Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

micronuclei Related Abstracts

5 Genotoxicity of 4-Nonylphenol (4NP) on Oreochromus spilurs Fish

Authors: M. M. Alsharif

Abstract:

4-Nonylphenol Compound is widely used as an element of detergents, paints, insecticides and many others products. It is known that the existence of this compound may lead to the emission of estrogenic responses in mammals, birds and fish. It is described as pollutant since it causes disorder of endocrine glands. In previous studies, it was proven that this compound exists in water and in the materials precipitated in Red Sea coast in Jeddah near the drains of processed drainage water and near the drainage site of the residuals of paper factories. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the cytogenetic aberrations caused by 4-nonylphenol through exposing Talapia Fishes to aquatic solution of the compound with 0, 15, 30 microgram/liter for one month. Samples of gills and liver were collected for micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities and measuring DNA and RNA amount in the treated fish. The results pointed out that there is a significant increase in the numbers of micronuclei in the fish exposed to the former concentrations as compared to the control group. Exposing fishes to 4-nonylphenol resulted in an increased amount of both DNA and RNA, compared to the control group. There is a positive correlation between the amount of the compound (i.e. dosage dependent effect) and the inspiring for cytogenetic effect on Talapia fishes in Jeddah. Therefore, micronucleus test, DNA and RNA contents can be considered as an index of cumulative exposure, which appear to be a sensitive model to evaluate genotoxic effects of 4-Nonylphenol compound on fish.

Keywords: Fish, RNA, Dna, genotoxic, micronuclei

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4 Preliminary Study of Standardization and Validation of Micronuclei Technique to Assess the DNA Damages Cause for the X-Rays

Authors: L. J. Díaz, M. A. Hernández, A. K. Molina, A. Bermúdez, C. Crane, V. M. Pabón

Abstract:

One of the most important biological indicators that show the exposure to the radiation is the micronuclei (MN). This technique is using to determinate the radiation effects in blood cultures as a biological control and a complement to the physics dosimetry. In Colombia the necessity to apply this analysis has emerged due to the current biological indicator most used is the chromosomal aberrations (CA), that is why it is essential the MN technique’s standardization and validation to have enough tools to improve the radioprotection topic in the country. Besides, this technique will be applied on the construction of a dose-response curve, that allow measure an approximately dose to irradiated people according to MN frequency found. Inside the steps that carried out to accomplish the standardization and validation is the statistic analysis from the lectures of “in vitro” peripheral blood cultures with different analysts, also it was determinate the best culture medium and conditions for the MN can be detected easily.

Keywords: Validation, standardization, Radioprotection, micronuclei

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3 Evaluation of Azo Dye Toxicity Using Some Haematological and Histopathological Alterations in Fish Catla Catla

Authors: Jagruti Barot

Abstract:

The textile industry plays a major role in the economy of India and on the other side of the coin it is the major source for water pollution. As azo dyes is the largest dye class they are extensively used in many fields such as textile industry, leather tanning industry, paper production, food, colour photography, pharmaceuticals and medicine, cosmetic, hair colourings, wood staining, agricultural, biological and chemical research etc. In addition to these, they can have acute and/or chronic effects on organisms depending on their concentration and length of exposure when they discharged as effluent in the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic and histotoxic potentials of environmentally relevant concentrations of RR 120 on Catla catla, important edible freshwater fingerlings. For this, healthy Catla catla fingerlings were procured from the Government Fish Farm and acclimatized in 100 L capacity and continuously aerated glass aquarium in laboratory for 15 days. According to APHA some physic-chemical parameters were measured and maintained such as temperature, pH, dissolve oxygen, alkalinity, total hardness. Water along with excreta had been changed every 24 hrs. All fingerlings were fed artificial food palates once a day @ body weight. After 15 days fingerlings were grouped in 5 (10 in each) and exposed to various concentrations of RR 120 (Control, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/L) and samples (peripheral blood and gills, kidney) were collected and analyzed at 96 hrs. of interval. All results were compared with the control. Micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB), fragmented-apoptotic (FA) and bi-nucleated (BN) cells in blood cells and in tissues (gills and kidney cells) were observed. Prominent histopathological alterations were noticed in gills such as aneurism, hyperplasia, degenerated central axis, lifting of gill epithelium, curved secondary gill lamellae etc. Similarly kidney showed some detrimental changes like shrunken glomeruli with increased periglomerular space, degenerated renal tubules etc. Both haematological and histopathological changes clearly reveal the toxic potential of RR 120. This work concludes that water pollution assessment can be done by these two biomarkers which provide baseline to the further chromosomal or molecular work.

