Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Microhardness Related Abstracts

23 Surface Nanocrystalline and Hardening Effects of Ti–Al–V Alloy by Electropulsing Ultrasonic Shock

Authors: Xiaoxin Ye, Guoyi Tang


The effect of electropulsing ultrasonic shock (EUS) on the surface hardening and microstructure of Ti6Al4V alloy was studied. It was found that electropulsing improved the microhardness dramatically both in the influential depth and maximum value, compared with the only ultrasonic-shocked sample. It’s indicated that refined surface layer with nanocrystalline and improved microhardness were obtained on account of surface severe plastic deformation, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and phase change, which was implemented at relative low temperature and high strain rate/capacity due to the coupling of the thermal and athermal effects of EUS. It’s different from conventional experiments and theory. It’s discussed that the positive contributions of EPT in the thermodynamics and kinetics of microstructure and properties change were attributed to the reduction of nucleation energy barrier and acceleration of atomic diffusion. Therefore, it’s supposed that EUS is an energy-saving and high-efficiency method of surface treatment technique with the help of high-energy electropulses, which is promising in cost reduction of the surface engineering and energy management.

Keywords: Titanium Alloys, Microhardness, nanocrystalline, electropulsing, ultrasonic shock

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22 Synthesis of Nanosized Amorphous Alumina Particles and Their Use in Electroless Ni-P Coatings

Authors: Preeti Makkar, R. C. Agarwala, Vijaya Agarwala


The present study focuses on the preparation of Al2O3 nanoparticles by top down approach i.e. mechanical milling using high energy planetary ball mill at 250 rpm for 40h. The milled Al2O3 nanoparticles are then used as the second phase to develop electroless (EL) Ni-P- Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings on mild steel substrate. An alkaline bath was used with a suspension of Al2O3 particles (4 g/L) for the synthesis of Ni-P-Al2O3 nanocomposite coating. The surface morphology, size range and phase analysis of as-prepared Al2O3 particles and the coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The coatings were heat treated at 400°C for 1h in argon atmosphere and the hardness of the nanocomposite coatings was investigated with respect to Ni-P before and after heat treatment. The results showed that as milled Al2O3 nanoparticles exhibit irregular shaped and size ranges around 40-45 nm. The Al2O3 particles are uniformly distributed in Ni-P matrix. The microhardness of the coatings is found to be significantly improved after heat treatment (1126 VHN).

Keywords: nanocomposite, Microhardness, mechanical milling, Electroless (EL), Ni-P-Al2O3

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21 A Full Factorial Analysis of Microhardness Variation in Bead Welds Deposited by the Process Cold Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding (CW-GMAW)

Authors: R. A. Ribeiro, P. D. Angelo Assunção, E. M. Braga


The microhardness in weld beads is a function of the microstructure obtained in the welding process, and this by its time is dependent of the input variables established at the outset of the process. In this study the influence of angle between the plate and the cold wire, the position in which the cold wire is introduced and the rate in which this introduction is made are assessed as input parameters in CW-GMAW process. This paper looks to show that ordinary changes in the frame of CW-GMAW can improve microhardness, which is expected to vary as the input parameters change. To properly correlate the changes in the input parameters to consequent changes in microhardness of the weld bead, a full factorial design was employed. In fact, changes in the operational parameters improved the overall microhardness of the weld bead, which in turns can be an indication of improvement in the resistance to abrasive wear, constituting a cheap way to augment the abrasion wear resistance of welds used for cladding.

Keywords: Microhardness, full factorial design, abrasion, CW-GMAW

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20 Physical-Mechanical Characteristics of Monocrystalline Si1-xGex(X 0,02) Solid Solutions

