Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Microgrid Related Abstracts

19 A New Optimization Algorithm for Operation of a Microgrid

Authors: Sirus Mohammadi, Rohala Moghimi


The main advantages of microgrids are high energy efficiency through the application of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), high quality and reliability of the delivered electric energy and environmental and economic advantages. This study presents an energy management system (EMS) to optimize the operation of the microgrid (MG). In this paper an Adaptive Modified Firefly Algorithm (AMFA) is presented for optimal operation of a typical MG with renewable energy sources (RESs) accompanied by a back-up Micro-Turbine/Fuel Cell/Battery hybrid power source to level the power mismatch or to store the energy surplus when it’s needed. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear constraint problem to minimize the total operating cost. The management of Energy storage system (ESS), economic load dispatch and operation optimization of distributed generation (DG) are simplified into a single-object optimization problem in the EMS. The proposed algorithm is tested on a typical grid-connected MG including WT/PV/Micro Turbine/Fuel Cell and Energy Storage Devices (ESDs) then its superior performance is compared with those from other evolutionary algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Fuzzy Self Adaptive PSO (FSAPSO), Chaotic Particle PSO (CPSO), Adaptive Modified PSO (AMPSO), and Firefly Algorithm (FA).

Keywords: Optimization, Microgrid, Operation Management, firefly algorithm (AMFA)

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18 Optimal Sizes of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Economic Operation in Microgrid

Authors: Sara Ansari, Sirus Mohammadi, Darush dehghan, Habib Hoshyari


Batteries for storage of electricity from solar and wind generation farms are a key element in the success of sustainability. In recent years, due to large integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) like wind turbine and photovoltaic unit into the Micro-Grid (MG), the necessity of Battery Energy Storage (BES) has increased dramatically. The BES has several benefits and advantages in the MG-based applications such as short term power supply, power quality improvement, facilitating integration of RES, ancillary service and arbitrage. This paper presents the cost-based formulation to determine the optimal size of the BES in the operation management of MG. Also, some restrictions, i.e. power capacity of Distributed Generators (DGs), power and energy capacity of BES, charge/discharge efficiency of BES, operating reserve and load demand satisfaction should be considered as well. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for the optimal allocation and economic analysis of ESS in MGs on the basis of net present value (NPV). As the optimal operation of an MG strongly depends on the arrangement and allocation of its ESS, economic operation strategies and optimal allocation methods of the ESS devices are required for the MG.

Keywords: Microgrid, Energy Storage System, optimal sizing, net present value

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17 Grid-Connected Inverter Experimental Simulation and Droop Control Implementation

Authors: Nur Aisyah Jalalludin, Arwindra Rizqiawan, Goro Fujita


In this study, we aim to demonstrate a microgrid system experimental simulation for an easy understanding of a large-scale microgrid system. This model is required for industrial training and learning environments. However, in order to create an exact representation of a microgrid system, the laboratory-scale system must fulfill the requirements of a grid-connected inverter, in which power values are assigned to the system to cope with the intermittent output from renewable energy sources. Aside from that, during changes in load capacity, the grid-connected system must be able to supply power from the utility grid side and microgrid side in a balanced manner. Therefore, droop control is installed in the inverter’s control board to maintain equal power sharing in both sides. This power control in a stand-alone condition and droop control in a grid-connected condition must be implemented in order to maintain a stabilized system. Based on the experimental results, power control and droop control can both be applied in the system by comparing the experimental and reference values.

Keywords: Power Control, Microgrid, droop control, droop characteristic, grid-connected inverter

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16 Optimal Sizes of Energy Storage for Economic Operation Management

Authors: Sirus Mohammadi, Rohalla Moghimi


Batteries for storage of electricity from solar and wind generation farms are a key element in the success of sustainability. In recent years, due to large integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) like wind turbine and photovoltaic unit into the Micro-Grid (MG), the necessity of Battery Energy Storage (BES) has increased dramatically. The BES has several benefits and advantages in the MG-based applications such as short term power supply, power quality improvement, facilitating integration of RES, ancillary service and arbitrage. This paper presents the cost-based formulation to determine the optimal size of the BES in the operation management of MG. Also, some restrictions, i.e. power capacity of Distributed Generators (DGs), power and energy capacity of BES, charge/discharge efficiency of BES, operating reserve and load demand satisfaction should be considered as well. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for the optimal allocation and economic analysis of ESS in MGs on the basis of net present value (NPV). As the optimal operation of an MG strongly depends on the arrangement and allocation of its ESS, economic operation strategies and optimal allocation methods of the ESS devices are required for the MG.

