Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Microalgae Related Abstracts

48 Influence of Culture Conditions on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Green Microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa

Authors: Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Saltanat B. Orazova, Alla V. Goncharova, Yana S. Tzurkan, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova, Bakytzhan K. Kairat

Abstract:

Microalgae due to the ability to accumulate high levels of practically valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids attract attention as a promising raw material for commercial products. It were defined the features of the growth processes of cells green protococcal microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa at cultivation in different nutritional mediums. For the rapid accumulation of biomass, combined with high productivity of total lipids fraction yield recommended to use the Fitzgerald medium (Scenodesmus obliquus, Oocystis rhomboideus) and/or Bold medium (Dictyochlorella globosa). Productivity of lipids decreased in sequence Dictyochlorella globosa > Scenodesmus obliquus > Oocystis rhomboideus. The bulk of fatty acids fraction of the total lipids is unsaturated fatty acids, which accounts for 70 to 83% of the total number of fatty acids. The share of monoenic acids varies from 16 to 36 %, the share of unsaturated fatty acids - from 44 to 65% of total fatty acids fraction. Among the unsaturated acids dominate α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), hexadecatetraenic acid (C16:4) and linoleic acid (C18:2).

Keywords: Lipids, Microalgae, Fatty Acids, culture conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
47 Growth and Biochemical Composition of Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. under Varied Growth Conditions

Authors: M. Alsull

Abstract:

In this study, Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. isolated from Penang National Park coastal waters, Malaysia, and cultivated under combined various laboratory conditions (temperature, light and nitrogen limitation and starvation). Growth rate, dry weight, chlorophyll a content, total lipids content and total carbohydrates content were estimated at mid-exponential growth phase. Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. showed remarkably decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and dry weight when maintained under nitrogen limitation and starvation conditions, as well as when grown under 12:12 h light, dark regime conditions. Chlorella sp. showed ability to counter the fluctuation in temperature with no significant effects on the measured parameters; in contrast, Tetraselmis sp. showed a decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and dry weight when grown under 15±1˚C temperature. Cultures maintained under nitrogen full concentration, and 24 h light regime showed decrease in total lipids content, compared with 12:12 h light, dark cycle regime, in the two tested species.

Keywords: Light, Microalgae, temperature, biochemical composition, nitrogen limitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
46 Sustainable Energy Production from Microalgae in Queshm Island, Persian Gulf

Authors: N. Moazami, R. Ranjbar, A. Ashori

Abstract:

Out of hundreds of microalgal strains reported, only very few of them are capable for production of high content of lipid. Therefore, the key technical challenges include identifying the strains with the highest growth rates and oil contents with adequate composition, which were the main aims of this work. From 147 microalgae screened for high biomass and oil productivity, the Nannochloropsis sp. PTCC 6016, which attained 52% lipid content, was selected for large scale cultivation in Persian Gulf Knowledge Island. Nannochloropsis strain PTCC 6016 belongs to Eustigmatophyceae (Phylum heterokontophyta) isolated from Mangrove forest area of Qheshm Island and Persian Gulf (Iran) in 2008. The strain PTCC 6016 had an average biomass productivity of 2.83 g/L/day and 52% lipid content. The biomass productivity and the oil production potential could be projected to be more than 200 tons biomass and 100000 L oil per hectare per year, in an outdoor algal culture (300 day/year) in the Persian Gulf climate.

Keywords: biofuels, Microalgae, Nannochloropsis, raceway open pond, bio-jet

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
45 Practical Experiences in the Development of a Lab-Scale Process for the Production and Recovery of Fucoxanthin

Authors: Alma Gómez-Loredo, José González-Valdez, Jorge Benavides, Marco Rito-Palomares

Abstract:

Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid that exerts multiple beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidant, anti-cancer, antidiabetic and anti-obesity activity; making the development of a whole process for its production and recovery an important contribution. In this work, the lab-scale production and purification of fucoxanthin in Isocrhysis galbana have been studied. In batch cultures, low light intensities (13.5 μmol/m2s) and bubble agitation were the best conditions for production of the carotenoid with product yields of up to 0.143 mg/g. After fucoxanthin ethanolic extraction from biomass and hexane partition, further recovery and purification of the carotenoid has been accomplished by means of alcohol – salt Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS) extraction followed by an ultrafiltration (UF) step. An ATPS comprised of ethanol and potassium phosphate (Volume Ratio (VR) =3; Tie-line Length (TLL) 60% w/w) presented a fucoxanthin recovery yield of 76.24 ± 1.60% among the studied systems and was able to remove 64.89 ± 2.64% of the carotenoid and chlorophyll pollutants. For UF, the addition of ethanol to the original recovered ethanolic ATPS stream to a final relation of 74.15% (w/w) resulted in a reduction of approximately 16% of the protein contents, increasing product purity with a recovery yield of about 63% of the compound in the permeate stream. Considering the production, extraction and primary recovery (ATPS and UF) steps, around a 45% global fucoxanthin recovery should be expected. Although other purification technologies, such as Centrifugal Partition Chromatography are able to obtain fucoxanthin recoveries of up to 83%, the process developed in the present work does not require large volumes of solvents or expensive equipment. Moreover, it has a potential for scale up to commercial scale and represents a cost-effective strategy when compared to traditional separation techniques like chromatography.

