Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Microfluidics Related Abstracts

39 Longitudinal Vortices Mixing in Three-Stream Micromixers with Two Inlets

Authors: Yi-Tun Huang, Chih-Yang Wu, Shu-Wei Huang

Abstract:

In this work, we examine fluid mixing in a full three-stream mixing channel with longitudinal vortex generators (LVGs) built on the channel bottom by numerical simulation and experiment. The effects of the asymmetrical arrangement and the attack angle of the LVGs on fluid mixing are investigated. The results show that the micromixer with LVGs at a small asymmetry index (defined by the ratio of the distance from the center plane of the gap between the winglets to the center plane of the main channel to the width of the main channel) is superior to the micromixer with symmetric LVGs and that with LVGs at a large asymmetry index. The micromixer using five mixing modules of the LVGs with an attack angle between 16.5 degrees and 22.5 degrees can achieve excellent mixing over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Here, we call a section of channel with two pairs of staggered asymmetrical LVGs a mixing module. Besides, the micromixer with LVGs at a small attack angle is more efficient than that with a larger attack angle when pressure losses are taken into account.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Mixing, longitudinal vortex generators, two stream interfaces

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38 Second-Order Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in a Long Isoflux Microchannel

Authors: Huei Chu Weng

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on the effect of second-order slip on forced convection through a long isoflux heated or cooled planar microchannel. The fully developed solutions of flow and thermal fields are analytically obtained on the basis of the second-order Maxwell-Burnett slip and local heat flux boundary conditions. Results reveal that when the average flow velocity increases or the wall heat flux amount decreases, the role of thermal creep becomes more insignificant, while the effect of second-order slip becomes larger. The second-order term in the Deissler slip boundary condition is found to contribute a positive velocity slip and then to lead to a lower pressure drop as well as a lower temperature rise for the heated-wall case or to a higher temperature rise for the cooled-wall case. These findings are contrary to predictions made by the Karniadakis slip model.

Keywords: Microfluidics, forced convection, thermal creep, second-order boundary conditions

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37 Evaluation of the Appropriateness of Common Oxidants for Ruthenium (II) Chemiluminescence in a Microfluidic Detection Device Coupled to Microbore High Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Analysis of Drugs in Formulations and Biological Fluids

Authors: Afsal Mohammed Kadavilpparampu, Haider A. J. Al Lawati, Fakhr Eldin O. Suliman, Salma M. Z. Al Kindy

Abstract:

In this work, we evaluated the appropriateness of various oxidants that can be used potentially with Ru(bipy)32+ CL system while performing CL detection in a microfluidic device using eight common active pharmaceutical ingredients- ciprofloxacin, hydrochlorothiazide, norfloxacin, buspirone, fexofenadine, cetirizine, codeine, and dextromethorphan. This is because, microfludics have very small channel volume and the residence time is also very short. Hence, a highly efficient oxidant is required for on-chip CL detection to obtain analytically acceptable CL emission. Three common oxidants were evaluated, lead dioxide, cerium ammonium sulphate and ammonium peroxydisulphate. Results obtained showed that ammonium peroxydisulphate is the most appropriate oxidant which can be used in microfluidic setup and all the tested analyte give strong CL emission while using this oxidant. We also found that Ru(bipy)33+ generated off-line by oxidizing [Ru(bipy)3]Cl2.6H2O in acetonitrile under acidic condition with lead dioxide was stable for more than 72 hrs. A highly sensitive microbore HPLC- CL method using ammonium peroxydisulphate as an oxidant in a microfluidic on-chip CL detection has been developed for the analyses of fixed-dose combinations of pseudoephedrine (PSE), fexofenadine (FEX) and cetirizine (CIT) in biological fluids and pharmaceutical formulations with minimum sample pre-treatment.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Chemiluminescence, Oxidants, microbore High Performance Liquid Chromatography

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36 Numerical Investigation of Thermally Triggered Release Kinetics of Double Emulsion for Drug Delivery Using Phase Change Material

Authors: Yong Ren, Yaping Zhang

Abstract:

A numerical model has been developed to investigate the thermally triggered release kinetics for drug delivery using phase change material as shell of microcapsules. Biocompatible material n-Eicosane is used as demonstration. PCM shell of microcapsule will remain in solid form after the drug is taken, so the drug will be encapsulated by the shell, and will not be released until the target body part of lesion is exposed to external heat source, which will thermally trigger the release kinetics, leading to solid-to-liquid phase change. The findings can lead to better understanding on the key effects influencing the phase change process for drug delivery applications. The facile approach to release drug from core/shell structure of microcapsule can be well integrated with organic solvent free fabrication of microcapsules, using double emulsion as template in microfluidic aqueous two phase system.

Keywords: Microfluidics, phase change material, drug release kinetics, double emulsion

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35 Liquid Bridges in a Complex Geometry: Microfluidic Drop Manipulation Inside a Wedge

Authors: D. Baratian, A. Cavalli, D. van den Ende, F. Mugele

Abstract:

The morphology of liquid bridges inside complex geometries is the subject of interest for many years. These efforts try to find stable liquid configuration considering the boundary condition and the physical properties of the system. On the other hand precise manipulation of droplets is highly significant in many microfluidic applications. The liquid configuration in a complex geometry can be switched by means of external stimuli. We show manipulation of droplets in a wedge structure. The profile and position of a drop in a wedge geometry has been calculated analytically assuming negligible contact angle hysteresis. The characteristic length of liquid bridge and its interfacial tension inside the surrounding medium along with the geometrical parameters of the system determine the morphology and equilibrium position of drop in the system. We use electrowetting to modify one the governing parameters to manipulate the droplet. Electrowetting provides the capability to have precise control on the drop position through tuning the voltage and consequently changing the contact angle. This technique is employed to tune drop displacement and control its position inside the wedge. Experiments demonstrate precise drop movement to its predefined position inside the wedge geometry. Experimental results show promising consistency as it is compared to our geometrical model predictions. For such a drop manipulation, appealing applications in microfluidics have been considered.