Keywords: Microgrid, Energy Storage System, optimal sizing, net present value

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15 Design of Control Systems for Grid Interconnection and Power Control of a Grid Tie Inverter for Micro-Grid Application

Authors: Deepak Choudhary


COEP-Microgrid, a project by the students of College of Engineering Pune aims at establishing a micro grid in the college campus serving as a living laboratory for research and development of novel grid technologies. Proposed micro grid has an AC-bus and DC-bus, interconnected together with a tie line DC-AC converter. In grid-connected mode AC bus of microgrid is synchronized with utility grid. Synchronization with utility grid requires grid and AC bus to have synchronism in frequency, phase sequence and voltage. Power flow requires phase difference between grid and AC bus. Control System is required to effectively regulate power flow between the grid and AC bus. The grid synchronizing control system is composed of frequency and phase control for regulated power flow and voltage control system for reduction of reactive power flow. The control system involves automatic active power flow control. It takes the feedback of DC link Capacitor and changes the power angle accordingly. Control system incorporating voltage, phase and power control was developed for grid-tie inverter. This paper discusses the design, simulation and practical implementation of control system described in various micro grid scenarios.

Keywords: Microgrid, Voltage Control, Grid-tie inverter, automatic power control

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14 Iterative Replanning of Diesel Generator and Energy Storage System for Stable Operation of an Isolated Microgrid

Authors: Kwang Ryel Ryu, Jiin Jeong, Taekwang Kim


The target microgrid in this paper is isolated from the large central power system and is assumed to consist of wind generators, photovoltaic power generators, an energy storage system (ESS), a diesel power generator, the community load, and a dump load. The operation of such a microgrid can be hazardous because of the uncertain prediction of power supply and demand and especially due to the high fluctuation of the output from the wind generators. In this paper, we propose an iterative replanning method for determining the appropriate level of diesel generation and the charging/discharging cycles of the ESS for the upcoming one-hour horizon. To cope with the uncertainty of the estimation of supply and demand, the one-hour plan is built repeatedly in the regular interval of one minute by rolling the one-hour horizon. Since the plan should be built with a sufficiently large safe margin to avoid any possible black-out, some energy waste through the dump load is inevitable. In our approach, the level of safe margin is optimized through learning from the past experience. The simulation experiments show that our method combined with the margin optimization can reduce the dump load compared to the method without such optimization.

Keywords: Microgrid, Operation Planning, power efficiency optimization, supply and demand prediction

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13 Performance Comparison of Droop Control Methods for Parallel Inverters in Microgrid

Authors: Mustafa Baysal, Ahmed Ismail


Although the energy source in the world is mainly based on fossil fuels today, there is a need for alternative energy generation systems, which are more economic and environmentally friendly, due to continuously increasing demand of electric energy and lacking power resources and networks. Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) such as fuel cells, wind and solar power have recently become widespread as alternative generation. In order to solve several problems that might be encountered when integrating DERs to power system, the microgrid concept has been proposed. A microgrid can operate both grid connected and island mode to benefit both utility and customers. For most distributed energy resources (DER) which are connected in parallel in LV-grid like micro-turbines, wind plants, fuel cells and PV cells electrical power is generated as a direct current (DC) and converted to an alternative currents (AC) by inverters. So the inverters are assumed to be primary components in a microgrid. There are many control techniques of parallel inverters to manage active and reactive sharing of the loads. Some of them are based on droop method. In literature, the studies are usually focused on improving the transient performance of inverters. In this study, the performance of two different controllers based on droop control method is compared for the inverters operated in parallel without any communication feedback. For this aim, a microgrid in which inverters are controlled by conventional droop controller and modified droop controller is designed. Modified controller is obtained by adding PID into conventional droop control. Active and reactive power sharing performance, voltage and frequency responses of those control methods are measured in several operational cases. Study cases have been simulated by MATLAB-SIMULINK.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Microgrid, droop control, active and reactive power sharing

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12 A Group Setting of IED in Microgrid Protection Management System

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Gu, Hsin-Yung Chung, Ming-Ta Yang, Chao-Fong Yan, Yung-Ruei Chang, Yih-Der Lee, Chen-Min Chan, Chia-Hao Hsu