Authors: I. Kurashvili, A. Sichinava, G. Bokuchava, G. Darsavelidze


Si-Ge solid solutions (bulk poly- and monocrystalline samples, thin films) are characterized by high perspectives for application in semiconductor devices, in particular, optoelectronics and microelectronics. In this light complex studying of structural state of the defects and structural-sensitive physical properties of Si-Ge solid solutions depending on the contents of Si and Ge components is very important. Present work deals with the investigations of microstructure, electrophysical characteristics, microhardness, internal friction and shear modulus of Si1-xGex(x≤0,02) bulk monocrystals conducted at a room temperatures. Si-Ge bulk crystals were obtained by Czochralski method in [111] crystallographic direction. Investigated monocrystalline Si-Ge samples are characterized by p-type conductivity and carriers concentration 5.1014-1.1015cm-3, dislocation density 5.103-1.104cm-2, microhardness according to Vickers method 900-1200 Kg/mm2. Investigate samples are characterized with 0,5x0,5x(10-15) mm3 sizes, oriented along [111] direction at torsion oscillations ≈1Hz, multistage changing of internal friction and shear modulus has been revealed in an interval of strain amplitude of 10-5-5.10-3. Critical values of strain amplitude have been determined at which hysteretic changes of inelastic characteristics and microplasticity are observed. The critical strain amplitude and elasticity limit values are also determined. Tendency to decrease of dynamic mechanical characteristics is shown with increasing Ge content in Si-Ge solid solutions. Observed changes are discussed from the point of view of interaction of various dislocations with point defects and their complexes in a real structure of Si-Ge solid solutions.

Keywords: Microhardness, Shear Modulus, monocrystalline, internal friction

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19 Structural Evolution of Electrodeposited Ni Coating on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy during Heat Treatment

Authors: M. Abdoos, A. Amadeh, M. Adabi


In recent decades, the use of titanium and its alloys due to their high mechanical properties, light weight and their corrosion resistance has increased in military and industry applications. However, the poor surface properties can limit their widely usage. Many researches were carried out to improve their surface properties. The most effective technique is based on solid-state diffusion of elements that can form intermetallic compounds with the substrate. In the present work, inter-diffusion of nickel and titanium and formation of Ni-Ti intermetallic compounds in nickel-coated Ti-6Al-4V alloy have been studied. Initially, nickel was electrodeposited on the alloy using Watts bath at a current density of 20 mA/cm2 for 1 hour. The coated specimens were then heat treated in a tubular furnace under argon atmosphere at different temperatures near Ti β-transus to maximize the diffusion rate for various durations in order to improve the surface properties of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The effect of temperature and time on the thickness of diffusion layer and characteristics of intermetallic phases was studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and microhardness test. The results showed that a multilayer structure was formed after heat treatment: an outer layer of remaining nickel, an area of intermetallic layers with different compositions and solid solution of Ni-Ti. Three intermetallic layers was detected by EDS analysis, namely an outer layer with about 75 at.% Ni (Ni3Ti), an intermediate layer with 50 at.% Ni (NiTi) and finally an inner layer with 36 at.% Ni (NiTi2). It was also observed that the increase in time or temperature led to the formation of thicker intermetallic layers. Meanwhile, the microhardness of heat treated samples increased with formation of Ni-Ti intermetallics; however, its value depended on heat treatment parameters.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Microhardness, Ni coating, Ti-6Al-4V

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18 Production and Characterization of Sol-Enhanced Zn-Ni-Al2O3 Nano Composite Coating

Authors: Soroor Ghaziof, Wei Gao


Sol-enhanced Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano-composite coatings were electroplated on mild steel by our newly developed sol-enhanced electroplating method. In this method, transparent Al2O3 sol was added into the acidic Zn-Ni bath to produced Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano-composite coatings. The chemical composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of the composite and alloy coatings deposited at two different agitation speed were investigated. The structure of all coatings was single γ-Ni5Zn21 phase. The composite coatings possess refined crystals with higher microhardness compared to Zn-Ni alloy coatings. The wear resistance of Zn-Ni coatings was improved significantly by incorporation of alumina nano particles into the coatings. Higher agitation speed provided more uniform coatings with smaller grain sized and slightly higher microhardness. Considering composite coatings, high agitation speeds may facilitate co-deposition of alumina in the coatings.

Keywords: Microhardness, Wear Resistance, sol-enhanced electroplating, Zn-Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings

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17 Effects of Fourth Alloying Additive on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Ag-Cu Alloy

