Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

microencapsulation Related Abstracts

15 Plackett-Burman Design for Microencapsulation of Blueberry Bioactive Compounds

Authors: Feyza Tatar, Alime Cengiz, Dilara Sandikçi, Muhammed Dervisoglu, Talip Kahyaoglu


Blueberries are known for their bioactive properties such as high anthocyanin contents, antioxidant activities and potential health benefits. However, anthocyanins are sensitive to environmental conditions during processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spray drying conditions on the blueberry microcapsules by Plackett-Burman experimental design. Inlet air temperature (120 and 180°C), feed pump rate (20% and 40%), DE of maltodextrin (6 and 15 DE), coating concentration (10% and 30%) and source of blueberry (Duke and Darrow) were independent variables, tested at high (+1) and low (-1) levels. Encapsulation efficiency (based on total phenol) of blueberry microcapsules was the dependent variable. In addition, anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility, water activity and bulk density were measured for blueberry powders. The antioxidant activity of blueberry powders ranged from 72 to 265 mmol Trolox/g and anthocyanin content was changed from 528 to 5500 mg GAE/100g. Encapsulation efficiency was significantly affected (p<0.05) by inlet air temperature and coating concentration. Encapsulation efficiency increased with increasing inlet air temperature and decreasing coating concentration. The highest encapsulation efficiency could be produced by spray drying at 180°C inlet air temperature, 40% pump rate, 6 DE of maltodextrin, 13% maltodextrin concentration and source of duke blueberry.

Keywords: spray drying, blueberry, microencapsulation, Plackett-Burman design

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14 Development of Thermo-Regulating Fabric Using Microcapsules of Phase Change Material

Authors: D. Benmoussa, H. Hannache, O. Cherkaoui


In textiles, the major interest in microencapsulation is currently in the application of durable fragrances, skin softeners, phase-change materials, antimicrobial agents and drug delivery systems onto textile materials. In our research “Polyethylene Glycol” was applied as phase change material and it was encapsulated in polymethacrylic acid (PMA) by radical polymerization in suspension of methacrylic acid in presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAM) as crosslinking agent. Thereafter the obtained microcapsule was modified by amidation with ethylenediamine as a spacer molecule. At the end of this spacer trichlorotriazine reactive group was fixed. Microcapsules were grafted onto cotton textile substrate. The surface morphologies of the microencapsulated phase change materials (micro PCMs) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal properties, thermal reliabilities and thermal stabilities of the as-prepared micro PCMs were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravmetric analysis (TGA). The results obtained show the obtaining microcapsules with a mean diameter of 10 µm and the resistance of the microcapsules is demonstrated by thermal analysis.

Keywords: energy storage, microencapsulation, phase-change materials, thermogravmetric analysis (TGA)

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13 Encapsulation of Venlafaxine-Dowex® Resinate: A Once Daily Multiple Unit Formulation