Keywords: Microfluidics, liquid bridges, drop manipulation, wetting, electrowetting, capillarity

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34 Microfluidic Continuous Approaches to Produce Magnetic Nanoparticles with Homogeneous Size Distribution

Authors: Ane Larrea, Victor Sebastian, Manuel Arruebo, Jesus Santamaria

Abstract:

We present a gas-liquid microfluidic system as a reactor to obtain magnetite nanoparticles with an excellent degree of control regarding their crystalline phase, shape and size. Several types of microflow approaches were selected to prevent nanomaterial aggregation and to promote homogenous size distribution. The selected reactor consists of a mixer stage aided by ultrasound waves and a reaction stage using a N2-liquid segmented flow to prevent magnetite oxidation to non-magnetic phases. A milli-fluidic reactor was developed to increase the production rate where a magnetite throughput close to 450 mg/h in a continuous fashion was obtained.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Microfluidics, magnetic nanoparticles, continuous production

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33 Colloid-Based Biodetection at Aqueous Electrical Interfaces Using Fluidic Dielectrophoresis

Authors: Francesca Crivellari, Nicholas Mavrogiannis, Zachary Gagnon

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Portable diagnostic methods have become increasingly important for a number of different purposes: point-of-care screening in developing nations, environmental contamination studies, bio/chemical warfare agent detection, and end-user use for commercial health monitoring. The cheapest and most portable methods currently available are paper-based – lateral flow and dipstick methods are widely available in drug stores for use in pregnancy detection and blood glucose monitoring. These tests are successful because they are cheap to produce, easy to use, and require minimally invasive sampling. While adequate for their intended uses, in the realm of blood-borne pathogens and numerous cancers, these paper-based methods become unreliable, as they lack the nM/pM sensitivity currently achieved by clinical diagnostic methods. Clinical diagnostics, however, utilize techniques involving surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), which are expensive and unfeasible in terms of portability. To develop a better, competitive biosensor, we must reduce the cost of one, or increase the sensitivity of the other. Electric fields are commonly utilized in microfluidic devices to manipulate particles, biomolecules, and cells. Applications in this area, however, are primarily limited to interfaces formed between immiscible interfaces. Miscible, liquid-liquid interfaces are common in microfluidic devices, and are easily reproduced with simple geometries. Here, we demonstrate the use of electrical fields at liquid-liquid electrical interfaces, known as fluidic dielectrophoresis, (fDEP) for biodetection in a microfluidic device. In this work, we apply an AC electric field across concurrent laminar streams with differing conductivities and permittivities to polarize the interface and induce a discernible, near-immediate, frequency-dependent interfacial tilt. We design this aqueous electrical interface, which becomes the biosensing “substrate,” to be intelligent – it “moves” only when a target of interest is present. This motion requires neither labels nor expensive electrical equipment, so the biosensor is inexpensive and portable, yet still capable of sensitive detection. Nanoparticles, due to their high surface-area-to-volume ratio, are often incorporated to enhance detection capabilities of schemes like SPR and fluorimetric assays. Most studies currently investigate binding at an immobilized solid-liquid or solid-gas interface, where particles are adsorbed onto a planar surface, functionalized with a receptor to create a reactive substrate, and subsequently flushed with a fluid or gas with the relevant analyte. These typically involve many preparation and rinsing steps, and are susceptible to surface fouling. Our microfluidic device is continuously flowing and renewing the “substrate,” and is thus not subject to fouling. In this work, we demonstrate the ability to electrokinetically detect biomolecules binding to functionalized nanoparticles at liquid-liquid interfaces using fDEP. In biotin-streptavidin experiments, we report binding detection limits on the order of 1-10 pM, without amplifying signals or concentrating samples. We also demonstrate the ability to detect this interfacial motion, and thus the presence of binding, using impedance spectroscopy, allowing this scheme to become non-optical, in addition to being label-free.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Nanoparticles, Dielectrophoresis, biodetection

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32 Mixing Behaviors of Shear-Thinning Fluids in Serpentine-Channel Micromixers

Authors: Rei-Tang Tsai, Chih-Yang Wu, Chia-Yuan Chang, Ming-Ying Kuo

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the mixing behaviors of deionized (DI) water and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions in C-shaped serpentine micromixers over a wide range of flow conditions. The flow of CMC solutions exhibits shear-thinning behaviors. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the mean flow speed, fluid properties and geometry parameters on flow and mixing in the micromixers with serpentine channel of the same overall channel length. From the results, we can find the following trends. When fluid mixing is dominated by convection, the curvature-induced vortices enhance fluid mixing effectively. The mixing efficiency of a micromixer consisting of semicircular C-shaped repeating units with a smaller center-line radius is better than that of a micromixer consisting of major-segment repeating units with a larger center-line radius. The viscosity of DI water is less than the overall average apparent viscosity of CMC solutions, and so the effect of curvature-induced vortices on fluid mixing in DI water is larger than that in CMC solutions for the cases with the same mean flow speed.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Mixing, vortex, non-Newtonian fluids, curved channel

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31 Second-Order Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in a Long Isothermal Microchannel

Authors: Huei Chu Weng, Chien-Hung Liu

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on the effect of second-order slip and jump on forced convection through a long isothermally heated or cooled planar microchannel. The fully developed solutions of thermal flow fields are analytically obtained on the basis of the second-order Maxwell-Burnett slip and Smoluchowski jump boundary conditions. Results reveal that the second-order term in the Karniadakis slip boundary condition is found to contribute a negative velocity slip and then to lead to a higher pressure drop as well as a higher fluid temperature for the heated-wall case or to a lower fluid temperature for the cooled-wall case. These findings are contrary to predictions made by the Deissler model. In addition, the role of second-order slip becomes more significant when the Knudsen number increases.