Authors: Ugur Buyuk, Sevda Engin


Among the various alloy systems being considered as lead-free solder candidates, Sn-Ag-Cu alloys have been recognized as the most promising because of their excellent reliability and compatibility with current components. Thus, Sn-Ag-Cu alloys have recently attracted considerable attention and have been proposed by the Japanese, the EU and the US consortiums to replace conventional Sn-Pb eutectic solder. However, many problems or unknown characteristics of the Sn-Ag-Cu alloy system such as the best composition, the large undercooling in solidification, and the formation of large intermetallics still exist. It is expected that the addition of some solidification nuclei for Sn-Ag-Cu alloys will refine the solidification microstructure and will suppress undercooling.In the present work, the effects of the fourth elements, i.e., Zn, Ni, Bi, In and Co, on microstructural and mechanical properties of Sn-3.5Ag-0.9Cu lead-free solder were investigated. Sn-3.5Ag-0.9Cu-0.5X (X= Zn, Ni, Bi, In, Co (wt.)) alloys were prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upward at a constant temperature gradient and growth rates by using a Bridgman type directional solidification furnace. The microstructure, microhardness and ultimate tensile strength of alloys were measured. The effects of fourth elements on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn–Ag-Cu eutectic alloys were investigated. The results obtained in the present work were compared with the previous experimental results.

Keywords: Microstructure, Tensile Strength, Microhardness, lead-free solders

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16 Microstructure, Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal Properties of the Al-Si-Ni Ternary Alloy

Authors: Aynur Aker, Hasan Kaya


In recent years, the use of the aluminum based alloys in the industry and technology are increasing. Alloying elements in aluminum have further been improving the strength and stiffness properties that provide superior compared to other metals. In this study, investigation of physical properties (microstructure, microhardness, tensile strength, electrical conductivity and thermal properties) in the Al-12.6wt.%Si-%2wt.Ni ternary alloy were investigated. Al-Si-Ni alloy was prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upwards with different growth rate (V) at constant temperature gradient G (7.73 K/mm). The microstructures (flake spacings, λ), microhardness (HV), ultimate tensile strength, electrical resistivity and thermal properties enthalpy of fusion and specific heat and melting temperature) of the samples were measured. Influence of the growth rate and flake spacings on microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were investigated and relationships between them were experimentally obtained by using regression analysis. According to results, λ values decrease with increasing V, but microhardness, ultimate tensile strength, electrical resistivity values increase with increasing V. Variations of electrical resistivity for cast samples with the temperature in the range of 300-1200 K were also measured by using a standard dc four-point probe technique. The enthalpy of fusion and specific heat for the same alloy was also determined by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from heating trace during the transformation from liquid to solid. The results obtained in this work were compared with the previous similar experimental results obtained for binary and ternary alloys.

Keywords: Enthalpy, Electrical Resistivity, Solidification, Microhardness, tensile stress

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15 Mechanical Properties and Microstructures of the Directional Solidified Zn-Al-Cu Alloy

Authors: Mehmet Izzettin Yilmazer, Emin Cadirli


Zn-7wt.%Al-2.96wt.%Cu eutectic alloy was directionally solidified upwards with different temperature gradients (from 6.70 K/mm to 10.67 K/mm) at a constant growth rate (16.4 Km/s) and also different growth rate (from 8.3 micron/s to 166 micron/s) at a constant temperature gradient (10.67 K/mm) using a Bridgman–type growth apparatus.The values of eutectic spacing were measured from longitudinal and transverse sections of the samples. The dependency of microstructures on the G and V were determined with linear regression analysis and experimental equations were found as λl=8.953xVexp-0.49, λt=5.942xVexp-0.42 and λl=0.008xGexp-1.23, λt=0.024xGexp-0.93. The measurements of microhardness of directionally solidified samples were obtained by using a microhardness test device. The dependence of microhardness HV on temperature gradient and growth rate were analyzed. The dependency of microhardness on the G and V were also determined with linear regression analysis as HVl=110.66xVexp0.02, HVt=111.94xVexp0.02 and HVl=69.66xGexp0.17, HVt=68.86xGexp0.18. The experimental results show that the microhardness of the directionally solidified Zn-Al-Cu alloy increases with increasing the growth rate. The results obtained in this work were compared with the previous similar experimental results.

Keywords: Microstructure, Microhardness, directional solidification, eutectic alloys

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14 Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Properties of Al-2Mn-5Fe Ternary Eutectic Alloy

Authors: Emin Çadirli, Izzettin Yilmazer, Uğur Büyük, Hasan Kaya


Al-2Mn-5Fe eutectic alloy (wt.%) was prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upward at a constant temperature gradient in four different of growth rates by using a Bridgman method. The values of eutectic spacing were measured from longitudinal and transverse sections of the samples. The dependence of eutectic spacing on the growth rate was determined by using linear regression analysis. The microhardness and tensile strength of the studied alloy also were measured from directionally solidified samples. The dependency of the microhardness and tensile strength for directionally solidified Al-2Mn-5Fe eutectic alloy on the growth rate were investigated and the relationships between them were experimentally obtained by using regression analysis. The results obtained in present work were compared with the previous similar experimental results obtained for binary and ternary alloys.

