resistivity respectively. The results showed the current HPGI properties needed to modify or producing new alloys with excellent electrical and mechanical properties. The steel stub and HPGI thermal expansion were measured and studied. Considerable permanent expansion was observed for the HPGI collar after the completion of the heating-cooling cycle.

Keywords: Microstructure, mechanical and electrical properties, high phosphorus gray iron (HPGI), aluminium reduction cells, anodic voltage drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
138 Production of (V-B) Reinforced Fe Matrix Composites

Authors: Kerim Emre Öksüz, Mehmet Çevik, A. Enbiya Bozdağ, Ali Özer, Mehmet Şimşir


Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have gained a considerable interest in the last three decades. Conventional powder metallurgy production route often involves the addition of reinforcing phases into the metal matrix directly, which leads to poor wetting behavior between ceramic phase and metal matrix and the segregation of reinforcements. The commonly used elements for ceramic phase formation in iron based MMCs are Ti, Nb, Mo, W, V and C, B. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the effect of sintering temperature and V-B addition on densification, phase development, microstructure, and hardness of Fe–V-B composites (Fe-(5-10) wt. %B – 25 wt. %V alloys) prepared by powder metallurgy process. Metal powder mixes were pressed uniaxial and sintered at different temperatures (ranging from 1300 to 1400ºC) for 1h. The microstructure of the (V, B) Fe composites was studied with the help of high magnification optical microscope and XRD. Experimental results show that (V, B) Fe composites can be produced by conventional powder metallurgy route.

Keywords: Microstructure, powder metallurgy, Hardness, metal matrix composite (MMC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
137 Carbide Structure and Fracture Toughness of High Speed Tool Steels

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha


M2 steels, the typical Co-free high speed steel (HSS) possessing hardness level of 63~65 HRc, are most widely used for cutting tools. On the other hand, Co-containing HSS’s, such as M35 and M42, show a higher hardness level of 65~67 HRc and used for high quality cutting tools. In the fabrication of HSS’s, it is very important to control cleanliness and eutectic carbide structure of the ingot and it is required to increase productivity at the same time. Production of HSS ingots includes a variety of processes such as casting, electro-slag remelting (ESR), forging, blooming, and wire rod rolling processes. In the present study, electro-slag rapid remelting (ESRR) process, an advanced ESR process combined by continuous casting, was successfully employed to fabricate HSS billets of M2, M35, and M42 steels. Distribution and structure of eutectic carbides of the billets were analysed and cleanliness, hardness, and composition profile of the billets were also evaluated.

Keywords: Microstructure, Hardness, high speed tool steel, eutectic carbide, fracture toughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
136 Microstructure and Hot Deformation Behavior of Fe-20Cr-5Al Alloy

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha


Abstract—High temperature deformation behavior of cast Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy has been investigated in this study by performing tensile and compression tests at temperatures from 1100 to 1200oC. Rectangular ingots of which the dimensions were 300×300×100 in millimeter were cast using vacuum induction melting. Phase equilibrium was calculated using the FactSage®, thermodynamic software and database. Tensile strength of cast Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy was 4 MPa at 1200oC. With temperature decreased, tensile strength increased rapidly and reached up to 13 MPa at 1100oC. Elongation also increased from 18 to 80% with temperature decreased from 1200oC to 1100oC. Microstructure observation revealed that M23C6 carbide was precipitated along the grain boundary and within the matrix.

Keywords: Microstructure, High temperature deformation, Mechanical Properties, aging treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
135 Analysis of Friction Stir Welding Process for Joining Aluminum Alloy