Keywords: Microfluidics, forced convection, second-order boundary conditions, gas rarefaction

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30 Study of the Combinatorial Impact of Substrate Properties on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration Using Microfluidics

Authors: Nishanth Venugopal Menon, Chuah Yon Jin, Samantha Phey, Wu Yingnan, Zhang Ying, Vincent Chan, Kang Yuejun

Abstract:

Cell Migration is a vital phenomenon that the cells undergo in various physiological processes like wound healing, disease progression, embryogenesis, etc. Cell migration depends primarily on the chemical and physical cues available in the cellular environment. The chemical cue involves the chemokines secreted and gradients generated in the environment while physical cues indicate the impact of matrix properties like nanotopography and stiffness on the cells. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been shown to have a role wound healing in vivo and its migration to the site of the wound has been shown to have a therapeutic effect. In the field of stem cell based tissue regeneration of bones and cartilage, one approach has been to introduce scaffold laden with MSCs into the site of injury to enable tissue regeneration. In this work, we have studied the combinatorial impact of the substrate physical properties on MSC migration. A microfluidic in vitro model was created to perform the migration studies. The microfluidic model used is a three compartment device consisting of two cell seeding compartments and one migration compartment. Four different PDMS substrates with varying substrate roughness, stiffness and hydrophobicity were created. Its surface roughness and stiffness was measured using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) while its hydrphobicity was measured from the water contact angle using an optical tensiometer. These PDMS substrates are sealed to the microfluidic chip following which the MSCs are seeded and the cell migration is studied over the period of a week. Cell migration was quantified using fluorescence imaging of the cytoskeleton (F-actin) to find out the area covered by the cells inside the migration compartment. The impact of adhesion proteins on cell migration was also quantified using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT PCR). These results suggested that the optimal substrate for cell migration would be one with an intermediate level of roughness, stiffness and hydrophobicity. A higher or lower value of these properties affected cell migration negatively. These observations have helped us in understanding that different substrate properties need to be considered in tandem, especially while designing scaffolds for tissue regeneration as cell migration is normally impacted by the combinatorial impact of the matrix. These observations may lead us to scaffold optimization in future tissue regeneration applications.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Scaffold, Cell migration, in vitro model, stem cell migration, substrate properties

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29 Development and Characterisation of a Microbioreactor 'Cassette' for Cell Culture Applications

Authors: Nelson Barrientos, Matthew J. Davies, Marco C. Marques, Darren N. Nesbeth, Gary J. Lye, Nicolas Szita

Abstract:

Microbioreactor technology is making important advances towards its application in cell culture and bioprocess development. In particular, the technology promises flexible and controllable devices capable to perform parallelised experimentation at low cost. Currently, state of the art methods (e.g. optical sensors) allow the accurate monitoring of the microbioreactor operation. In addition, the laminar flow regime encountered in these devices allows more predictive fluid dynamics modelling, improving the control over the soluble, physical and mechanical environment of the cells. This work describes the development and characterisation of a novel microbioreactor cassette system (microbioreactor volume is 150 μL. The volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa) and mixing time have been characterised to be between 25 to 113 h-1 and 0.5 and 0.1 s, respectively. In addition, the Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis confirms that the reactor operates at well mixed conditions. Finally, Staphylococcus carnosus TM300 growth is demonstrated via batch culture experiments. Future work consists in expanding the optics of the microbioreactor design to include the monitoring of variables such as fluorescent protein expression, among others.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Fermentation, microbioreactor, cell-culture

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28 Experimental Correlation for Erythrocyte Aggregation Rate in Population Balance Modeling

Authors: Erfan Niazi, Marianne Fenech

Abstract:

Red Blood Cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes tend to form chain-like aggregates under low shear rate called rouleaux. This is a reversible process and rouleaux disaggregate in high shear rates. Therefore, RBCs aggregation occurs in the microcirculation where low shear rates are present but does not occur under normal physiological conditions in large arteries. Numerical modeling of RBCs interactions is fundamental in analytical models of a blood flow in microcirculation. Population Balance Modeling (PBM) is particularly useful for studying problems where particles agglomerate and break in a two phase flow systems to find flow characteristics. In this method, the elementary particles lose their individual identity due to continuous destructions and recreations by break-up and agglomeration. The aim of this study is to find RBCs aggregation in a dynamic situation. Simplified PBM was used previously to find the aggregation rate on a static observation of the RBCs aggregation in a drop of blood under the microscope. To find aggregation rate in a dynamic situation we propose an experimental set up testing RBCs sedimentation. In this test, RBCs interact and aggregate to form rouleaux. In this configuration, disaggregation can be neglected due to low shear stress. A high-speed camera is used to acquire video-microscopic pictures of the process. The sizes of the aggregates and velocity of sedimentation are extracted using an image processing techniques. Based on the data collection from 5 healthy human blood samples, the aggregation rate was estimated as 2.7x103(±0.3 x103) 1/s.

Keywords: Image Processing, Microfluidics, red blood cell, rouleaux, population balance modeling

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27 Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW)-Induced Mixing Enhances Biomolecules Kinetics in a Novel Phase-Interrogation Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Microfluidic Biosensor

Authors: M. Agostini, A. Sonato, G. Greco, M. Travagliati, G. Ruffato, E. Gazzola, D. Liuni, F. Romanato, M. Cecchini

Abstract:

Since their first demonstration in the early 1980s, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors have been widely recognized as useful tools for detecting chemical and biological species, and the interest of the scientific community toward this technology has known a rapid growth in the past two decades owing to their high sensitivity, label-free operation and possibility of real-time detection. Recent works have suggested that a turning point in SPR sensor research would be the combination of SPR strategies with other technologies in order to reduce human handling of samples, improve integration and plasmonic sensitivity. In this light, microfluidics has been attracting growing interest. By properly designing microfluidic biochips it is possible to miniaturize the analyte-sensitive areas with an overall reduction of the chip dimension, reduce the liquid reagents and sample volume, improve automation, and increase the number of experiments in a single biochip by multiplexing approaches. However, as the fluidic channel dimensions approach the micron scale, laminar flows become dominant owing to the low Reynolds numbers that typically characterize microfluidics. In these environments mixing times are usually dominated by diffusion, which can be prohibitively long and lead to long-lasting biochemistry experiments. An elegant method to overcome these issues is to actively perturb the liquid laminar flow by exploiting surface acoustic waves (SAWs). With this work, we demonstrate a new approach for SPR biosensing based on the combination of microfluidics, SAW-induced mixing and the real-time phase-interrogation grating-coupling SPR technology. On a single lithium niobate (LN) substrate the nanostructured SPR sensing areas, interdigital transducer (IDT) for SAW generation and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chambers were fabricated. SAWs, impinging on the microfluidic chamber, generate acoustic streaming inside the fluid, leading to chaotic advection and thus improved fluid mixing, whilst analytes binding detection is made via SPR method based on SPP excitation via gold metallic grating upon azimuthal orientation and phase interrogation. Our device has been fully characterized in order to separate for the very first time the unwanted SAW heating effect with respect to the fluid stirring inside the microchamber that affect the molecules binding dynamics. Avidin/biotin assay and thiol-polyethylene glycol (bPEG-SH) were exploited as model biological interaction and non-fouling layer respectively. Biosensing kinetics time reduction with SAW-enhanced mixing resulted in a ≈ 82% improvement for bPEG-SH adsorption onto gold and ≈ 24% for avidin/biotin binding—≈ 50% and 18% respectively compared to the heating only condition. These results demonstrate that our biochip can significantly reduce the duration of bioreactions that usually require long times (e.g., PEG-based sensing layer, low concentration analyte detection). The sensing architecture here proposed represents a new promising technology satisfying the major biosensing requirements: scalability and high throughput capabilities. The detection system size and biochip dimension could be further reduced and integrated; in addition, the possibility of reducing biological experiment duration via SAW-driven active mixing and developing multiplexing platforms for parallel real-time sensing could be easily combined. In general, the technology reported in this study can be straightforwardly adapted to a great number of biological system and sensing geometry.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Biosensor, Surface Plasmon Resonance, surface acoustic wave

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26 Coupling of Microfluidic Droplet Systems with ESI-MS Detection for Reaction Optimization

Authors: Julia R. Beulig, Stefan Ohla, Detlev Belder

Abstract:

In contrast to off-line analytical methods, lab-on-a-chip technology delivers direct information about the observed reaction. Therefore, microfluidic devices make an important scientific contribution, e.g. in the field of synthetic chemistry. Herein, the rapid generation of analytical data can be applied for the optimization of chemical reactions. These microfluidic devices enable a fast change of reaction conditions as well as a resource saving method of operation. In the presented work, we focus on the investigation of multiphase regimes, more specifically on a biphasic microfluidic droplet systems. Here, every single droplet is a reaction container with customized conditions. The biggest challenge is the rapid qualitative and quantitative readout of information as most detection techniques for droplet systems are non-specific, time-consuming or too slow. An exception is the electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The combination of a reaction screening platform with a rapid and specific detection method is an important step in droplet-based microfluidics. In this work, we present a novel approach for synthesis optimization on the nanoliter scale with direct ESI-MS detection. The development of a droplet-based microfluidic device, which enables the modification of different parameters while simultaneously monitoring the effect on the reaction within a single run, is shown. By common soft- and photolithographic techniques a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip with different functionalities is developed. As an interface for the MS detection, we use a steel capillary for ESI and improve the spray stability with a Teflon siphon tubing, which is inserted underneath the steel capillary. By optimizing the flow rates, it is possible to screen parameters of various reactions, this is exemplarity shown by a Domino Knoevenagel Hetero-Diels-Alder reaction. Different starting materials, catalyst concentrations and solvent compositions are investigated. Due to the high repetition rate of the droplet production, each set of reaction condition is examined hundreds of times. As a result, of the investigation, we receive possible reagents, the ideal water-methanol ratio of the solvent and the most effective catalyst concentration. The developed system can help to determine important information about the optimal parameters of a reaction within a short time. With this novel tool, we make an important step on the field of combining droplet-based microfluidics with organic reaction screening.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Mass Spectrometry, Screening, droplet, organic reaction

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25 Magnetofluidics for Mass Transfer and Mixing Enhancement in a Micro Scale Device

Authors: Majid Hejazian, Nam-Trung Nguyen

Abstract:

Over the past few years, microfluidic devices have generated significant attention from industry and academia due to advantages such as small sample volume, low cost and high efficiency. Microfluidic devices have applications in chemical, biological and industry analysis and can facilitate assay of bio-materials and chemical reactions, separation, and sensing. Micromixers are one of the important microfluidic concepts. Micromixers can work as stand-alone devices or be integrated in a more complex microfluidic system such as a lab on a chip (LOC). Micromixers are categorized as passive and active types. Passive micromixers rely only on the arrangement of the phases to be mixed and contain no moving parts and require no energy. Active micromixers require external fields such as pressure, temperature, electric and acoustic fields. Rapid and efficient mixing is important for many applications such as biological, chemical and biochemical analysis. Achieving fast and homogenous mixing of multiple samples in the microfluidic devices has been studied and discussed in the literature recently. Improvement in mixing rely on effective mass transport in microscale, but are currently limited to molecular diffusion due to the predominant laminar flow in this size scale. Using magnetic field to elevate mass transport is an effective solution for mixing enhancement in microfluidics. The use of a non-uniform magnetic field to improve mass transfer performance in a microfluidic device is demonstrated in this work. The phenomenon of mixing ferrofluid and DI-water streams has been reported before, but mass transfer enhancement for other non-magnetic species through magnetic field have not been studied and evaluated extensively. In the present work, permanent magnets were used in a simple microfluidic device to create a non-uniform magnetic field. Two streams are introduced into the microchannel: one contains fluorescent dye mixed with diluted ferrofluid to induce enhanced mass transport of the dye, and the other one is a non-magnetic DI-water stream. Mass transport enhancement of fluorescent dye is evaluated using fluorescent measurement techniques. The concentration field is measured for different flow rates. Due to effect of magnetic field, a body force is exerted on the paramagnetic stream and expands the ferrofluid stream into non-magnetic DI-water flow. The experimental results demonstrate that without a magnetic field, both magnetic nanoparticles of the ferrofluid and the fluorescent dye solely rely on molecular diffusion to spread. The non-uniform magnetic field, created by the permanent magnets around the microchannel, and diluted ferrofluid can improve mass transport of non-magnetic solutes in a microfluidic device. The susceptibility mismatch between the fluids results in a magnetoconvective secondary flow towards the magnets and subsequently the mass transport of the non-magnetic fluorescent dye. A significant enhancement in mass transport of the fluorescent dye was observed. The platform presented here could be used as a microfluidics-based micromixer for chemical and biological applications.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Magnetic, mass transfer, ferrofluid, micromixer