Keywords: Microstructure, Tensile Strength, Microhardness, eutectic alloy

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13 Microstructure Analysis of TI-6AL-4V Friction Stir Welded Joints

Authors: P. Leo, E. Cerri, L. Fratini, G. Buffa


The Friction Stir Welding process uses an inert rotating mandrel and a force on the mandrel normal to the plane of the sheets to generate the frictional heat. The heat and the stirring action of the mandrel create a bond between the two sheets without melting the base metal. As matter of fact, the use of a solid state welding process limits the insurgence of defects, due to the presence of gas in melting bath, and avoids the negative effects of materials metallurgical transformation strictly connected with the change of phase. The industrial importance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is well known. It provides an exceptional good balance of strength, ductility, fatigue and fracture properties together with good corrosion resistance and good metallurgical stability. In this paper, the authors analyze the microstructure of friction stir welded joints of Ti-6Al-4V processed at the same travel speed (35 mm/min) but at different rotation speeds (300-500 rpm). The microstructure of base material (BM), as result from both optical microscope and scanning electron microscope analysis is not homogenous. It is characterized by distorted α/β lamellar microstructure together with smashed zone of fragmented β layer and β retained grain boundary phase. The BM has been welded in the-as received state, without any previous heat treatment. Even the microstructure of the transverse and longitudinal sections of joints is not homogeneous. Close to the top of weld cross sections a much finer microstructure than the initial condition has been observed, while in the center of the joints the microstructure is less refined. Along longitudinal sections, the microstructure is characterized by equiaxed grains and lamellae. Both the length and area fraction of lamellas increases with distance from longitudinal axis. The hardness of joints is higher than that of BM. As the process temperature increases the average microhardness slightly decreases.

Keywords: Microstructure, Microhardness, Friction Stir Welding, Ti-6Al-4V

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12 Evaluation of the Effect Rare Earth Metal on the Microstructure and Properties of Zn-ZnO-Y2O3 Coating of Mild Steel

Authors: A. P. I. Popoola, O. S. I. Fayomi, V. S. Aigbodion


Mild steel has found many engineering applications due to its great formability, availability, low cost and good mechanical properties among others. However its functionality and durability is subject of concern due to corrosion deterioration. Based on these Yttrium is selected as reinforcing particles using electroplating process in this work to enhance the corrosion resistance. Bath formulation of zinc-yttrium was prepared at moderated temperature and pH, to coat mild steel sample. Corrosion and wear behaviour were analyzed using electrochemical potentiostat and abrasive test rig. The composition and microstructure of coated films were investigated standard method. The microstructure of the deposited plate obtained from optimum (10%Yttrium) bath revealed fine-grained deposit of the alloy in the presence of condensation product and hence modified the morphology of zinc–yttrium alloy deposit. It is demonstrated that by adding yttria particles, mild steel can be strengthened with improved polarization behaviour and higher resistance to corrosive in sodium chloride solutions. Microhardness of the coating compared to plain mild steel have increased before and after heat treatment, and an increased wear resistance was also obtained from the modified coating of zinc-yttrium.

Keywords: Corrosion, Coating, Microstructure, Wear, Microhardness, mild steel, zinc-yttrium

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11 Construction of Strain Distribution Profiles of EDD Steel at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: K. Eshwara Prasad, R. Raman Goud, Swadesh Kumar Singh, N. Sateesh


In the present work forming limit diagrams and strain distribution profile diagrams for extra deep drawing steel at room and elevated temperatures have been determined experimentally by conducting stretch forming experiments by using designed and fabricated warm stretchforming tooling setup. With the help of forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) and strain distribution profile diagrams the formability of Extra Deep Drawing steel has been analyzed and co-related with mechanical properties like strain hardening COEFFICIENT (n) and normal anisotropy (r−).Mechanical properties of EDD steel from room temperature to 4500C were determined and discussed the impact of temperature on the properties like work hardening exponent (n) anisotropy(r-) and strength coefficient of the material. Also the fractured surfaces after stretching have undergone the some metallurgical investigations and attempt has been made to co-relate with the formability of EDD steel sheets. They are co-related and good agreement with FLDs at various temperatures.