Authors: Salwa Mohamed Salah Eldin, Howida Kamal Ibrahim


Introduction: Major depressive disorder affects high proportion of the world’s population presenting cost load in health care. Extended release venlafaxine is more convenient and could reduce discontinuation syndrome. The once daily dosing also reduces the potential for adverse events such as nausea due to reduced Cmax. Venlafaxine is an effective first-line agent in the treatment of depression. A once daily formulation was designed to enhance patient compliance. Complexing with a resin was suggested to improve loading of the water soluble drug. The formulated systems were thoroughly evaluated in vitro to prove superiority to previous trials and were compared to the commercial extended release product in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Venlafaxine-resinates were prepared using Dowex®50WX4-400 and Dowex®50WX8-100 at drug to resin weight ratio of 1: 1. The prepared resinates were evaluated for their drug content, particle shape and surface properties and in vitro release profile in gradient pH. The release kinetics and mechanism were evaluated. Venlafaxine-Dowex® resinates were encapsulated using O/W solvent evaporation technique. Poly-ε-caprolactone, Poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) ester, Poly(D, L-lactide) ester and Eudragit®RS100 were used as coating polymers alone and in combination. Drug-resinate microcapsules were evaluated for morphology, entrapment efficiency and in-vitro release profile. The selected formula was tested in rabbits using a randomized, single-dose, 2-way crossover study against Effexor-XR tablets under fasting condition. Results and Discussion: The equilibrium time was 30 min for Dowex®50WX4-400 and 90 min for Dowex®50WX8-100. The percentage drug loaded was 93.96 and 83.56% for both resins, respectively. Both drug-Dowex® resintes were efficient in sustaining venlafaxine release in comparison to the free drug (up to 8h.). Dowex®50WX4-400 based venlafaxine-resinate was selected for further encapsulation to optimize the release profile for once daily dosing and to lower the burst effect. The selected formula (coated with a mixture of Eudragit RS and PLGA in a ratio of 50/50) was chosen by applying a group of mathematical equations according to targeted values. It recorded the minimum burst effect, the maximum MDT (Mean dissolution time) and a Q24h (percentage drug released after 24 hours) between 95 and 100%. The 90% confidence intervals for the test/reference mean ratio of the log-transformed data of AUC0–24 and AUC0−∞ are within (0.8–1.25), which satisfies the bioequivalence criteria. Conclusion: The optimized formula could be a promising extended release form of the water soluble, short half lived venlafaxine. Being a multiple unit formulation, it lowers the probability of dose dumping and reduces the inter-subject variability in absorption.

Keywords: Biodegradable Polymers, microencapsulation, venlafaxine HCl, cation-exchange resin

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12 Effect of Different Parameters in the Preparation of Antidiabetic Microparticules by Coacervation

Authors: Nawel Ouennoughi, Kamel Daoud


During recent years, new pharmaceutical dosage forms were developed in the research laboratories and which consists of encapsulating one or more active molecules in a polymeric envelope. Several techniques of encapsulation allow obtaining the microparticles or the nanoparticles containing one or several polymers. In the industry, microencapsulation is implemented to fill the following objectives: to ensure protection, the compatibility and the stabilization of an active matter in a formulation, to carry out an adapted working, to improve the presentation of a product, to mask a taste or an odor, to modify and control the profile of release of an active matter to obtain, for example, prolonged or started effect. To this end, we focus ourselves on the encapsulation of the antidiabetic. It is an oral hypoglycemic agent belonging to the second generation of sulfonylurea’s commonly employed in the treatment of type II non-insulin-dependent diabetes in order to improve profile them dissolution. Our choice was made on the technique of encapsulation by complex coacervation with two types of polymers (gelatin and the gum Arabic) which is a physicochemical process. Several parameters were studied at the time of the formulation of the microparticles and the nanoparticles: temperature, pH, ratio of polymers etc. The microparticles and the nanoparticles obtained were characterized by microscopy, laser granulometry, FTIR and UV-visible spectrophotometry. The profile of dissolution obtained for the microparticles showed an improvement of the kinetics of dissolution compared to that obtained for the active ingredient.

Keywords: Gelatin, microencapsulation, gum arabic, coacervation

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11 Polyphenol Stability and Antioxidant Properties of Freeze-Dried Sour Cherry Encapsulates

Authors: Gordana Ćetković, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Sonja Đilas, Slađana Stajčić, Jelena Vulić, Mirjana Jakišić


Despite the recommended amount of daily intake of fruits, the consumption in modern age remains very low. Therefore there is a need for delivering valuable phytochemicals into the human body through different foods by developing functional food products fortified with natural bioactive compounds from plant sources. Recently, a growing interest rises in exploiting the fruit and vegetable by-products as sources of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins etc. Cherry contain high amounts of polyphenols, which are known to display a wide range of biological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial or anti-carcinogenic activities, improvement of vision, induction of apoptosis and neuroprotective effects. Also, cherry pomace, a by-product in juice processing, can also be promising source of phenolic compounds. However, the application of polyphenols as food additives is limited because after extraction these compounds are susceptible to degradation. Microencapsulation is one of the alternative approaches to protect bioactive compounds from degradation during processing and storage. Freeze-drying is one of the most used microencapsulation methods for the protection of thermosensitive and unstable molecules. In this study sour cherry pomace was extracted with food-grade solvent (50% ethanol) to be suitable for application in products for human use. Extracted polyphenols have been concentrated and stabilized on whey (WP) and soy (SP) proteins. Encapsulation efficiency in SP was higher (94.90%), however not significantly (p<0.05) from the one in WP (90.10%). Storage properties of WP and SP encapsulate in terms of total polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity was tested for 6 weeks. It was found that the retention of polyphenols after 6 weeks in WP and SP (67.33 and 69.30%, respectively) was similar. The content of anthocyanins has increased in WP (for 47.97%), while their content in SP has very slightly decreased (for 1.45%) after 6-week storage period. In accordance with anthocyanins the decrease in antioxidant activity in WP (87.78%) was higher than in SP (43.02%). According to the results obtained in this study, the technique reported herewith can be used for obtaining quality encapsulates for their further use as functional food additives, and, on the other hand, for fruit waste valorization.

