Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

micronucleus Related Abstracts

5 Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Methidathion Pesticide

Authors: Mohammad Y. Alfaifi

Abstract:

Methidathion (MTD) (Trade name Supracide®) is a non-systemic organophosphorus insecticide used intensively worldwide including Saudi Arabia. However, there is a lack in published studies about it's genotoxicity. In this study we evaluated MTD toxicity in rat bone marrow cells (in vivo) and in lymphocytes (in vitro) using different doses based on LD50. MNNCE (Micronucleated normocromatic erythrocytes) and MNPCE (Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes), NDI (Nuclear division index) and NDCI (nuclear division cytotoxicity index), necrotic and apoptotic cells were recorded in rat's bone marrow samples. CA, MI (number of cells undergoing mitosis) necrotic, and apoptotic cells recorded in lymphocytes. Results showed that there was a slight increase in the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow cells. However, no structural chromosomal aberrations were detected in vivo or in vitro. On the other hand, the results showed significant increase in necrotic and apoptotic cells following MTD administration in a dose-dependent manner comparing to positive and negative control groups. In light of these results, MTD can be considered highly cytotoxic and moderate genotoxic, and precaution should be taken when using MTD.

Keywords: Toxicity, methidathion, micronucleus, NDI, NDCI, chromosomal aberrations

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4 Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Salvia officinals Extracts on Rat Bone Marrow

Authors: Mohammed A. Alshehri

Abstract:

Salvia officinalis is an aromatic plant member of the mint (Labiatae) family. It is popular kitchen herb. Not surprise to find that the name of this herb related to cure, in Latin language Salvia means to cure where officinalis means medicinal which answer why the sage has a top place in the list of medicinal plants. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic damage and cytological changes caused by exposure of the test organism (Rattusrattus) to Salvia officinals. For this purpose, adult female rats, weighing 200–250 g, were used as donors. A total of 36 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to five groups: the experimental groups (rats were intraperitonealy injected with Salvia officinalis pure extract at (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 0.1mg/kg body weight, the same dose was administered once a day. Control group (rats were injected intraperitonealy physiological saline. And positive control were injected with Cyclophosphamide. On the 21st days following Salvia officinalis pure extract exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of bone marrow were collected. Following that, we performed a micronuclei (MN) test using MNNCE (Micro-nucleated normocromatic erythrocytes) and MNPCE (Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes), NDI (Nuclear division index), and cytological parameters using NDCI (nuclear division cytotoxicity index), necrotic, and apoptotic cells in rat's bone marrow samples. Results showed that there was a no significant increase in the frequency of micro-nucleatedas well as in cytological parameters in bone marrow cells. In light of these results, if Salvia officinalis pure extract may considered to be safe from the stand point of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity effects.

Keywords: Toxicity, micronucleus, NDI, NDCI, chromosomal aberrations, Salvia officinalis

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3 Forced Swim Stress Does Not Induce Structural Chromosomal Aberrations in Rat Bone Marrow

Authors: Mohammad Y. Alfaifi

Abstract:

Anything that poses a challenge or a threat to our well-being is a stress. Understanding the genetic material and cellular response of rats threatened with Repeated swimming stress provides insights that can influence human health. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetical damage and cytological changes caused by exposure of the test organism (Rattus rattus) to forced swimming stress. For this purpose, animals have been submerged in water path 15 minutes daily for 2 weeks. Following that, we performed a micronuclei (MN) test using MNNCE (Micronucleated normocromatic erythrocytes) and MNPCE (Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes), NDI (Nuclear division index) and cytological parameters using NDCI (nuclear division cytotoxicity index), necrotic and apoptotic cells in rat's bone marrow samples. Results showed that there was a slightly but not significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated as well as in cytological parameters in bone marrow cells.

Keywords: Toxicity, micronucleus, NDI, NDCI, chromosomal aberrations, submergence stress

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2 Genotoxicity Induced by Nanoparticles on Human Lymphoblast Cells (TK6)

Authors: Piyaporn Buaklang, Narisa Kengtrong Bordeerat

Abstract:

The use of nanoparticles is increasing worldwide and there are many nanotech-based daily products available in the market. The toxicity of nanoparticles results from their extremely small size which can be transported easily into the blood stream and other organs. We aimed to study the genotoxicity of two nanoparticles, Titanium dioxide (TiO2-NPs) and Zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs), in TK6 cells by micronucleus assay. The cells were tested at 8, 24, and 48 hours after exposed to 0.10, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 µg/mL of TiO2-NPs particles size < 25 nm and < 100 nm and to ZnO-NPs at 1, 10, 50, and 100 µg/mL, particles size < 50 nm and < 100 nm. At 24 hours of incubation transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed that the nanoparticles TiO2-NPs at 1.00 µg/mL and ZnO-NPs at 10 µg/mL were able to be taken into the cells and induced the production of increasing amount of micronucleus in dose-dependent manner. The effect of the two nanoparticles on chromosome aberration indicated that TiO2-NPs and ZnO-NPs are genotoxic. In addition, the toxicity of TiO2-NPs was found to be 10 times more toxic than ZnO-NPs after 24 hours exposure. Analysis showed that the TiO2-NPs induced formation of micronucleus was both time and dose dependent, whereas the genotoxicity of ZnO-NPs was only dose dependent. In conclusion, TiO2-NPs and ZnO-NPs were able to transport through the cells membrane and directly genotoxic to TK6 cells in dose-dependent manner.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Genotoxicity, micronucleus, human lymphoblast cells (TK6)

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1 In vivo Genotoxicity Testing of Sesbania Grandiflora (Katuray) Flower Methanolic Extract

Authors: Levylee Bautista, Dawn Grace Santos, Aishwarya Veluchamy, Jesusa Santos, Ghafoor, Jr. I Haque, Rodolfo Rafael

Abstract:

The booming interest in using natural compounds as an alternative to conventional medications has paved way to focus the attention on plants that provide rich sources of bioactive phytochemicals. For regulatory purposes, evaluation of the genotoxic effects of such alternatives is therefore empirical as part of the plant’s hazard assessment. Sesbania grandiflora is among the plants used as a traditional remedy in folk medicine and a subject of research for its medicinal benefits. This study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic potential induced by S. grandiflora flower methanol extract (SGFME) in terms of the frequency of micronucleus (MN) in polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) (MNPCE) and PCE ratio employing the micronucleus assay. The frequency of MN was examined in bone marrow cells (BMCs) obtained from male Swiss albino mice exposed in vivo to four different concentrations (11.25, 22.5, 40, and 90 mg/kg) of SGFME and MMC (70 mg/kg; positive control) and sacrificed 24 hours post-intraperitoneal injection. Results showed a significant (p < 0.01) rate of MNPCEs for 11.25 and 22.5 tested concentrations of SGFME and is comparable with the MMC-treated mice. Although PCE ratio values in all doses of SGFME-treated mice were over 0.20, it is worth noting that 40 and 90 tested concentrations of SGFME-treated mice exhibited the lowest value, i.e., 0.22 and 0.28, respectively. The present study has demonstrated that S. grandiflora possesses genotoxic potential for murine BMCs. Such activity could be ascribed from the bioactive compounds present in S. grandiflora that require further isolation and characterization of the active molecules. Likewise, findings of this study warrant a caution of the use of S. grandiflora insomuch as further investigations do not demonstrate their safety.

Keywords: Phytochemicals, Genotoxicity, micronucleus, Sesbania grandiflora

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