Keywords: Microhardness, FLD, strain distribution profile, stretch forming

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10 Effect of Lead Content on Physical Properties of the Al–Si Eutectic Alloys

Authors: Hasan Kaya


Effect of lead content on the microstructure, mechanical (microhardness, ultimate tensile strength) and electrical resistivity properties of Al–Si eutectic alloys has been investigated. Al–12.6 Si–xSn (x=1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt. %) were prepared using metals of 99.99% high purity in the vacuum atmosphere. These alloys were directionally solidified under constant temperature gradient (5.50 K/mm) and growth rate (8.25 μm/s) by using a Bridgman–type directional solidification furnace. Eutectic spacing, microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were expressed as functions of the composition by using a linear regression analysis. The dependency of the eutectic spacing, microhardness, tensile strength and electrical resistivity on the composition (Sn content) were determined. According to experimental results, the microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity of the solidified samples increase with increasing the Sn content, but decrease eutectic spacing. Variation of electrical resistivity with the temperature in the range of 300-500 K for studied alloys was also measured by using a standard d.c. four-point probe technique.

Keywords: Strength, Solidification, Microhardness, content elements

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9 Investigating the Influence of Solidification Rate on the Microstructural, Mechanical and Physical Properties of Directionally Solidified Al-Mg Based Multicomponent Eutectic Alloys Containing High Mg Alloys

Authors: Fatih Kılıç, Burak Birol, Necmettin Maraşlı


The directional solidification process is generally used for homogeneous compound production, single crystal growth, and refining (zone refining), etc. processes. The most important two parameters that control eutectic structures are temperature gradient and grain growth rate which are called as solidification parameters The solidification behavior and microstructure characteristics is an interesting topic due to their effects on the properties and performance of the alloys containing eutectic compositions. The solidification behavior of multicomponent and multiphase systems is an important parameter for determining various properties of these materials. The researches have been conducted mostly on the solidification of pure materials or alloys containing two phases. However, there are very few studies on the literature about multiphase reactions and microstructure formation of multicomponent alloys during solidification. Because of this situation, it is important to study the microstructure formation and the thermodynamical, thermophysical and microstructural properties of these alloys. The production process is difficult due to easy oxidation of magnesium and therefore, there is not a comprehensive study concerning alloys containing high Mg (> 30 wt.% Mg). With the increasing amount of Mg inside Al alloys, the specific weight decreases, and the strength shows a slight increase, while due to formation of β-Al8Mg5 phase, ductility lowers. For this reason, production, examination and development of high Mg containing alloys will initiate the production of new advanced engineering materials. The original value of this research can be described as obtaining high Mg containing (> 30% Mg) Al based multicomponent alloys by melting under vacuum; controlled directional solidification with various growth rates at a constant temperature gradient; and establishing relationship between solidification rate and microstructural, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Therefore, within the scope of this research, some > 30% Mg containing ternary or quaternary Al alloy compositions were determined, and it was planned to investigate the effects of directional solidification rate on the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of these alloys. Within the scope of the research, the influence of the growth rate on microstructure parameters, microhardness, tensile strength, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of directionally solidified high Mg containing Al-32,2Mg-0,37Si; Al-30Mg-12Zn; Al-32Mg-1,7Ni; Al-32,2Mg-0,37Fe; Al-32Mg-1,7Ni-0,4Si; Al-33,3Mg-0,35Si-0,11Fe (wt.%) alloys with wide range of growth rate (50-2500 µm/s) and fixed temperature gradient, will be investigated. The work can be planned as; (a) directional solidification of Al-Mg based Al-Mg-Si, Al-Mg-Zn, Al-Mg-Ni, Al-Mg-Fe, Al-Mg-Ni-Si, Al-Mg-Si-Fe within wide range of growth rates (50-2500 µm/s) at a constant temperature gradient by Bridgman type solidification system, (b) analysis of microstructure parameters of directionally solidified alloys by using an optical light microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), (c) measurement of microhardness and tensile strength of directionally solidified alloys, (d) measurement of electrical conductivity by four point probe technique at room temperature (e) measurement of thermal conductivity by linear heat flow method at room temperature.