Keywords: Storage, polyphenols, microencapsulation, cherry pomace

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10 Physical Characteristics of Cookies Enriched with Microencapsulated Cherry Pomace Extract

Authors: Jovana Petrović, Ivana Lončarević, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Biljana Pajin, Danica Zarić


Pomace, a by-product from fruit processing industry is the potential source of valuable bioactive. Cookies are popular, ready to eat and low price foods; therefore, enrichment of these products is of great importance. In this work, bioactive compounds extracted from cherry pomace, encapsulated in soy and whey proteins, have been incorporated in cookies, replacing 10 (SP10 and WP10) and 15% of wheat flour (SP15 and WP15). Cookie geometry (diameter (D), thickness (T) and spread ratio (D/T)), cookie weight, cookie hardness and cookie surface colour were measured. Sensory characteristics are also examined. The results show that encapsulated cherry pomace bioactives have positively influenced the cookie mass. Diameter, redness (a* value) and cookie hardness increased. Sensory evaluation of cookies, revealed that up to 15% substitution of wheat flour with WP encapsulate produced acceptable cookies similar to the control (100% wheat flour) cookies.

Keywords: polyphenols, microencapsulation, cookies, physical characteristics, cherry pomace

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9 Effects of Centrifugation, Encapsulation Method and Different Coating Materials on the Total Antioxidant Activity of the Microcapsules of Powdered Cherry Laurels

Authors: B. Cilek Tatar, G. Sumnu, M. Oztop, E. Ayaz


Encapsulation protects sensitive food ingredients against heat, oxygen, moisture and pH until they are released to the system. It can mask the unwanted taste of nutrients that are added to the foods for fortification purposes. Cherry laurels (Prunus laurocerasus) contain phenolic compounds which decrease the proneness to several chronic diseases such as types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this research was to study the effects of centrifugation, different coating materials and homogenization methods on microencapsulation of powders obtained from cherry laurels. In this study, maltodextrin and mixture of maltodextrin:whey protein with a ratio of 1:3 (w/w) were chosen as coating materials. Total solid content of coating materials was kept constant as 10% (w/w). Capsules were obtained from powders of freeze-dried cherry laurels through encapsulation process by silent crusher homogenizer or microfluidization. Freeze-dried cherry laurels were core materials and core to coating ratio was chosen as 1:10 by weight. To homogenize the mixture, high speed homogenizer was used at 4000 rpm for 5 min. Then, silent crusher or microfluidizer was used to complete encapsulation process. The mixtures were treated either by silent crusher for 1 min at 75000 rpm or microfluidizer at 50 MPa for 3 passes. Freeze drying for 48 hours was applied to emulsions to obtain capsules in powder form. After these steps, dry capsules were grounded manually into a fine powder. The microcapsules were analyzed for total antioxidant activity with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging method. Prior to high speed homogenization, the samples were centrifuged (4000 rpm, 1 min). Centrifugation was found to have positive effect on total antioxidant activity of capsules. Microcapsules treated by microfluidizer were found to have higher total antioxidant activities than those treated by silent crusher. It was found that increasing whey protein concentration in coating material (using maltodextrin:whey protein 1:3 mixture) had positive effect on total antioxidant activity for both silent crusher and microfluidization methods. Therefore, capsules prepared by microfluidization of centrifuged mixtures can be selected as the best conditions for encapsulation of cherry laurel powder by considering their total antioxidant activity. In this study, it was shown that capsules prepared by these methods can be recommended to be incorporated into foods in order to enhance their functionality by increasing antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, microencapsulation, cherry laurel, microfluidization