There are a number of distributed generations (DGs) installed in microgrid, which may have diverse path and direction of power flow or fault current. The overcurrent protection scheme for the traditional radial type distribution system will no longer meet the needs of microgrid protection. Integrating the intelligent electronic device (IED) and a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) with IEC 61850 communication protocol, the paper proposes a microgrid protection management system (MPMS) to protect power system from the fault. In the proposed method, the MPMS performs logic programming of each IED to coordinate their tripping sequence. The GOOSE message defined in IEC 61850 is used as the transmission information medium among IEDs. Moreover, to cope with the difference in fault current of microgrid between grid-connected mode and islanded mode, the proposed MPMS applies the group setting feature of IED to protect system and robust adaptability. Once the microgrid topology varies, the MPMS will recalculate the fault current and update the group setting of IED. Provided there is a fault, IEDs will isolate the fault at once. Finally, the Matlab/Simulink and Elipse Power Studio software are used to simulate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

Keywords: Microgrid, IEC 61850, IED, group Setting

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11 Optimal Voltage and Frequency Control of a Microgrid Using the Harmony Search Algorithm

Authors: Hossein Abbasi


The stability is an important topic to plan and manage the energy in the microgrids as the same as the conventional power systems. The voltage and frequency stability is one of the most important issues recently studied in microgrids. The objectives of this paper are the modelling and designing of the components and optimal controllers for the voltage and frequency control of the AC/DC hybrid microgrid under the different disturbances. Since the PI controllers have the advantages of simple structure and easy implementation, so they are designed and modeled in this paper. The harmony search (HS) algorithm is used to optimize the controllers’ parameters. According to the achieved results, the PI controllers have a good performance in voltage and frequency control of the microgrid.

Keywords: Microgrid, Frequency Control, Voltage Control, PI controller, HS algorithm

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10 Voltage and Current Control of Microgrid in Grid Connected and Islanded Modes

Authors: Megha Chavda, Parth Thummar, Rahul Ghetia


This paper presents the voltage and current control of microgrid accompanied by the synchronization of microgrid with the main utility grid in both islanded and grid-connected modes. Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) satisfy the wide-spread power demand of consumer by behaving as a micro source for a low voltage (LV) grid or microgrid. Synchronization of the microgrid with the main utility grid is done using PLL and PWM gate pulse generation technique is used for the Voltage Source Converter. Potential Function method achieves the voltage and current control of this microgrid in both islanded and grid-connected modes. A low voltage grid consisting of three distributed generators (DG) is considered for the study and is simulated in time-domain using PSCAD/EMTDC software. The simulation results depict the appropriateness of voltage and current control of microgrid and synchronization of microgrid with the medium voltage (MV) grid.

Keywords: Microgrid, Distributed Energy Resources, pulse width modulation, phase locked loop, voltage source converter, voltage and current control

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9 Photovoltaic-Driven Thermochemical Storage for Cooling Applications to Be Integrated in Polynesian Microgrids: Concept and Efficiency Study

Authors: Franco Ferrucci, Driss Stitou, Pascal Ortega, Franck Lucas


The energy situation in tropical insular regions, as found in the French Polynesian islands, presents a number of challenges, such as high dependence on imported fuel, high transport costs from the mainland and weak electricity grids. Alternatively, these regions have a variety of renewable energy resources, which favor the exploitation of smart microgrids and energy storage technologies. With regards to the electrical energy demand, the high temperatures in these regions during the entire year implies that a large proportion of consumption is used for cooling buildings, even during the evening hours. In this context, this paper presents an air conditioning system driven by photovoltaic (PV) electricity that combines a refrigeration system and a thermochemical storage process. Thermochemical processes are able to store energy in the form of chemical potential with virtually no losses, and this energy can be used to produce cooling during the evening hours without the need to run a compressor (thus no electricity is required). Such storage processes implement thermochemical reactors in which a reversible chemical reaction between a solid compound and a gas takes place. The solid/gas pair used in this study is BaCl2 reacting with ammonia (NH3), which is also the coolant fluid in the refrigeration circuit. In the proposed system, the PV-driven electric compressor is used during the daytime either to run the refrigeration circuit when a cooling demand occurs or to decompose the ammonia-charged salt and remove the gas from thermochemical reactor when no cooling is needed. During the evening, when there is no electricity from solar source, the system changes its configuration and the reactor reabsorbs the ammonia gas from the evaporator and produces the cooling effect. In comparison to classical PV-driven air conditioning units equipped with electrochemical batteries (e.g. Pb, Li-ion), the proposed system has the advantage of having a novel storage technology with a much longer charge/discharge life cycle, and no self-discharge. It also allows a continuous operation of the electric compressor during the daytime, thus avoiding the problems associated with the on-off cycling. This work focuses on the system concept and on the efficiency study of its main components. It also compares the thermochemical with electrochemical storage as well as with other forms of thermal storage, such as latent (ice) and sensible heat (chilled water). The preliminary results show that the system seems to be a promising alternative to simultaneously fulfill cooling and energy storage needs in tropical insular regions.