Keywords: Microstructure, Electrical Conductivity, Thermal Conductivity, Tensile Strength, Microhardness, directional solidification, high Mg containing multicomponent Al alloys

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8 The Effect of Irradiation Distance on Microhardness of Hybrid Resin Composite Polymerization Using Light-Emitting Diodes

Authors: Deli Mona, Rafika Husni


The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of lighting distance on surface hardness of light composite resin. We held laboratory experimental research with post-test only group design. The samples used are 30 disc-like hybrid composite resins with the diameter is 6 mm and the thickness is 2 mm, lighted by an LED for 20 seconds. They were divided into 3 groups, and every group was consisted by 10 samples, which were 0 mm, 2 mm, and 5 mm lighting distance group. Every samples group was treated with hardness test, Vicker Hardness Test, then analyzed with one-way ANOVA test to evaluate the effect of lighting distance differences on surface hardness of light composite resin. Statistic test result shown hardness mean change of composite renin between 0 mm and 2 mm lighting distance with 0.00 significance (p<0.05), between 0 mm and 5 mm lighting distance with 0.00 significance (p<0.05), and 2 mm and 5 mm lighting distance with 0.05 significance (p<0.05). According to the result of this research, we concluded that the further lighting distance, the more surface hardness decline of hybrid composite resin.

Keywords: Microhardness, composite resin hybrid, tip distance, light curing LED

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7 Analyses and Optimization of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Direct Recycled Aluminium Alloy (AA6061) Wastes by ANOVA Approach

Authors: Mohammed H. Rady, Mohd Sukri Mustapa, S Shamsudin, M. A. Lajis, A. Wagiman


The present study is aimed at investigating microhardness and density of aluminium alloy chips when subjected to various settings of preheating temperature and preheating time. Three values of preheating temperature were taken as 450 °C, 500 °C, and 550 °C. On the other hand, three values of preheating time were chosen (1, 2, 3) hours. The influences of the process parameters (preheating temperature and time) were analyzed using Design of Experiments (DOE) approach whereby full factorial design with center point analysis was adopted. The total runs were 11 and they comprise of two factors of full factorial design with 3 center points. The responses were microhardness and density. The results showed that the density and microhardness increased with decreasing the preheating temperature. The results also found that the preheating temperature is more important to be controlled rather than the preheating time in microhardness analysis while both the preheating temperature and preheating time are important in density analysis. It can be concluded that setting temperature at 450 °C for 1 hour resulted in the optimum responses.

Keywords: Density, Microhardness, hot extrusion, DOE, AA6061

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6 Influence of Sintering Temperature on Microhardness and Tribological Properties of Equi-Atomic Ti-Al-Mo-Si-W Multicomponent Alloy

Authors: Rudolf L. Kanyane, Nicolaus Malatji, Patritia A. Popoola


Tribological failure of materials during application can lead to catastrophic events which also carry economic penalties. High entropy alloys (HEAs) have shown outstanding tribological properties in applications such as mechanical parts were moving parts under high friction are required. This work aims to investigate the effect of sintering temperature on microhardness properties and tribological properties of novel equiatomic TiAlMoSiW HEAs fabricated via spark plasma sintering. The effect of Spark plasma sintering temperature on morphological evolution and phase formation was also investigated. The microstructure and the phases formed for the developed HEAs were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) respectively. The microhardness and tribological properties were studied using a diamond base microhardness tester Rtec tribometer. The developed HEAs showed improved mechanical properties as the sintering temperature increases.

Keywords: Tribology, sintering, Microhardness, high entropy alloy

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5 An Experimental Study on the Effect of Heat Input on the Weld Efficiency of TIG-MIG Hybrid Welding of Type-304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Emmanuel Ogundimu, Esther Akinlabi, Mutiu Erinosho


Welding is described as the process of joining metals so that bonding can be created as a result of inter-atomic penetration. This study investigated the influence of heat input on the efficiency of the welded joints of 304 stainless steel. Three welds joint were made from two similar 304 stainless steel plates of thickness 6 mm. The tensile results obtained showed that the maximum average tensile strength of 672 MPa is possessed by the sample A1 with low heat input. It was discovered that the tensile strength, % elongation and weld joint efficiency decreased with the increase in heat input into the weld. The average % elongation for the entire samples ranged from 28.4% to 36.5%. Sample A1 had the highest joint efficiency of 94.5%. However, the optimum welding current of 190 for TIG- MIG hybrid welding of type-304 austenite stainless steel can be recommended for advanced technological applications such as aircraft manufacturing, nuclear industry, automobile industry, and processing industry.