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8 Microencapsulation for Enhancing the Survival of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus during Spray Drying of Sweetened Yoghurt

Authors: Dibyakanta Seth, Hari Niwas Mishra, Sankar Chandra Deka


Microencapsulation is an established method of protecting bacteria from the adverse conditions. An improved extrusion spraying technique was used to encapsulate mixed bacteria culture of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus using sodium alginate as the coating material. The effect of nozzle air pressure (200, 300, 400 and 500 kPa), sodium alginate concentration (1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3% w/v), different concentration of calcium chloride (0.1, 0.2, 1 M) and initial cell loads (10⁷, 10⁸, 10⁹ cfu/ml) on the viability of encapsulated bacteria were investigated. With the increase in air pressure the size of microcapsules decreased, however the effect was non-significant. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the viability of encapsulated cells when the concentration of calcium chloride was increased. Increased level of sodium alginate significantly increased the survival ratio of encapsulated bacteria (P < 0.01). Encapsulation with 3% alginate was treated as optimum since a higher concentration of alginate increased the gel strength of the solution and thus was difficult to spray. Under optimal conditions 3% alginate, 10⁹ cfu/ml cell load, 20 min hardening time in 0.1 M CaCl2 and 400 kPa nozzle air pressure, the viability of bacteria cells was maximum compared to the free cells. The microcapsules made at the optimal condition when mixed with yoghurt and subjected to spray drying at 148°C, the survival ratio was 2.48×10⁻¹ for S. thermophilus and 7.26×10⁻¹ for L. bulgaricus. In contrast, the survival ratio of free cells of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus were 2.36×10⁻³ and 8.27×10⁻³, respectively. This study showed a decline in viable cells count of about 0.5 log over a period of 7 weeks while there was a decline of about 1 log in cultures which were incorporated as free cells in yoghurt. Microencapsulation provided better protection at higher acidity compared to free cells. This study demonstrated that microencapsulation of yoghurt culture in sodium alginate is an effective technique of protection against extreme drying conditions.

Keywords: spray drying, microencapsulation, extrusion, sweetened yoghurt

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7 A Review on Application of Phase Change Materials in Textiles Finishing

Authors: Mazyar Ahrari, Ramin Khajavi, Mehdi Kamali Dolatabadi, Tayebeh Toliyat, Abosaeed Rashidi


Fabric as the first and most common layer that is in permanent contact with human skin is a very good interface to provide coverage, as well as heat and cold insulation. Phase change materials (PCMs) are organic and inorganic compounds which have the capability of absorbing and releasing noticeable amounts of latent heat during phase transitions between solid and liquid phases at a low temperature range. PCMs come across phase changes (liquid-solid and solid-liquid transitions) during absorbing and releasing thermal heat; so, in order to use them for a long time, they should have been encapsulated in polymeric shells, so-called microcapsules. Microencapsulation and nanoencapsulation methods have been developed in order to reduce the reactivity of a PCM with outside environment, promoting the ease of handling, decreasing the diffusion and evaporation rates. Methods of incorporation of PCMs in textiles such as electrospinning and determining thermal properties had been summarized. Paraffin waxes catch a lot of attention due to their high thermal storage density, repeatability of phase change, thermal stability, small volume change during phase transition, chemical stability, non-toxicity, non-flammability, non-corrosive and low cost and they seem to play a key role in confronting with climate change and global warming. In this article, we aimed to review the researches concentrating on the characteristics of PCMs and new materials and methods of microencapsulation.