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24 Modeling of Electrokinetic Mixing in Lab on Chip Microfluidic Devices

Authors: Virendra J. Majarikar, Harikrishnan N. Unni

Abstract:

This paper sets to demonstrate a modeling of electrokinetic mixing employing electroosmotic stationary and time-dependent microchannel using alternate zeta patches on the lower surface of the micromixer in a lab on chip microfluidic device. Electroosmotic flow is amplified using different 2D and 3D model designs with alternate and geometric zeta potential values such as 25, 50, and 100 mV, respectively, to achieve high concentration mixing in the electrokinetically-driven microfluidic system. The enhancement of electrokinetic mixing is studied using Finite Element Modeling, and simulation workflow is accomplished with defined integral steps. It can be observed that the presence of alternate zeta patches can help inducing microvortex flows inside the channel, which in turn can improve mixing efficiency. Fluid flow and concentration fields are simulated by solving Navier-Stokes equation (implying Helmholtz-Smoluchowski slip velocity boundary condition) and Convection-Diffusion equation. The effect of the magnitude of zeta potential, the number of alternate zeta patches, etc. are analysed thoroughly. 2D simulation reveals that there is a cumulative increase in concentration mixing, whereas 3D simulation differs slightly with low zeta potential as that of the 2D model within the T-shaped micromixer for concentration 1 mol/m3 and 0 mol/m3, respectively. Moreover, 2D model results were compared with those of 3D to indicate the importance of the 3D model in a microfluidic design process.

Keywords: Microfluidics, zeta potential, electrokinetic, COMSOL Multiphysics®, electroosmotic

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23 Integration of Magnetoresistance Sensor in Microfluidic Chip for Magnetic Particles Detection

Authors: Chao-Ming Su, Pei-Sheng Wu, Yu-Chi Kuo, Yin-Chou Huang, Tan-Yueh Chen, Jefunnie Matahum, Tzong-Rong Ger

Abstract:

Application of magnetic particles (MPs) has been applied in biomedical field for many years. There are lots of advantages through this mediator including high biocompatibility and multi-diversified bio-applications. However, current techniques for evaluating the quantity of the magnetic-labeled sample assays are rare. In this paper, a Wheatstone bridge giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor integrated with a homemade detecting system was fabricated and used to quantify the concentration of MPs. The homemade detecting system has shown high detecting sensitivity of 10 μg/μl of MPs with optimized parameter vertical magnetic field 100 G, horizontal magnetic field 2 G and flow rate 0.4 ml/min.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Biosensor, Magnetic Particles, Magnetoresistive Sensors

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22 Shear Stress and Oxygen Concentration Manipulation in a Micropillars Microfluidic Bioreactor

Authors: Deybith Venegas-Rojas, Jens Budde, Dominik Nörz, Manfred Jücker, Hoc Khiem Trieu

Abstract:

Microfluidics is a promising approach for biomedicine cell culture experiments with microfluidic bioreactors (MBR), which can provide high precision in volume and time control over mass transport and microenvironments in small-scale studies. Nevertheless, shear stress and oxygen concentration are important factors that affect the microenvironment and then the cell culture. It is presented a novel MBR design in which differences in geometry, shear stress, and oxygen concentration were studied and optimized for cell culture. The aim is to mimic the in vivo condition with biocompatible materials and continuous perfusion of nutrients, a healthy shear stress, and oxygen concentration. The design consists of a capture system of PDMS micropillars which keep cells in place, so it is not necessary any hydrogel or complicated scaffolds for cells immobilization. Besides, the design allows continuous supply with nutrients or even any other chemical for cell experimentation. Finite element method simulations were used to study and optimize the effect of parameters such as flow rate, shear stress, oxygen concentration, micropillars shape, and dimensions. The micropillars device was fabricated with microsystem technology such as soft-lithography, deep reactive ion etching, self-assembled monolayer, replica molding, and oxygen plasma bonding. Eight different geometries were fabricated and tested, with different flow rates according to the simulations. During the experiments, it was observed the effect of micropillars size, shape, and configuration for stability and shear stress control when increasing flow rate. The device was tested with several successful HepG2 3D cell cultures. With this MBR, the aforementioned parameters can be controlled in order to keep a healthy microenvironment according to specific necessities of different cell types, with no need of hydrogels and can be used for a wide range of experiments with cells.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Cell Culture, shear stress, oxygen concentration, micro-bioreactor, micropillars

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21 A Facile One Step Modification of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) via Smart Polymers for Biomicrofluidics

Authors: A. Aslihan Gokaltun, Martin L. Yarmush, Ayse Asatekin, O. Berk Usta

Abstract:

Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is one of the most widely used materials in the fabrication of microfluidic devices. It is easily patterned and can replicate features down to nanometers. Its flexibility, gas permeability that allows oxygenation, and low cost also drive its wide adoption. However, a major drawback of PDMS is its hydrophobicity and fast hydrophobic recovery after surface hydrophilization. This results in significant non-specific adsorption of proteins as well as small hydrophobic molecules such as therapeutic drugs limiting the utility of PDMS in biomedical microfluidic circuitry. While silicon, glass, and thermoplastics have been used, they come with problems of their own such as rigidity, high cost, and special tooling needs, which limit their use to a smaller user base. Many strategies to alleviate these common problems with PDMS are lack of general practical applicability, or have limited shelf lives in terms of the modifications they achieve. This restricts large scale implementation and adoption by industrial and research communities. Accordingly, we aim to tailor biocompatible PDMS surfaces by developing a simple and one step bulk modification approach with novel smart materials to reduce non-specific molecular adsorption and to stabilize long-term cell analysis with PDMS substrates. Smart polymers that blended with PDMS during device manufacture, spontaneously segregate to surfaces when in contact with aqueous solutions and create a < 1 nm layer that reduces non-specific adsorption of organic and biomolecules. Our methods are fully compatible with existing PDMS device manufacture protocols without any additional processing steps. We have demonstrated that our modified PDMS microfluidic system is effective at blocking the adsorption of proteins while retaining the viability of primary rat hepatocytes and preserving the biocompatibility, oxygen permeability, and transparency of the material. We expect this work will enable the development of fouling-resistant biomedical materials from microfluidics to hospital surfaces and tubing.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Cell Culture, Smart Polymers, PDMS, non-specific protein adsorption

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20 Bulk Modification of Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) for Biomedical Applications

Authors: A. Aslihan Gokaltun, Martin L. Yarmush, Ayse Asatekin, O. Berk Usta

Abstract:

In the last decade microfabrication processes including rapid prototyping techniques have advanced rapidly and achieved a fairly matured stage. These advances encouraged and enabled the use of microfluidic devices by a wider range of users with applications in biological separations, and cell and organoid cultures. Accordingly, a significant current challenge in the field is controlling biomolecular interactions at interfaces and the development of novel biomaterials to satisfy the unique needs of the biomedical applications. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is by far the most preferred material in the fabrication of microfluidic devices. This can be attributed its favorable properties, including: (1) simple fabrication by replica molding, (2) good mechanical properties, (3) excellent optical transparency from 240 to 1100 nm, (4) biocompatibility and non-toxicity, and (5) high gas permeability. However, high hydrophobicity (water contact angle ~108°±7°) of PDMS often limits its applications where solutions containing biological samples are concerned. In our study, we created a simple, easy method for modifying the surface chemistry of PDMS microfluidic devices through the addition of surface-segregating additives during manufacture. In this method, a surface segregating copolymer is added to precursors for silicone and the desired device is manufactured following the usual methods. When the device surface is in contact with an aqueous solution, the copolymer self-organizes to expose its hydrophilic segments to the surface, making the surface of the silicone device more hydrophilic. This can lead to several improved performance criteria including lower fouling, lower non-specific adsorption, and better wettability. Specifically, this approach is expected to be useful for the manufacture of microfluidic devices. It is also likely to be useful for manufacturing silicone tubing and other materials, biomaterial applications, and surface coatings.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Copolymer, PDMS, PEG, non-specific protein adsorption

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19 Microfluidic Plasmonic Bio-Sensing of Exosomes by Using a Gold Nano-Island Platform

Authors: Srinivas Bathini, Duraichelvan Raju, Simona Badilescu, Muthukumaran Packirisamy

Abstract:

A bio-sensing method, based on the plasmonic property of gold nano-islands, has been developed for detection of exosomes in a clinical setting. The position of the gold plasmon band in the UV-Visible spectrum depends on the size and shape of gold nanoparticles as well as on the surrounding environment. By adsorbing various chemical entities, or binding them, the gold plasmon band will shift toward longer wavelengths and the shift is proportional to the concentration. Exosomes transport cargoes of molecules and genetic materials to proximal and distal cells. Presently, the standard method for their isolation and quantification from body fluids is by ultracentrifugation, not a practical method to be implemented in a clinical setting. Thus, a versatile and cutting-edge platform is required to selectively detect and isolate exosomes for further analysis at clinical level. The new sensing protocol, instead of antibodies, makes use of a specially synthesized polypeptide (Vn96), to capture and quantify the exosomes from different media, by binding the heat shock proteins from exosomes. The protocol has been established and optimized by using a glass substrate, in order to facilitate the next stage, namely the transfer of the protocol to a microfluidic environment. After each step of the protocol, the UV-Vis spectrum was recorded and the position of gold Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) band was measured. The sensing process was modelled, taking into account the characteristics of the nano-island structure, prepared by thermal convection and annealing. The optimal molar ratios of the most important chemical entities, involved in the detection of exosomes were calculated as well. Indeed, it was found that the results of the sensing process depend on the two major steps: the molar ratios of streptavidin to biotin-PEG-Vn96 and, the final step, the capture of exosomes by the biotin-PEG-Vn96 complex. The microfluidic device designed for sensing of exosomes consists of a glass substrate, sealed by a PDMS layer that contains the channel and a collecting chamber. In the device, the solutions of linker, cross-linker, etc., are pumped over the gold nano-islands and an Ocean Optics spectrometer is used to measure the position of the Au plasmon band at each step of the sensing. The experiments have shown that the shift of the Au LSPR band is proportional to the concentration of exosomes and, thereby, exosomes can be accurately quantified. An important advantage of the method is the ability to discriminate between exosomes having different origins.

Keywords: Microfluidics, exosomes, gold nano-islands, plasmonic biosensing

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18 A Simplified, Fabrication-Friendly Acoustophoretic Model for Size Sensitive Particle Sorting

Authors: V. Karamzadeh, J. Adhvaryu, A. Chandrasekaran, M. Packirisamy

Abstract:

In Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) microfluidics, the throughput of particle sorting is dependent on the complex interplay between the geometric configuration of the channel, the size of the particles, and the properties of the fluid medium, which therefore calls for a detailed modeling and understanding of the fluid-particle interaction dynamics under an acoustic field, prior to designing the system. In this work, we propose a simplified Bulk acoustophoretic system that can be used for size dependent particle sorting. A Finite Element Method (FEM) based analytical model has been developed to study the dependence of particle sizes on channel parameters, and the sorting efficiency in a given fluid medium. Based on the results, the microfluidic system has been designed to take into account all the variables involved with the underlying physics, and has been fabricated using an additive manufacturing technique employing a commercial 3D printer, to generate a simple, cost-effective system that can be used for size sensitive particle sorting.