Keywords: Process, Microstructure, Microhardness, tensile, MIG welding, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

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4 Operational Advantages of Tungsten Inert Gas over Metal Inert Gas Welding Process

Authors: Emmanuel Ogundimu, Esther Akinlabi, Mutiu Erinosho


In this research, studies were done on the material characterization of type 304 austenitic stainless steel weld produced by TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) and MIG (Metal Inert Gas) welding processes. This research is aimed to establish optimized process parameters that will result in a defect-free weld joint, homogenous distribution of the iron (Fe), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) was observed at the welded joint of all the six samples. The welded sample produced at the current of 170 A by TIG welding process had the highest ultimate tensile strength (UTS) value of 621 MPa at the welds zone, and the welded sample produced by MIG process at the welding current of 150 A had the lowest UTS value of 568 MPa. However, it was established that TIG welding process is more appropriate for the welding of type 304 austenitic stainless steel compared to the MIG welding process.

Keywords: Process, Microstructure, Microhardness, tensile, MIG welding, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

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3 Effect of Welding Current on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Tungsten Inert Gas Welding of Type-304 Austenite Stainless Steel

Authors: Emmanuel Ogundimu, Esther Akinlabi, Mutiu Erinosho


The aim of this paper is to study the effect of welding current on the microstructure and the mechanical properties. Material characterizations were conducted on a 6 mm thick plates of type-304 austenite stainless steel, welded by TIG welding process at two different welding currents of 150 A (Sample F3) and 170 A (Sample F4). The tensile strength and the elongation obtained from sample F4 weld were approximately 584 MPa and 19.3 %; which were higher than sample F3 weld. The average microhardness value of sample F4 weld was found to be 235.7 HV, while that of sample F3 weld was 233.4 HV respectively. Homogenous distribution of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were observed at the welded joint of the two samples. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that Fe, Cr, and Ni made up the composition formed in the weld zone. The optimum welding current of 170 A for TIG welding of type-304 austenite stainless steel can be recommended for high-tech industrial applications.

Keywords: Process, Microstructure, Microhardness, tensile, MIG welding, shear stress TIG welding, TIG-MIG welding

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2 Microstructure of Ti – AlN Composite Produced by Selective Laser Melting

Authors: Jaroslaw Mizera, Pawel Wisniewski, Ryszard Sitek


Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an advanced additive manufacturing technique used for producing parts made of wide range of materials such as: austenitic steel, titanium, nickel etc. In the our experiment we produced a Ti-AlN composite from a mixture of titanium and aluminum nitride respectively 70% at. and 30% at. using SLM technique. In order to define the size of powder particles, laser diffraction tests were performed on HORIBA LA-950 device. The microstructure and chemical composition of the composite was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The chemical composition in micro areas of the obtained samples was determined by of EDS. The phase composition was analyzed by X-ray phase analysis (XRD). Microhardness Vickers tests were performed using Zwick/Roell microhardness machine under the load of 0.2kG (HV0.2). Hardness measurements were made along the building (xy) and along the plane of the lateral side of the cuboid (xz). The powder used for manufacturing of the samples had a mean particle size of 41μm. It was homogenous with a spherical shape. The specimens were built chiefly from Ti, TiN and AlN. The dendritic microstructure was porous and fine-grained. Some of the aluminum nitride remained unmelted but no porosity was observed in the interface. The formed material was characterized by high hardness exceeding 700 HV0.2 over the entire cross-section.

Keywords: Composite, Microhardness, Selective Laser Melting, SEM

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1 Mechanical Analysis and Characterization of Friction Stir Processed Aluminium Alloy

Authors: Jaswinder Kumar, Kulbir Singh Sandhu


Friction stir processing (FSP) is a solid-state surface processing technique. A single-pass FSP was performed on Aluminum alloy at combinations of different tool rotational speeds with cylindrical threaded pin profiled tool. The effect of these parameters on tribological properties was studied. The wear resistance is found to be increased from base metal to a single pass FSP sample. The results revealed that with an increase in tool rotational speed, the wear rate increases. The high heat generation causes matrix softening, which results in an increased wear rate; on the other hand, high heat generation leads to coarse grains, which also affected tribological properties. Furthermore, Microstructure results showed that FSPed alloy has a more refined grain structure as compare to the base material, which may be resulted in enhancement of hardness and resistance to wear in FSP.

Keywords: Microstructure, Microhardness, aluminium alloy, friction stir processing

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