Keywords: ultrafiltration, Microalgae, aqueous two-phase systems, fucoxanthin, Isochrysis galbana

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
44 Wastewater Treatment Using Microalgae

Authors: Chigbo Ikechukwu Emmanuel

Abstract:

Microalgae can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater due to their capacity to assimilate nutrients. The pH increase which is mediated by the growing algae also induces phosphorus precipitation and ammonia stripping to the air, and may in addition act disinfecting on the wastewater. Domestic wastewater is ideal for algal growth since it contains high concentrations of all necessary nutrients. The growth limiting factor is rather light, especially at higher latitudes. The most important operational factors for successful wastewater treatment with microalgae are depth, turbulence and hydraulic retention time.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Growth, Nitrogen, operation, Light, Microalgae, Phosphorus, ponds

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
43 The Combined Influences of Salinity, Light and Nitrogen Limitation on the Growth and Biochemical Composition of Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp., Isolated from Penang National Park Coastal Waters, Malaysia

Authors: Mohamed M. Alsull

Abstract:

In the present study, two microalgae species “Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp.” isolated from Penang National Park coastal waters, Malaysia; were cultivated under combined various laboratory conditions “salinity, light, nitrogen limitation and starvation”. Growth rate, dry weight, chlorophyll a content, total lipid and protein contents, were estimated at mid exponential growth phase. Both Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. showed remarkable decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and protein content companied with increase in lipid content under nitrogen limitation and starvation conditions. Maintaining Nannochloropsis sp. under salinity 15‰ caused only significant decrease in total protein content; while Tetraselmis sp. grown at the same salinity caused decrease in the growth rate, chlorophyll a, dry weight and total protein content only when nitrogen was available.

Keywords: Light, Microalgae, Salinity, biochemical composition, nitrogen limitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
42 Sustainable Production of Algae through Nutrient Recovery in the Biofuel Conversion Process

Authors: Bagnoud-Velásquez Mariluz, Damergi Eya, Grandjean Dominique, Frédéric Vogel, Ludwig Christian

Abstract:

The sustainability of algae to biofuel processes is seriously affected by the energy intensive production of fertilizers. Large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus are required for a large-scale production resulting in many cases in a negative impact of the limited mineral resources. In order to meet the algal bioenergy opportunity it appears crucial the promotion of processes applying a nutrient recovery and/or making use of renewable sources including waste. Hydrothermal (HT) conversion is a promising and suitable technology for microalgae to generate biofuels. Besides the fact that water is used as a “green” reactant and solvent and that no biomass drying is required, the technology offers a great potential for nutrient recycling. This study evaluated the possibility to treat the water HT effluent by the growth of microalgae while producing renewable algal biomass. As already demonstrated in previous works by the authors, the HT aqueous product besides having N, P and other important nutrients, presents a small fraction of organic compounds rarely studied. Therefore, extracted heteroaromatic compounds in the HT effluent were the target of the present research; they were profiled using GC-MS and LC-MS-MS. The results indicate the presence of cyclic amides, piperazinediones, amines and their derivatives. The most prominent nitrogenous organic compounds (NOC’s) in the extracts were carefully examined by their effect on microalgae, namely 2-pyrrolidinone and β-phenylethylamine (β-PEA). These two substances were prepared at three different concentrations (10, 50 and 150 ppm). This toxicity bioassay used three different microalgae strains: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus vacuolatus. The confirmed IC50 was for all cases ca. 75ppm. Experimental conditions were set up for the growth of microalgae in the aqueous phase by adjusting the nitrogen concentration (the key nutrient for algae) to fit that one established for a known commercial medium. The values of specific NOC’s were lowered at concentrations of 8.5 mg/L 2-pyrrolidinone; 1mg/L δ-valerolactam and 0.5 mg/L β-PEA. The growth with the diluted HT solution was kept constant with no inhibition evidence. An additional ongoing test is addressing the possibility to apply an integrated water cleanup step making use of the existent hydrothermal catalytic facility.