Keywords: Microfluidics, acoustophoresis, cell separation, MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems)

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17 Fabrication of Highly-Ordered Interconnected Porous Polymeric Particles and Structures

Authors: Mohammad Alroaithi

Abstract:

Porous polymeric materials have attracted a great attention due to their distinctive porous structure within a polymer matrix. They are characterised by the presence of external pores on the surface as well as inner interconnected windows. Conventional techniques to produce porous polymeric materials encounters major challenge in controlling the properties of the resultant structures including morphology, pores, cavities size, and porosity. Herein, we present a facile and versatile microfluidics technique for the fabrication of uniform porous polymeric structures with highly ordered and well-defined interconnected windows. The shapes of the porous structures can either be a microparticles or foam. Both shapes used microfluidics platform to first produce monodisperse emulsion. The uniform emulsions, were then consolidated into porous structures through UV photopolymerisation. The morphology, pores, cavities size, and porosity of the structures can be precisely manipulated by the flowrate. The proposed strategy might provide a key advantage for fabrication of uniform porous materials over many existing technologies.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Polymer, porous particles, porous structures

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16 Micro-Droplet Formation in a Microchannel under the Effect of an Electric Field: Experiment

Authors: Sercan Altundemir, Pinar Eribol, A. Kerem Uguz

Abstract:

Microfluidics systems allow many-large scale laboratory applications to be miniaturized on a single device in order to reduce cost and advance fluid control. Moreover, such systems enable to generate and control droplets which have a significant role on improved analysis for many chemical and biological applications. For example, they can be employed as the model for cells in microfluidic systems. In this work, the interfacial instability of two immiscible Newtonian liquids flowing in a microchannel is investigated. When two immiscible liquids are in laminar regime, a flat interface is formed between them. If a direct current electric field is applied, the interface may deform, i.e. may become unstable and it may be ruptured and form micro-droplets. First, the effect of thickness ratio, total flow rate, viscosity ratio of the silicone oil and ethylene glycol liquid couple on the critical voltage at which the interface starts to destabilize is investigated. Then the droplet sizes are measured under the effect of these parameters at various voltages. Moreover, the effect of total flow rate on the time elapsed for the interface to be ruptured to form droplets by hitting the wall of the channel is analyzed. It is observed that an increase in the viscosity or the thickness ratio of the silicone oil to the ethylene glycol has a stabilizing effect, i.e. a higher voltage is needed while the total flow rate has no effect on it. However, it is observed that an increase in the total flow rate results in shortening of the elapsed time for the interface to hit the wall. Moreover, the droplet size decreases down to 0.1 μL with an increase in the applied voltage, the viscosity ratio or the total flow rate or a decrease in the thickness ratio. In addition to these observations, two empirical models for determining the critical electric number, i.e., the dimensionless voltage and the droplet size and another model which is a combination of both models, for determining the droplet size at the critical voltage are established.

Keywords: Microfluidics, two-phase flow, droplet formation, electrohydrodynamics

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15 Towards a Biologically Relevant Tumor-on-a-Chip: Multiplex Microfluidic Platform to Study Breast Cancer Drug Response

Authors: Soroosh Torabi, Brad Berron, Ren Xu, Christine Trinkle

Abstract:

Microfluidics integrated with 3D cell culture is a powerful technology to mimic cellular environment, and can be used to study cell activities such as proliferation, migration and response to drugs. This technology has gained more attention in cancer studies over the past years, and many organ-on-a-chip systems have been developed to study cancer cell behaviors in an ex-vivo tumor microenvironment. However, there are still some barriers to adoption which include low throughput, complexity in 3D cell culture integration and limitations on non-optical analysis of cells. In this study, a user-friendly microfluidic multi-well plate was developed to mimic the in vivo tumor microenvironment. The microfluidic platform feeds multiple 3D cell culture sites at the same time which enhances the throughput of the system. The platform uses hydrophobic Cassie-Baxter surfaces created by microchannels to enable convenient loading of hydrogel/cell suspensions into the device, while providing barrier free placement of the hydrogel and cells adjacent to the fluidic path. The microchannels support convective flow and diffusion of nutrients to the cells and a removable lid is used to enable further chemical and physiological analysis on the cells. Different breast cancer cell lines were cultured in the device and then monitored to characterize nutrient delivery to the cells as well as cell invasion and proliferation. In addition, the drug response of breast cancer cell lines cultured in the device was compared to the response in xenograft models to the same drugs to analyze relevance of this platform for use in future drug-response studies.

Keywords: Microfluidics, tumor microenvironment, multi-well 3d cell culture, tumor-on-a-chip

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14 A Dissipative Particle Dynamics Study of a Capsule in Microfluidic Intracellular Delivery System

Authors: Nishanthi N. S., Srikanth Vedantam

Abstract:

Intracellular delivery of materials has always proved to be a challenge in research and therapeutic applications. Usually, vector-based methods, such as liposomes and polymeric materials, and physical methods, such as electroporation and sonoporation have been used for introducing nucleic acids or proteins. Reliance on exogenous materials, toxicity, off-target effects was the short-comings of these methods. Microinjection was an alternative process which addressed the above drawbacks. However, its low throughput had hindered its adoption widely. Mechanical deformation of cells by squeezing them through constriction channel can cause the temporary development of pores that would facilitate non-targeted diffusion of materials. Advantages of this method include high efficiency in intracellular delivery, a wide choice of materials, improved viability and high throughput. This cell squeezing process can be studied deeper by employing simple models and efficient computational procedures. In our current work, we present a finite sized dissipative particle dynamics (FDPD) model to simulate the dynamics of the cell flowing through a constricted channel. The cell is modeled as a capsule with FDPD particles connected through a spring network to represent the membrane. The total energy of the capsule is associated with linear and radial springs in addition to constraint of the fixed area. By performing detailed simulations, we studied the strain on the membrane of the capsule for channels with varying constriction heights. The strain on the capsule membrane was found to be similar though the constriction heights vary. When strain on the membrane was correlated to the development of pores, we found higher porosity in capsule flowing in wider channel. This is due to localization of strain to a smaller region in the narrow constriction channel. But the residence time of the capsule increased as the channel constriction narrowed indicating that strain for an increased time will cause less cell viability.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Dissipative particle dynamics, Numerical Simulations, intracellular delivery, capsule, cell squeezing