Keywords: Thermal Energy Storage, Phase Change Materials, thermoregulation, microencapsulation, nanoencapsulation

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6 The Combination of Porcine Plasma Protein and Maltodextrin as Wall Materials on Microencapsulated Turmeric Oil Powder Quality

Authors: Namfon Samsalee, Rungsinee Sothornvit


Turmeric is a natural plant herb and generally extracted as essential oil and widely used in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical products including insect repellent. However, turmeric oil is a volatile essential oil which is easy to be lost during storage or exposure to light. Therefore, biopolymers such as protein and polysaccharide can be used as wall materials to encapsulate the essential oil which will solve this drawback. Approximately 60% plasma from porcine blood contains 6-7% of protein content mainly albumin and globulin which can be a good source of animal protein at the low-cost biopolymer from by-product. Microencapsulation is a useful technique to entrap volatile compounds in the biopolymer matrix and protect them to degrade. The objective of this research was to investigate the different ratios of two biopolymers (PPP and maltodextrin; MD) as wall materials at 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 at a fixed ratio of wall material: core material (turmeric oil) at 3:1 (oil in water) on the qualities of microencapsulated powder using freeze drying. It was found that the combination of PPP and MD showed higher solubility of microencapsules compared to the use of PPP alone (P < 0.05). Moreover, the different ratios of wall materials also affected on color (L*, a* and b*) of microencapsulated powder. Morphology of microencapsulated powder using a scanning electron microscope showed holes on the surface reflecting on free oil content and encapsulation efficiency of microencapsules. At least 50% of MD was needed to increase encapsulation efficiency of microencapsulates rather than using only PPP as the wall material (P < 0.05). Microencapsulated turmeric oil powder can be useful as food additives to improve food texture, as a biopolymer material for edible film and coating to maintain quality of food products.

Keywords: microencapsulation, maltodextrin, turmeric oil, porcine plasma protein

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5 Improvement of Oxidative Stability of Edible Oil by Microencapsulation Using Plant Proteins

Authors: L. Le Priol, A. Nesterenko, K. El Kirat, K. Saleh


Introduction and objectives: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) omega-3 and omega-6 are widely recognized as being beneficial to the health and normal growth. Unfortunately, due to their highly unsaturated nature, these molecules are sensitive to oxidation and thermic degradation leading to the production of toxic compounds and unpleasant flavors and smells. Hence, it is necessary to find out a suitable way to protect them. Microencapsulation by spray-drying is a low-cost encapsulation technology and most commonly used in the food industry. Many compounds can be used as wall materials, but there is a growing interest in the use of biopolymers, such as proteins and polysaccharides, over the last years. The objective of this study is to increase the oxidative stability of sunflower oil by microencapsulation in plant protein matrices using spray-drying technique. Material and methods: Sunflower oil was used as a model substance for oxidable food oils. Proteins from brown rice, hemp, pea, soy and sunflower seeds were used as emulsifiers and microencapsulation wall materials. First, the proteins were solubilized in distilled water. Then, the emulsions were pre-homogenized using a high-speed homogenizer (Ultra-Turrax) and stabilized by using a high-pressure homogenizer (HHP). Drying of the emulsion was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer. The oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil was determined by performing accelerated oxidation tests with a Rancimat. The size of the microparticles was measured using a laser diffraction analyzer. The morphology of the spray-dried microparticles was acquired using environmental scanning microscopy. Results: Pure sunflower oil was used as a reference material. Its induction time was 9.5 ± 0.1 h. The microencapsulation of sunflower oil in pea and soy protein matrices significantly improved its oxidative stability with induction times of 21.3 ± 0.4 h and 12.5 ± 0.4 h respectively. The encapsulation with hemp proteins did not significantly change the oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil. Sunflower and brown rice proteins were ineffective materials for this application, with induction times of 7.2 ± 0.2 h and 7.0 ± 0.1 h respectively. The volume mean diameter of the microparticles formulated with soy and pea proteins were 8.9 ± 0.1 µm and 16.3 ± 1.2 µm respectively. The values for hemp, sunflower and brown rice proteins could not be obtained due to the agglomeration of the microparticles. ESEM images showed smooth and round microparticles with soy and pea proteins. The surfaces of the microparticles obtained with sunflower and hemp proteins were porous. The surface was rough when brown rice proteins were used as the encapsulating agent. Conclusion: Soy and pea proteins appeared to be efficient wall materials for the microencapsulation of sunflower oil by spray drying. These results were partly explained by the higher solubility of soy and pea proteins in water compared to hemp, sunflower, and brown rice proteins. Acknowledgment: This work has been performed, in partnership with the SAS PIVERT, within the frame of the French Institute for the Energy Transition (Institut pour la Transition Energétique (ITE)) P.I.V.E.R.T. ( selected as an Investments for the Future (Investissements d’Avenir). This work was supported, as part of the Investments for the Future, by the French Government under the reference ANR-001-01.

