Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

microfluidic chip Related Abstracts

4 Design, Development and Testing of Polymer-Glass Microfluidic Chips for Electrophoretic Analysis of Biological Sample

Authors: Yana Posmitnaya, Galina Rudnitskaya, Tatyana Lukashenko, Anton Bukatin, Anatoly Evstrapov

Abstract:

An important area of biological and medical research is the study of genetic mutations and polymorphisms that can alter gene function and cause inherited diseases and other diseases. The following methods to analyse DNA fragments are used: capillary electrophoresis and electrophoresis on microfluidic chip (MFC), mass spectrometry with electrophoresis on MFC, hybridization assay on microarray. Electrophoresis on MFC allows to analyse small volumes of samples with high speed and throughput. A soft lithography in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was chosen for operative fabrication of MFCs. A master-form from silicon and photoresist SU-8 2025 (MicroChem Corp.) was created for the formation of micro-sized structures in PDMS. A universal topology which combines T-injector and simple cross was selected for the electrophoretic separation of the sample. Glass K8 and PDMS Sylgard® 184 (Dow Corning Corp.) were used for fabrication of MFCs. Electroosmotic flow (EOF) plays an important role in the electrophoretic separation of the sample. Therefore, the estimate of the quantity of EOF and the ways of its regulation are of interest for the development of the new methods of the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules. The following methods of surface modification were chosen to change EOF: high-frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma treatment in oxygen and argon at low pressure (1 mbar); 1% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol; 3% aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188 (Sigma-Aldrich Corp.). The electroosmotic mobility was evaluated by the method of Huang X. et al., wherein the borate buffer was used. The influence of physical and chemical methods of treatment on the wetting properties of the PDMS surface was controlled by the sessile drop method. The most effective way of surface modification of MFCs, from the standpoint of obtaining the smallest value of the contact angle and the smallest value of the EOF, was the processing with aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188. This method of modification has been selected for the treatment of channels of MFCs, which are used for the separation of mixture of oligonucleotides fluorescently labeled with the length of chain with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nucleotides. Electrophoresis was performed on the device MFAS-01 (IAI RAS, Russia) at the separation voltage of 1500 V. 6% solution of polydimethylacrylamide with the addition of 7M carbamide was used as the separation medium. The separation time of components of the mixture was determined from electropherograms. The time for untreated MFC was ~275 s, and for the ones treated with solution of Kolliphor® P 188 – ~ 220 s. Research of physical-chemical methods of surface modification of MFCs allowed to choose the most effective way for reducing EOF – the modification with aqueous solution of Kolliphor® P 188. In this case, the separation time of the mixture of oligonucleotides decreased about 20%. The further optimization of method of modification of channels of MFCs will allow decreasing the separation time of sample and increasing the throughput of analysis.

Keywords: Modification, Electrophoresis, Nucleic Acid, polydimethylsiloxane, microfluidic chip, soft lithography

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3 Microfluidic Method for Measuring Blood Viscosity

Authors: Eunseop Yeom

Abstract:

Many cardiovascular diseases, such as thrombosis and atherosclerosis, can change biochemical molecules in plasma and red blood cell. These alterations lead to excessive increase of blood viscosity contributing to peripheral vascular diseases. In this study, a simple microfluidic-based method is used to measure blood viscosity. Microfluidic device is composed of two parallel side channels and a bridge channel. To estimate blood viscosity, blood samples and reference fluid are separately delivered into each inlet of two parallel side channels using pumps. An interfacial line between blood samples and reference fluid occurs by blocking the outlet of one side-channel. Since width for this interfacial line is determined by pressure ratio between blood and reference flows, blood viscosity can be estimated by measuring width for this interfacial line. This microfluidic-based method can be used for evaluating variations in the viscosity of animal models with cardiovascular diseases under flow conditions.

Keywords: Pressure, shear rate, microfluidic chip, blood viscosity

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2 Cellular Targeting to Dual Gaseous Microenvironments by Polydimethylsiloxane Microchip

Authors: Samineh Barmaki, Ville Jokinen, Esko Kankuri

Abstract:

We report a microfluidic chip that can be used to modify the gaseous microenvironment of a cell-culture in ambient atmospheric conditions. The aim of the study is to show the cellular response to nitric oxide (NO) under hypoxic (oxygen < 5%) condition. Simultaneously targeting to hypoxic and nitric oxide will provide an opportunity for NO‑based therapeutics. Studies on cellular responses to lowered oxygen concentration or to gaseous mediators are usually carried out under a specific macro environment, such as hypoxia chambers, or with specific NO donor molecules that may have additional toxic effects. In our study, the chip consists of a microfluidic layer and a cell culture well, separated by a thin gas permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The main design goal is to separate the gas oxygen scavenger and NO donor solutions, which are often toxic, from the cell media. Two different types of gas exchangers, titled 'pool' and 'meander' were tested. We find that the pool design allows us to reach a higher level of oxygen depletion than meander (24.32 ± 19.82 %vs -3.21 ± 8.81). Our microchip design can make the cells culture more simple and makes it easy to adapt existing cell culture protocols. Our first application is utilizing the chip to create hypoxic conditions on targeted areas of cell culture. In this study, oxygen scavenger sodium sulfite generates hypoxia and its effect on human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). The PDMS membrane was coated with fibronectin before initiating cell cultures, and the cells were grown for 48h on the chips before initiating the gas control experiments. The hypoxia experiments were performed by pumping of O₂-depleted H₂O into the microfluidic channel with a flow-rate of 0.5 ml/h. Image-iT® reagent as an oxygen level responser was mixed with HEK-293 cells. The fluorescent signal appears on cells stained with Image-iT® hypoxia reagent (after 6h of pumping oxygen-depleted H₂O through the microfluidic channel in pool area). The exposure to different levels of O₂ can be controlled by varying the thickness of the PDMS membrane. Recently, we improved the design of the microfluidic chip, which can control the microenvironment of two different gases at the same time. The hypoxic response was also improved from the new design of microchip. The cells were grown on the thin PDMS membrane for 30 hours, and with a flowrate of 0.1 ml/h; the oxygen scavenger was pumped into the microfluidic channel. We also show that by pumping sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a nitric oxide donor activated under light and can generate nitric oxide on top of PDMS membrane. We are aiming to show cellular microenvironment response of HEK-293 cells to both nitric oxide (by pumping SNP) and hypoxia (by pumping oxygen scavenger solution) in separated channels in one microfluidic chip.

Keywords: Microenvironment, snp, Nitric Oxide, hypoxia, microfluidic chip, sodium nitroprusside

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1 Mathematical Modeling of Avascular Tumor Growth and Invasion

Authors: Ben Nadler, Mohsen Akbari, Meitham Amereh

Abstract:

Cancer has been recognized as one of the most challenging problems in biology and medicine. Aggressive tumors are a lethal type of cancers characterized by high genomic instability, rapid progression, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Their behavior involves complicated molecular biology and consequential dynamics. Although tremendous effort has been devoted to developing therapeutic approaches, there is still a huge need for new insights into the dark aspects of tumors. As one of the key requirements in better understanding the complex behavior of tumors, mathematical modeling and continuum physics, in particular, play a pivotal role. Mathematical modeling can provide a quantitative prediction on biological processes and help interpret complicated physiological interactions in tumors microenvironment. The pathophysiology of aggressive tumors is strongly affected by the extracellular cues such as stresses produced by mechanical forces between the tumor and the host tissue. During the tumor progression, the growing mass displaces the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), and due to the level of tissue stiffness, stress accumulates inside the tumor. The produced stress can influence the tumor by breaking adherent junctions. During this process, the tumor stops the rapid proliferation and begins to remodel its shape to preserve the homeostatic equilibrium state. To reach this, the tumor, in turn, upregulates epithelial to mesenchymal transit-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs). These EMT-TFs are involved in various signaling cascades, which are often associated with tumor invasiveness and malignancy. In this work, we modeled the tumor as a growing hyperplastic mass and investigated the effects of mechanical stress from surrounding ECM on tumor invasion. The invasion is modeled as volume-preserving inelastic evolution. In this framework, principal balance laws are considered for tumor mass, linear momentum, and diffusion of nutrients. Also, mechanical interactions between the tumor and ECM is modeled using Ciarlet constitutive strain energy function, and dissipation inequality is utilized to model the volumetric growth rate. System parameters, such as rate of nutrient uptake and cell proliferation, are obtained experimentally. To validate the model, human Glioblastoma multiforme (hGBM) tumor spheroids were incorporated inside Matrigel/Alginate composite hydrogel and was injected into a microfluidic chip to mimic the tumor’s natural microenvironment. The invasion structure was analyzed by imaging the spheroid over time. Also, the expression of transcriptional factors involved in invasion was measured by immune-staining the tumor. The volumetric growth, stress distribution, and inelastic evolution of tumors were predicted by the model. Results showed that the level of invasion is in direct correlation with the level of predicted stress within the tumor. Moreover, the invasion length measured by fluorescent imaging was shown to be related to the inelastic evolution of tumors obtained by the model.

Keywords: Cancer, Mathematical Modeling, microfluidic chip, invasion, tumor spheroids

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