Keywords: Microgrid, solar air-conditioning, solid/gas sorption, thermochemical storage, tropical and insular regions

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8 Sustainable Energy Supply through the Microgrid Concept: A Case Study of University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Authors: Christian Ndubisi Madu, Benjamin C. Ozumba, Ifeanyi E. Madu, Valentine E. Nnadi, Ikenna C. Ezeasor


The ability to generate power and achieve energy security is one of the driving forces behind the emerging ‘microgrid’ concept. Traditional power supply often operates with centralized infrastructure for generating, transmitting and distributing electricity. The inefficiency and the incessant power outages associated with the centralized power supply system in Nigeria has alienated many users who frequently turn to electric power generator sets to power their homes and offices. Such acts are unsustainable and lead to increase in the use of fossil fuels, generation of carbon dioxide emissions and other gases, and noise pollution. They also pose significant risks as they entail random purchases and storage of gasolines which are fire hazards. It is therefore important that organizations rethink their relationships to centralized power suppliers in other to improve energy accessibility and security. This study explores the energy planning processes and learning taking place at the University of Nigeria Enugu Campus as the school lead microgrid feasibility studies in its community. There is need to develop community partners to deal with the issue of energy efficiency and also to create a strategic alliance to confront political, regulatory and economic barriers to locally-based energy planning. Community-based microgrid can help to reduce the cost of adoption and diversify risks. This study offers insights into the ways in which microgrids can further democratize energy planning, procurement, and access, while simultaneously promoting efficiency and sustainability.

Keywords: Energy Security, Sustainability, Energy Efficiency, Microgrid

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7 Microgrid: An Alternative of Electricity Supply to an Island in Thailand

Authors: Pawitchaya Srijaiwong, Surin Khomfoi


There are several solutions to supply electricity to an island in Thailand such as diesel generation, submarine power cable, and renewable energy power generation. However, each alternative has its own limitation like fuel and pollution of diesel generation, submarine power cable length resulting in loss of cable and cost of investment, and potential of renewable energy in the local area. This paper shows microgrid system which is a new alternative for power supply to an island. It integrates local power plant from renewable energy, energy storage system, and microgrid controller. The suitable renewable energy power generation on an island is selected from geographic location and potential evaluation. Thus, photovoltaic system and hydro power plant are taken into account. The capacity of energy storage system is also estimated by transient stability study in order to supply electricity demand sufficiently under normal condition. Microgrid controller plays an important role in conducting, communicating and operating for both sources and loads on an island so that its functions are discussed in this study. The conceptual design of microgrid operation is investigated in order to analyze the reliability and power quality. The result of this study shows that microgrid is able to operate in parallel with the main grid and in case of islanding. It is applicable for electricity supply to an island and a remote area. The advantages of operating microgrid on an island include the technical aspect like improving reliability and quality of power system and social aspects like outage cost saving and CO₂ reduction.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, energy storage, Microgrid, islanding

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6 The Effect of Microgrid on Power System Oscillatory Stability

Authors: Burak Yildirim, Muhsin Tunay Gençoğlu


This publication shows the effects of Microgrid (MG) integration on the power systems oscillating stability. Generated MG model power systems were applied to the IEEE 14 bus test system which is widely used in stability studies. Stability studies were carried out with the help of eigenvalue analysis over linearized system models. In addition, Hopf bifurcation point detection was performed to show the effect of MGs on the system loadability margin. In the study results, it is seen that MGs affect system stability positively by increasing system loadability margin and has a damper effect on the critical modes of the system and the electromechanical local modes, but they make the damping amount of the electromechanical interarea modes reduce.

Keywords: Microgrid, Hopf Bifurcation, eigenvalue analysis, oscillatory stability

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5 Modal Analysis of Power System with a Microgrid

Authors: Burak Yildirim, Muhsin Tunay Gençoğlu


A microgrid (MG) is a small power grid composed of localized medium or low level power generation, storage systems, and loads. In this paper, the effects of a MG on power systems voltage stability are shown. The MG model, designed to demonstrate the effects of the MG, was applied to the IEEE 14 bus power system which is widely used in power system stability studies. Eigenvalue and modal analysis methods were used in simulation studies. In the study results, it is seen that MGs affect system voltage stability positively by increasing system voltage instability limit value for buses of a power system in which MG are placed.