Keywords: release, biopolymer, microencapsulation, oxidative stability, edible oil, spray-drying

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4 Preparation and Characterization of Maltodextrin Microcapsules Containing Walnut Green Husk Extract

Authors: Fatemeh Cheraghali, Saeedeh Shojaee-Aliabadi, Seyede Marzieh Hosseini, Leila Mirmoghtadaie


In recent years, the field of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds is one of the main research topics in the food industry. Application of agricultural residues is mainly cheap, and available resources are receiving increased attention. Walnut green husk is one of the agricultural residues that is considered as natural compounds with biological properties because of phenolic compounds. In this study, maltodextrin 10% was used for microencapsulation of walnut green husk extract. At first, the extract was examined to consider extraction yield, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activation. The results showed the extraction yield of 81.43%, total phenolic compounds of 3997 [mg GAE/100 g], antioxidant activity [DPPH] of 84.85% for walnut green husk extract. Antioxidant activity is about 75%-81% and by DPPH. At the next stage, microencapsulation was done by spry-drying method. The microencapsulation efficiency was 72%-79%. The results of SEM tests confirmed this microencapsulation process. In addition, microencapsulated and free extract was more effective on gram-positive bacteria’s rather than the gram-negative ones. According to the study, walnut green husk can be used as a cheap antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds due to sufficient value of phenolic compounds.

Keywords: biopolymer, microencapsulation, spray-drying, walnut green husk

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3 Synthesis and Characterization of Capric-Stearic Acid/ Graphene Oxide-TiO₂ Microcapsules for Solar Energy Storage and Photocatalytic Efficiency

Authors: Ghada Ben Hamad, Zohir Younsi, Hassane Naji, Noureddine Lebaz, Naoual Belouaggadia


This study deals with a bifunctional micro-encapsulated phase change (MCP) material, capric-stearic acid/graphene oxide-TiO2, which has been successfully developed by in situ hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetrabutyl titanate and modification of graphene oxide (GO) on the TiO2 doped shell. The use of graphene and doped TiO2 is a promising approach to provide photocatalytic activity under visible light and improve the microcapsules physicochemical properties. The morphology and chemical structure of the resulting microcapsule samples were determined by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) methods. The ultraviolet, visible spectrophotometer (UV–vis), the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) were used to investigate the absorption of visible and ultraviolet (UV), the thermal properties, and thermal stabilities of the microcapsules. Note that, the visible light photocatalytic activity was assessed for the toluene and benzene gaseous removal in a suitable test room. The microcapsules exhibit an interesting spherical morphology and an average diameter of 15 to 25 μm. The addition of graphene can enhance the rigidity of the shell and improve the microcapsules thermal reliability. At the same time, the thermal analysis tests showed that the synthesized microcapsules had a high solar thermal energy-storage and better thermal stability. In addition, the capric-stearic acid microcapsules exhibited high solar photocatalytic activity with respect to atmospheric pollutants under natural sunlight. The fatty acid samples obtained with the GO/TiO2 shell showed great potential for applications of solar energy storage, solar photocatalytic degradation of air pollutants and buildings energy conservation.

Keywords: photocatalysis, Graphene Oxide, Thermal Energy Storage, titanium dioxide, microencapsulation

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2 Kaolinite-Assisted Microencapsulation of Octodecane for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Ting Pan, Jiacheng Wang, Pengcheng Lin, Ying Chen, Songping Mo


