Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

microfiltration Related Abstracts

5 Microfiltration of the Sugar Refinery Wastewater Using Ceramic Membrane with Kenics Static Mixer

Authors: Zita Seres, Nikola Maravić, Ljubica Dokić, Ivana Nikolić, Biljana Pajin, Cecilia Hodur, Dragana Šoronja Simović


New environmental regulations and the increasing market preference for companies that respect the ecosystem had encouraged the industry to look after new treatments for its effluents. The sugar industry, one of the largest emitter of environmental pollutants, follows this tendency. Membrane technology is convenient for separation of suspended solids, colloids and high molecular weight materials that are present in a wastewater from the sugar industry. The idea is to microfilter the wastewater, where the permeate passes through the membrane and becomes available for recycle and re-use in the sugar manufacturing process. For microfiltration of this effluent a tubular ceramic membrane was used with a pore size of 200 nm at transmembrane pressure in range of 1 – 3 bars and in range of flow rate of 50 – 150 l/h. Kenics static mixer was used for permeate flux enhancement. Turbidity and suspended solids were removed and the permeate flux was continuously monitored during the microfiltration process. The flux achieved after 90 minutes of microfiltration was in a range of 50-70 L/m2h. The obtained turbidity decrease was in the range of 50-99% and the total amount of suspended solids was removed.

Keywords: wastewater, microfiltration, ceramic membrane, permeate flux, sugar industry

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4 Effect of Microfiltration on the Composition and Ripening of Iranian Fetta Cheese

Authors: M. Dezyani, H. Mirzaei, M. Shakerian, R. Ezzati belvirdi


The effect of Microfiltration (MF) on proteolysis, hardness, and flavor of Feta cheese during 6 mo of aging was determined. Raw skim milk was microfiltered two-fold in two cheese making trials. In trial 1, four vats of cheese were made in 1 d using unconcentrated milk (1X), 1.26X, 1.51X, and 1.82X Concentration Factors (CF). Casein-(CN)-to-fat ratio was constant among treatments. Proteolysis during cheese aging decreased with increasing CF due to either limitation of substrate availability for chymosin due to low moisture in the nonfat substance (MNFS), inhibition of chymosin activity by high molecular weight milk serum proteins, such as α2-macroglobulin, retained in the cheese or low residual chymosin in the cheese. Hardness of fresh cheese increased, and cheese flavor intensity decreased with increasing CF. In trial 2, the 1X and 1.8X CF were compared directly. Changes made in the cheese making procedure for the 1.8X CF (more chymosin and less cooking) increased the MNFS and made proteolysis during aging more comparable for the 1X and 1.8X cheeses. The significant difference in cheese hardness due to CF in trial 1 was eliminated in trial 2. In a triangle test, panelists could not differentiate between the 1X and 1.8X cheeses. Therefore, increasing chymosin and making the composition of the two cheeses more similar allowed production of aged Fetta cheese from milk concentrated up to 1.8X by MF that was not perceived as different from aged feta cheese produced without MF.

Keywords: microfiltration, proteolysis, feta cheese, concentration factor

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3 Edible Oil Industry Wastewater Treatment by Microfiltration with Ceramic Membrane

Authors: Zita Seres, Nikola Maravić, Ljubica Dokić, Biljana Pajin, Cecilia Hodur, Dragana Šoronja Simović, Lidietta Giorno


Membrane technology is convenient for separation of suspended solids, colloids and high molecular weight materials that are present. The idea is that the waste stream from edible oil industry, after the separation of oil by using skimmers is subjected to microfiltration and the obtained permeate can be used again in the production process. The wastewater from edible oil industry was used for the microfiltration. For the microfiltration of this effluent a tubular membrane was used with a pore size of 200 nm at transmembrane pressure in range up to 3 bar and in range of flow rate up to 300 L/h. Box–Behnken design was selected for the experimental work and the responses considered were permeate flux and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction. The reduction of the permeate COD was in the range 40-60% according to the feed. The highest permeate flux achieved during the process of microfiltration was 160 L/m2h.