Authors: A. M. Khourshid, I. Sabry


Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a solid state joining technique, is widely being used for joining Al alloys for aerospace, marine automotive and many other applications of commercial importance. FSW were carried out using a vertical milling machine on Al 5083 alloy pipe. These pipe sections are relatively small in diameter, 5mm, and relatively thin walled, 2 mm. In this study, 5083 aluminum alloy pipe were welded as similar alloy joints using (FSW) process in order to investigate mechanical and microstructural properties .rotation speed 1400 r.p.m and weld speed 10,40,70 mm/min. In order to investigate the effect of welding speeds on mechanical properties, metallographic and mechanical tests were carried out on the welded areas. Vickers hardness profile and tensile tests of the joints as a metallurgical feasibility of friction stir welding for joining Al 6061 aluminum alloy welding was performed on pipe with different thickness 2, 3 and 4 mm,five rotational speeds (485,710,910,1120 and 1400) rpm and a traverse speed (4, 8 and 10)mm/min was applied. This work focuses on two methods such as artificial neural networks using software (pythia) and response surface methodology (RSM) to predict the tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness of friction stir welded 6061 aluminum alloy. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for the analysis of the friction stir welding parameters of 6061 pipe. The tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness of weld joints were predicted by taking the parameters Tool rotation speed, material thickness and travel speed as a function. A comparison was made between measured and predicted data. Response surface methodology (RSM) also developed and the values obtained for the response Tensile strengths, the percentage of elongation and hardness are compared with measured values. The effect of FSW process parameter on mechanical properties of 6061 aluminum alloy has been analyzed in detail.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, friction stir welding (FSW), al alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
134 In-situ Observations Using SEM-EBSD for Bending Deformation in Single-Crystal Materials

Authors: Yuko Matayoshi, Takashi Sakai, Yin-Gjum Jin, Jun-ichi Koyama


To elucidate the material characteristics of single crystals of pure aluminum and copper, the respective relations between crystallographic orientations and micro structures were examined, along with bending and mechanical properties. The texture distribution was also analysed. Bending tests were performed in a SEM apparatus while its behaviors were observed. Some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses.

Keywords: Microstructure, Single Crystal, Texture, Bending, pure aluminum, pure copper, SEM-EBSD analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
133 The Joint Properties for Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium Tubes

Authors: Ahbdelfattah M. Khourshid, T. Elabeidi


Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a solid state joining technique, is widely being used for joining Al alloys for aerospace, marine automotive and many other applications of commercial importance. FSW were carried out using a vertical milling machine on Al 5083 alloy pipe. These pipe sections are relatively small in diameter, 5mm, and relatively thin walled, 2mm. In this study, 5083 aluminum alloy pipe were welded as similar alloy joints using (FSW) process in order to investigate mechanical and microstructural properties .rotation speed 1400 r.p.m and weld speed 10,40,70 mm/min. In order to investigate the effect of welding speeds on mechanical properties, metallographic and mechanical tests were carried out on the welded areas. Vickers hardness profile and tensile tests of the joints as a metallurgical investigation, Optic Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used for base and weld zones.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, friction stir welding (FSW), al alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
132 Preparation and Fabrication of Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramic as Dental Crowns via Hot Pressing Method

Authors: A. Srion, W. Thepsuwan, N. Monmaturapoj


Two Lithium disilicate (LD) glass ceramics based on SiO2-Li2O-K2O-Al2O3 system were prepared through glass melting method and then fabricated into dental crowns via hot pressing at 850˚C and 900˚C in order to study the effect of the pressing temperatures on theirs phase formation and microstructure. The factor such as heat treatment temperature (as-cast glass, 600˚C and 700˚C) of the glass ceramics used to press was also investigated the effect of an initial microstructure before pressing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to determine phase formation and microstructure of the samples, respectively. X-ray diffraction result shows that the main crystalline structure was Li2Si2O5 by having Li3PO4, Li0.6Al0.6Si2O6, Li2SiO3, Ca5 (PO4)3F, SiO2 as minor phases. Glass compositions with different heat treatment temperatures exhibited a difference phase formation but have less effect during pressing. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed microstructure of lath-like of Li2Si2O5 in all glasses. With increasing the initial heat treatment temperature, the longer the lath-like crystals of lithium disilicate were increased especially when using glass heat treatment at 700˚C followed by pressing at 900˚C. This could be suggested that LD1 heat treatment at 700˚C which pressing at 900˚C presented the best formation by hot pressing and compiled microstructure.