Phase change materials (PCMs) are widely used in latent heat thermal energy storage because of their good properties such as high energy storage density and constant heat-storage/release temperature. Microencapsulation techniques can prevent PCMs from leaking during the liquid-solid phase transition and enhance thermal properties. This technique has been widely applied in architectural materials, thermo-regulated textiles, aerospace fields, etc. One of the most important processes during the synthesis of microcapsules is to form a stable emulsion of the PCM core and reactant solution for the formation of the shell of the microcapsules. The use of surfactants is usually necessary for the formation of a stable emulsion system because of the difference in hydrophilia/lipophilicity of the PCM and the solvent. Unfortunately, the use of surfactants may cause pollution to the environment. In this study, modified kaolinite was used as an emulsion stabilizer for the microencapsulation of octodecane as PCM. Microcapsules were synthesized by phase inversion emulsification method, and the shell of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was formed through free radical polymerization. The morphologies, crystalloid phase, and crystallization properties of microcapsules were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TG). The FT-IR, XRD results showed that the octodecane was well encapsulated in the PMMA shell. The SEM results showed that the microcapsules were spheres with an average size of about 50-100nm. The DSC results indicated that the latent heat of the microcapsules was 152.64kJ/kg and 164.23kJ/kg. The TG results confirmed that the microcapsules had good thermal stability due to the PMMA shell. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the modified kaolinite can be used as an emulsifier for the synthesis of PCM microcapsules, which is valid for reducing part of the possible pollution caused by the utilization of surfactants.

Keywords: Thermal Energy Storage, kaolinite, PCM, microencapsulation

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1 Multi-Objective Optimization (Pareto Sets) and Multi-Response Optimization (Desirability Function) of Microencapsulation of Emamectin

Authors: Victoria Molina, Wendy Franco, Sergio Benavides, José M. Troncoso, Ricardo Luna, Jose R. PéRez-Correa


Emamectin Benzoate (EB) is a crystal antiparasitic that belongs to the avermectin family. It is one of the most common treatments used in Chile to control Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon. However, the sea lice acquired resistance to EB when it is exposed at sublethal EB doses. The low solubility rate of EB and its degradation at the acidic pH in the fish digestive tract are the causes of the slow absorption of EB in the intestine. To protect EB from degradation and enhance its absorption, specific microencapsulation technologies must be developed. Amorphous Solid Dispersion techniques such as Spray Drying (SD) and Ionic Gelation (IG) seem adequate for this purpose. Recently, Soluplus® (SOL) has been used to increase the solubility rate of several drugs with similar characteristics than EB. In addition, alginate (ALG) is a widely used polymer in IG for biomedical applications. Regardless of the encapsulation technique, the quality of the obtained microparticles is evaluated with the following responses, yield (Y%), encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and loading capacity (LC%). In addition, it is important to know the percentage of EB released from the microparticles in gastric (GD%) and intestinal (ID%) digestions. In this work, we microencapsulated EB with SOL (EB-SD) and with ALG (EB-IG) using SD and IG, respectively. Quality microencapsulation responses and in vitro gastric and intestinal digestions at pH 3.35 and 7.8, respectively, were obtained. A central composite design was used to find the optimum microencapsulation variables (amount of EB, amount of polymer and feed flow). In each formulation, the behavior of these variables was predicted with statistical models. Then, the response surface methodology was used to find the best combination of the factors that allowed a lower EB release in gastric conditions, while permitting a major release at intestinal digestion. Two approaches were used to determine this. The desirability approach (DA) and multi-objective optimization (MOO) with multi-criteria decision making (MCDM). Both microencapsulation techniques allowed to maintain the integrity of EB in acid pH, given the small amount of EB released in gastric medium, while EB-IG microparticles showed greater EB release at intestinal digestion. For EB-SD, optimal conditions obtained with MOO plus MCDM yielded a good compromise among the microencapsulation responses. In addition, using these conditions, it is possible to reduce microparticles costs due to the reduction of 60% of BE regard the optimal BE proposed by (DA). For EB-GI, the optimization techniques used (DA and MOO) yielded solutions with different advantages and limitations. Applying DA costs can be reduced 21%, while Y, GD and ID showed 9.5%, 84.8% and 2.6% lower values than the best condition. In turn, MOO yielded better microencapsulation responses, but at a higher cost. Overall, EB-SD with operating conditions selected by MOO seems the best option, since a good compromise between costs and encapsulation responses was obtained.

Keywords: Multi-objective optimization, microencapsulation, multiple decision-making criteria, Soluplus®

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