Keywords: Genotoxicity, micronuclei, RR 120, Catla catla

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2 Radioprotective Effects of Selenium and Vitamin-E against 6Mv X-Rays in Human Volunteers Blood Lymphocytes by Micronuclei Assay

Authors: Vahid Changizi, Aram Rostami, Akbar Mosavi

Abstract:

Purpose of study: Critical macromolecules of cells such as DNA are in exposure to damage of free radicals that induced from interaction of ionizing radiation with biological systems. Selenium and vitamin-E are natural compound that has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo/in vitro radioprotective effect of selenium and vitamin-E separately and synergistically against genotoxicity induced by 6MV x-rays irradiation in cultured blood lymphocytes from 15 human volunteers. Methods: Fifteen volunteers were divided in three groups include A, B and C. These groups were given slenium(800 IU), vitamin-E(100 mg) and selenium(400 IU) + vitamin-E(50 mg), respectively. Peripheral blood samples were collected from each group before(0 hr) and 1, 2 and 3 hr after selenium and vitamin-E administration (separately and synergistically). Then the blood samples were irradiated to 200 cGy of 6 Mv x-rays. After that, lymphocyte samples were cultured with mitogenic stimulation to determine the chromosomal aberrations wih micronucleus assay in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cells. Results: The lymphocytes in the blood samples collected at 1 hr after ingestion selenium and vitamin-E, exposed in vitro to x-rays exhibited a significant decrease in the incidence of micronuclei, compared with control group at 0 hr. The maximum protection and decrease in frequency of micronuclei(50%) was observed at 1 hr after administration of selenium and vitamin-E synergistically. Conclusion: The data suggest that ingestion of selenium and vitamin-E as a radioprotector substances before exposures may reduce genetic damage caused by x-rays irradiation.

Keywords: X-rays, Selenium, micronuclei, vitamin-e, lymphocyte

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1 Early Biological Effects in Schoolchildren Living in an Area of Salento (Italy) with High Incidence of Chronic Respiratory Diseases: The IMP.AIR. Study

Authors: Alessandra Panico, Francesco Bagordo, Tiziana Grassi, Adele Idolo, Marcello Guido, Francesca Serio, Mattia De Giorgi, Antonella De Donno

Abstract:

In the Province of Lecce (Southeastern Italy) an area with unusual high incidence of chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer, was recently identified. The causes of this health emergency are still not entirely clear. In order to determine the risk profile of children living in five municipalities included in this area an epidemiological-molecular study was performed in the years 2014-2016: the IMP.AIR. (Impact of air quality on health of residents in the Municipalities of Sternatia, Galatina, Cutrofiano, Sogliano Cavour and Soleto) study. 122 children aged 6-8 years attending primary school in the study area were enrolled to evaluate the frequency of micronuclei (MNs) in their buccal exfoliated cells. The samples were collected in May 2015 by rubbing the oral mucosa with a soft bristle disposable toothbrush. At the same time, a validated questionnaire was administered to parents to obtain information about health, lifestyle and eating habits of the children. In addition, information on airborne pollutants, routinely detected by the Regional Environmental Agency (ARPA Puglia) in the study area, was acquired. A multivariate analysis was performed to detect any significant association between frequency of MNs (dependent variable) and behavioral factors (independent variables). The presence of MNs was highlighted in the buccal exfoliated cells of about 42% of recruited children with a mean frequency of 0.49 MN/1000 cells, greater than in other areas of Salento. The survey on individual characteristics and lifestyles showed that one in three children was overweight and that most of them had unhealthy eating habits with frequent consumption of foods considered ‘risky’. Moreover many parents (40% of fathers and 12% of mothers) were smokers and about 20% of them admitted to smoking in the house where the children lived. Information regarding atmospheric contaminants was poor. Of the few substances routinely detected by the only one monitoring station located in the study area (PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3) only ozone showed high concentrations exceeding the limits set by the legislation for 67 times in the year 2015. The study showed that the level of early biological effect markers in children was not negligible. This critical condition could be related to some individual factors and lifestyles such as overweight, unhealthy eating habits and exposure to passive smoking. At present, no relationship with airborne pollutants can be established due to the lack of information on many substances. Therefore, it would be advisable to modify incorrect behaviors and to intensify the monitoring of airborne pollutants (e.g. including detection of PM10, heavy metals, aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons, benzene) given the epidemiology of chronic respiratory diseases registered in this area.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Lifestyle, micronuclei, chronic respiratory diseases

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