Keywords: Microstructure, lithium disilicate, hot pressing, dental crown

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
131 Study of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Obtained by FSW of Similar and Dissimilar Non-Ferrous Alloys Used in Aerospace and Automobile Industry

Authors: Ajay Sidana, Kulbir Singh Sandhu, Balwinder Singh Sidhu


Joining of dissimilar non-ferrous alloys like aluminium and magnesium alloys becomes important in various automobile and aerospace applications due to their low density and good corrosion resistance. Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a solid state joining process, successfully welds difficult to weld similar and dissimilar aluminum and magnesium alloys. Two tool rotation speeds were selected by keeping the transverse speed constant to weld similar and dissimilar alloys. Similar(Al to Al) and Dissimilar(Al to Mg) weld joints were obtained by FSW. SEM scans revealed that higher tool rotation fragments the coarse grains of base material into fine grains in the weld zone. Also, there are less welding defects in weld joints obtained with higher tool rotation speed. The material of dissimilar alloys was mixed with each other forming recrystallised new intermetallics. There was decrease in hardness of similar weld joint however there is significant increase in hardness of weld zone in case of dissimilar weld joints due to stirring action of tool and formation of inter metallics. Tensile tests revealed that there was decrease in percentage elongation in both similar and dissimilar weld joints.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Aluminum Alloys, Magnesium Alloys, Friction Stir Welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
130 Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Joints of Cast Al-Mg-Sc Alloy

Authors: K. Subbaiah, C. V. Jeyakumar, S. R. Koteswara Rao


Cast Aluminum-Magnesium-Scandium alloy was Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welded, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint and its component parts were examined and analyzed. The global joint fractured in the base metal, and thus possessed slightly greater tensile strength than the base metal. These results clearly show that Gas Tungsten Arc welding is an optimum / suitable welding process for cast Aluminum-Magnesium-Scandium alloys.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, cast Al-Mg-Sc alloy, GTAW

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
129 Influence of Raw Material Composition on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nodular Cast Iron

Authors: Alan Vaško, Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová


The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of raw material composition on the microstructure, mechanical and fatigue properties and micromechanisms of failure of nodular cast iron. In order to evaluate the influence of charge composition, the structural analysis, mechanical and fatigue tests and micro fractographic analysis were carried out on specimens of ten melts with different charge compositions. The basic charge of individual melts was formed by a different ratio of pig iron and steel scrap and by different additive for regulation of chemical composition (silicon carbide or ferrosilicon). The results show differences in mechanical and fatigue properties, which are connected with the microstructure. SiC additive positively influences microstructure. Consequently, mechanical and fatigue properties of nodular cast iron are improved, especially in the melts with the higher ratio of steel scrap in the charge.

Keywords: Microstructure, Silicon Carbide, Mechanical Properties, nodular cast iron

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
128 Preparation and Properties of PP/EPDM Reinforced with Graphene

Authors: M. Haghnegahdar, G. Naderi, M. H. R. Ghoreishy


Polypropylene(PP)/Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) samples (80/20) containing 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 (expressed in mass fraction) graphene were prepared using melt compounding method to investigate microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal stability as well as electrical resistance of samples. X-Ray diffraction data confirmed that graphene platelets are well dispersed in PP/EPDM. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact strength and hardness demonstrated increasing trend by graphene loading which exemplifies substantial reinforcing nature of this kind of nano filler and it's good interaction with polymer chains. At the same time it is found that thermo-oxidative degradation of PP/EPDM nanocomposites is noticeably retarded with the increasing of graphene content. Electrical surface resistivity of the nanocomposite was dramatically changed by forming electrical percolation threshold and leads to change electrical behavior from insulator to semiconductor. Furthermore, these results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Keywords: Graphene, Microstructure, nanocomposite, Mechanical Properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
127 Models of Environmental, Crack Propagation of Some Aluminium Alloys (7xxx)

Authors: H. A. Jawan


This review describes the models of environmental-related crack propagation of aluminum alloys (7xxx) during the last few decades. Acknowledge on effects of different factors on the susceptibility to SCC permits to propose valuable mechanisms on crack advancement. The reliable mechanism of cracking give a possibility to propose the optimum chemical composition and thermal treatment conditions resulting in microstructure the most suitable for real environmental condition and stress state.

Keywords: Environmental, Microstructure, Mechanism, propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 282