Keywords: wastewater, microfiltration, ceramic membrane, edible oil

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2 The Effect of Ultrasound on Permeation Flux and Changes in Blocking Mechanisms during Dead-End Microfiltration of Carrot Juice

Authors: A. Hemmati, H. Mirsaeedghazi, M. Aboonajmi


Carrot juice is one of the most nutritious foods that are consumed around the world. Large particles in carrot juice causing turbid appearance make some problems in the concentration process such as off-flavor due to the large particles burnt on the walls of evaporators. Microfiltration (MF) is a pressure driven membrane separation method that can clarify fruit juices without enzymatic treatment. Fouling is the main problem in the membrane process causing reduction of permeate flux. Ultrasound as a cleaning technique was applied at 20 kHz to reduce fouling in membrane clarification of carrot juice using dead-end MF system with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Results showed that application of ultrasound waves reduce diphasic characteristic of carrot juice and permeate flux increased. Evaluation of different membrane fouling mechanisms showed that application of ultrasound waves changed creation time of each fouling mechanism. Also, its behavior was changed with varying transmembrane pressure.

Keywords: Ultrasound, microfiltration, Carrot juice, Dead end

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1 Reduction of Specific Energy Consumption in Microfiltration of Bacillus velezensis Broth by Air Sparging and Turbulence Promoter

Authors: Ivana Pajčin, Jovana Grahovac, Natasa Lukic, Jelena Dodic, Aleksandar Jokic


To obtain purified biomass to be used in the plant pathogen biocontrol or as soil biofertilizer, it is necessary to eliminate residual broth components at the end of the fermentation process. The main drawback of membrane separation techniques is permeate flux decline due to the membrane fouling. Fouling mitigation measures increase the pressure drop along membrane channel due to the increased resistance to flow of the feed suspension, thus increasing the hydraulic power drop. At the same time, these measures lead to an increase in the permeate flux due to the reduced resistance of the filtration cake on the membrane surface. Because of these opposing effects, the energy efficiency of fouling mitigation measures is limited, and the justification of its application is provided by information on a reducing specific energy consumption compared to a case without any measures employed. In this study, the influence of static mixer (Kenics) and air-sparging (two-phase flow) on reduction of specific energy consumption (ER) was investigated. Cultivation Bacillus velezensis was carried out in the 3-L bioreactor (Biostat® Aplus) containing 2 L working volume with two parallel Rushton turbines and without internal baffles. Cultivation was carried out at 28 °C on at 150 rpm with an aeration rate of 0.75 vvm during 96 h. The experiments were carried out in a conventional cross-flow microfiltration unit. During experiments, permeate and retentate were recycled back to the broth vessel to simulate continuous process. The single channel ceramic membrane (TAMI Deutschland) used had a nominal pore size 200 nm with the length of 250 mm and an inner/external diameter of 6/10 mm. The useful membrane channel surface was 4.33×10⁻³ m². Air sparging was brought by the pressurized air connected by a three-way valve to the feed tube by a simple T-connector without diffusor. The different approaches to flux improvement are compared in terms of energy consumption. Reduction of specific energy consumption compared to microfiltration without fouling mitigation is around 49% and 63%, for use of two-phase flow and a static mixer, respectively. In the case of a combination of these two fouling mitigation methods, ER is 60%, i.e., slightly lower compared to the use of turbulence promoter alone. The reason for this result can be found in the fact that flux increase is more affected by the presence of a Kenics static mixer while sparging results in an increase of energy used during microfiltration. By comparing combined method with turbulence promoter flux enhancement method ER is negative (-7%) which can be explained by increased power consumption for air flow with moderate contribution to the flux increase. Another confirmation for this fact can be found by comparing energy consumption values for combined method with energy consumption in the case of two-phase flow. In this instance energy reduction (ER) is 22% that demonstrates that turbulence promoter is more efficient compared to two phase flow. Antimicrobial activity of Bacillus velezensis biomass against phytopathogenic isolates Xanthomonas campestris was preserved under different fouling reduction methods.

Keywords: microfiltration, two-phase flow, static mixer, Bacillus velezensis

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