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13 Microfluidic Fluid Shear Mechanotransduction Device Using Linear Optimization of Hydraulic Channels

Authors: Sanat K. Dash, Rama S. Verma, Sarit K. Das

Abstract:

A logarithmic microfluidic shear device was designed and fabricated for cellular mechanotransduction studies. The device contains four cell culture chambers in which flow was modulated to achieve a logarithmic increment. Resistance values were optimized to make the device compact. The network of resistances was developed according to a unique combination of series and parallel resistances as found via optimization. Simulation results done in Ansys 16.1 matched the analytical calculations and showed the shear stress distribution at different inlet flow rates. Fabrication of the device was carried out using conventional photolithography and PDMS soft lithography. Flow profile was validated taking DI water as working fluid and measuring the volume collected at all four outlets. Volumes collected at the outlets were in accordance with the simulation results at inlet flow rates ranging from 1 ml/min to 0.1 ml/min. The device can exert fluid shear stresses ranging four orders of magnitude on the culture chamber walls which will cover shear stress values from interstitial flow to blood flow. This will allow studying cell behavior in the long physiological range of shear stress in a single run reducing number of experiments.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Mechanotransduction, fluid shear stress, physiological shear

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12 Modelling and Simulating CO2 Electro-Reduction to Formic Acid Using Microfluidic Electrolytic Cells: The Influence of Bi-Sn Catalyst and 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Tetra-Fluoroborate Electrolyte on Cell Performance

Authors: Akan C. Offong, E. J. Anthony, Vasilije Manovic

Abstract:

A modified steady-state numerical model is developed for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to formic acid. The numerical model achieves a CD (current density) (~60 mA/cm2), FE-faradaic efficiency (~98%) and conversion (~80%) for CO2 electro-reduction to formic acid in a microfluidic cell. The model integrates charge and species transport, mass conservation, and momentum with electrochemistry. Specifically, the influences of Bi-Sn based nanoparticle catalyst (on the cathode surface) at different mole fractions and 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetra-fluoroborate ([EMIM][BF4]) electrolyte, on CD, FE and CO2 conversion to formic acid is studied. The reaction is carried out at a constant concentration of electrolyte (85% v/v., [EMIM][BF4]). Based on the mass transfer characteristics analysis (concentration contours), mole ratio 0.5:0.5 Bi-Sn catalyst displays the highest CO2 mole consumption in the cathode gas channel. After validating with experimental data (polarisation curves) from literature, extensive simulations reveal performance measure: CD, FE and CO2 conversion. Increasing the negative cathode potential increases the current densities for both formic acid and H2 formations. However, H2 formations are minimal as a result of insufficient hydrogen ions in the ionic liquid electrolyte. Moreover, the limited hydrogen ions have a negative effect on formic acid CD. As CO2 flow rate increases, CD, FE and CO2 conversion increases.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Modelling, Ionic Liquids, Carbon Dioxide, electro-chemical reduction

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11 Micropillar-Assisted Electric Field Enhancement for High-Efficiency Inactivation of Bacteria

Authors: Sanam Pudasaini, A. T. K. Perera, Ahmed Syed Shaheer Uddin, Sum Huan Ng, Chun Yang

Abstract:

Development of high-efficiency and environment friendly bacterial inactivation methods is of great importance for preventing waterborne diseases which are one of the leading causes of death in the world. Traditional bacterial inactivation methods (e.g., ultraviolet radiation and chlorination) have several limitations such as longer treatment time, formation of toxic byproducts, bacterial regrowth, etc. Recently, an electroporation-based inactivation method was introduced as a substitute. Here, an electroporation-based continuous flow microfluidic device equipped with an array of micropillars is developed, and the device achieved high bacterial inactivation performance ( > 99.9%) within a short exposure time ( < 1 s). More than 99.9% reduction of Escherichia coli bacteria was obtained for the flow rate of 1 mL/hr, and no regrowth of bacteria was observed. Images from scanning electron microscope confirmed the formation of electroporation-induced nano-pore within the cell membrane. Through numerical simulation, it has been shown that sufficiently large electric field strength (3 kV/cm), required for bacterial electroporation, were generated using PDMS micropillars for an applied voltage of 300 V. Further, in this method of inactivation, there is no involvement of chemicals and the formation of harmful by-products is also minimum.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Electroporation, inactivation, high-efficiency, micropillar

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10 Normally Closed Thermoplastic Microfluidic Valves with Microstructured Valve Seats: A Strategy to Avoid Permanently Bonded Valves during Channel Sealing

Authors: Kebin Li, Keith Morton, Matthew Shiu, Karine Turcotte, Luke Lukic, Teodor Veres

Abstract:

We present a normally closed thermoplastic microfluidic valve design that uses microstructured valve seats to locally prevent the membrane from bonding to the valve seat during microfluidic channel sealing. The microstructured valve seat reduces the adhesion force between the contact surfaces of the valve seat and the membrane locally, allowing valve open and close operations while simultaneously providing a permanent and robust bond elsewhere to cover and seal the microfluidic channel network. Dynamic valve operation including opening and closing times can be tuned by changing the valve seat diameter as well as the density of the microstructures on the valve seats. The influence of the microstructured valve seat on the general flow behavior through the microfluidic devices was also studied. A design window for the fabrication of valve structure is identified and discussed to minimize the fabrication complexity.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Microfabrication, Thermoplastic Elastomer, injection molding, hot-embossing, microvalves

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