Keywords: Microgrid, modal analysis, Voltage Stability, eigenvalue analysis

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4 Effective Scheduling of Hybrid Reconfigurable Microgrids Considering High Penetration of Renewable Sources

Authors: Abdollah Kavousi Fard


This paper addresses the optimal scheduling of hybrid reconfigurable microgrids considering hybrid electric vehicle charging demands. A stochastic framework based on unscented transform to model the high uncertainties of renewable energy sources including wind turbine and photovoltaic panels, as well as the hybrid electric vehicles’ charging demand. In order to get to the optimal scheduling, the network reconfiguration is employed as an effective tool for changing the power supply path and avoiding possible congestions. The simulation results are analyzed and discussed in three different scenarios including coordinated, uncoordinated and smart charging demand of hybrid electric vehicles. A typical grid-connected microgrid is employed to show the satisfying performance of the proposed method.

Keywords: Optimization, Renewable Energy Sources, Microgrid, reconfiguration

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3 Energy Trading for Cooperative Microgrids with Renewable Energy Resources

Authors: Ziaullah, Shah Wahab Ali


Micro-grid equipped with heterogeneous energy resources present the idea of small scale distributed energy management (DEM). DEM helps in minimizing the transmission and operation costs, power management and peak load demands. Micro-grids are collections of small, independent controllable power-generating units and renewable energy resources. Micro-grids also motivate to enable active customer participation by giving accessibility of real-time information and control to the customer. The capability of fast restoration against faulty situation, integration of renewable energy resources and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) make micro-grid as an ideal system for distributed power systems. Micro-grids can have a bank of energy storage devices. The energy management system of micro-grid can perform real-time energy forecasting of renewable resources, energy storage elements and controllable loads in making proper short-term scheduling to minimize total operating costs. We present a review of existing micro-grids optimization objectives/goals, constraints, solution approaches and tools used in micro-grids for energy management. Cost-benefit analysis of micro-grid reveals that cooperation among different micro-grids can play a vital role in the reduction of import energy cost and system stability. Cooperative micro-grids energy trading is an approach to electrical distribution energy resources that allows local energy demands more control over the optimization of power resources and uses. Cooperation among different micro-grids brings the interconnectivity and power trading issues. According to the literature, it shows that open area of research is available for cooperative micro-grids energy trading. In this paper, we proposed and formulated the efficient energy management/trading module for interconnected micro-grids. It is believed that this research will open new directions in future for energy trading in cooperative micro-grids/interconnected micro-grids.

Keywords: Energy Management, Microgrid, Information and Communication Technologies, Distributed Energy Management

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2 Tools for Analysis and Optimization of Standalone Green Microgrids

Authors: William Anderson, Kyle Kobold, Oleg Yakimenko


Green microgrids using mostly renewable energy (RE) for generation, are complex systems with inherent nonlinear dynamics. Among a variety of different optimization tools there are only a few ones that adequately consider this complexity. This paper evaluates applicability of two somewhat similar optimization tools tailored for standalone RE microgrids and also assesses a machine learning tool for performance prediction that can enhance the reliability of any chosen optimization tool. It shows that one of these microgrid optimization tools has certain advantages over another and presents a detailed routine of preparing input data to simulate RE microgrid behavior. The paper also shows how neural-network-based predictive modeling can be used to validate and forecast solar power generation based on weather time series data, which improves the overall quality of standalone RE microgrid analysis.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Complex Systems, Renewable Energy, Optimization, Microgrid, predictive modeling

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1 Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation in Microgrid for Power Loss Reduction and Voltage Profile Improvement

Authors: Ferinar Moaidi, Mahdi Moaidi


Environmental issues and the ever-increasing in demand of electrical energy make it necessary to have distributed generation (DG) resources in the power system. In this research, in order to realize the goals of reducing losses and improving the voltage profile in a microgrid, the allocation and sizing of DGs have been used. The proposed Genetic Algorithm (GA) is described from the array of artificial intelligence methods for solving the problem. The algorithm is implemented on the IEEE 33 buses network. This study is presented in two scenarios, primarily to illustrate the effect of location and determination of DGs has been done to reduce losses and improve the voltage profile. On the other hand, decisions made with the one-level assumptions of load are not universally accepted for all levels of load. Therefore, in this study, load modelling is performed and the results are presented for multi-levels load state.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, Microgrid, Genetic Algorithm, loss reduction, load modelling, voltage improvement

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