Keywords: Microalgae, hydrothermal process, nitrogenous organic compounds, nutrient recovery, renewable biomass

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
41 Hydrothermal Treatment for Production of Aqueous Co-Product and Efficient Oil Extraction from Microalgae

Authors: Manatchanok Tantiphiphatthana, Lin Peng, Rujira Jitrwung, Kunio Yoshikawa

Abstract:

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a technique for obtaining clean biofuel from biomass in the presence of heat and pressure in an aqueous medium which leads to a decomposition of this biomass to the formation of various products. A role of operating conditions is essential for the bio-oil and other products’ yield and also quality of the products. The effects of these parameters were investigated in regards to the composition and yield of the products. Chlorellaceae microalgae were tested under different HTL conditions to clarify suitable conditions for extracting bio-oil together with value-added co-products. Firstly, different microalgae loading rates (5-30%) were tested and found that this parameter has not much significant to product yield. Therefore, 10% microalgae loading rate was selected as a proper economical solution for conditioned schedule at 250oC and 30 min-reaction time. Next, a range of temperature (210-290oC) was applied to verify the effects of each parameter by keeping the reaction time constant at 30 min. The results showed no linkage with the increase of the reaction temperature and some reactions occurred that lead to different product yields. Moreover, some nutrients found in the aqueous product are possible to be utilized for nutrient recovery.

Keywords: Microalgae, Bio-Oil, Hydrothermal Liquefaction, aqueous co-product

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
40 Effects of Alkalinity on the Treatment of Landfill Leachate through Algae Growth

Authors: Tahir Imran Qureshi

Abstract:

This study was aimed at finding out effects of potential influence of alkalinity on the treatment of landfill leachate through the growth of algae at varying dilution rates and toxicity potential. pH control proved to be an effective factor influencing on algal growth. With the use of algae Scenedesmus sp. for the treatment of leachate, a sharp increase in the growth of algae was recorded until pH 9. However, at pH 9.3 and 25 °C temperature, the growing trend of algae population showed a weakening tendency with the increase of total alkalinity in the leachate solution. Highest growth of algae was recorded in the leachate samples with alkalinity ranged at 1500-2500 mg CaCO3/L under neutral condition at pH 7 after 48 hours of cultivation time. Under the similar conditions, total nitrogen and total phosphorous in the leachate also reduced to 80% and 85%, respectively, however, no significant removal of COD was observed during the course of experiment.

Keywords: Microalgae, Leachate treatment, nutrient removal, ammonia toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
39 Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Antibacterial and Antioxidant Potential of Microalgal Strain, Cymbella

Authors: S. Beekrum, B. Odhav, R. Lalloo, E. O. Amonsou

Abstract:

Marine microalgae are rich sources of the novel and biologically active metabolites; therefore, they may be used in the food industry as natural food ingredients and functional foods. They have several biological applications related with health benefits, among others. In the past decades, food scientists have been searching for natural alternatives to replace synthetic antioxidants. The use of synthetic antioxidants has decreased due to their suspected activity as promoters of carcinogenesis, as well as consumer rejection of synthetic food additives. The aim of the study focused on screening of phytochemicals from Cymbella biomass extracts, and to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Cymbella biomass was obtained from CSIR (South Africa), and four different solvents namely methanol, acetone, n-hexane and water were used for extraction. To take into account different antioxidant mechanisms, seven different antioxidant assays were carried out. These include free radical scavenging (DPPH assay), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assay), radical cation (ABTS assay), superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds and determination of total flavonoid content. The total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as gallic acid equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. The in vitro antimicrobial effect of extracts were tested against some pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans), using the disc diffusion assay. Qualitative analyses of phytochemicals were conducted by chemical tests to screen for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, steroids, saponins, glycosides and alkaloids. The present investigation revealed that all extracts showed relatively strong antibacterial activity against most of the tested bacteria. The methanolic extract of the biomass contained a significantly high phenolic content of 111.46 mg GAE/g, and the hexane extract contained 65.279 mg GAE/g. Results of the DPPH assay showed that the biomass contained strong antioxidant capacity, 79% in the methanolic extract and 85% in the hexane extract. Extracts have displayed effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. Results of this study have highlighted potential antioxidant activity in the methanol and hexane extracts. The obtained results of the phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. The use of Cymbella as a natural antioxidant source and a potential source of antibacterial compounds and phytochemicals in the food industry appears promising and should be investigated further.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Phytochemicals, Antioxidants, Microalgae, Cymbella

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
38 Oxidative Stability of Methyl and Ethyl Microalgae Biodiesel with Synthetic Antioxidants

Authors: Matthieu Tubino, Willian L. G. Silva, Fabio R. M. Batista

Abstract:

Microalgae can be considered a potential source of oil for biodiesel synthesis since this microorganism can grow rapidly in either fresh or salty water, not competing with food production. There are several favorable conditions in Brazil for this type of culture due to the country’s great amount of water. Another very positive aspect of this type of culture is its ability to fix atmospheric CO2, contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases and their effects on global warming. Despite this biodiesel environmental advantages it degrades resulting in changes in its physical and chemical properties. In this work, the methyl and ethyl microalgae biodiesel oxidative stability was studied in the absence and presence of a synthetic antioxidant. The synthetic antioxidants used were propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), at a 0,12% (w/w) concentration. The biodiesel mixture was kept in a sealed glass flask, sheltered from light, and at room temperature (about 25 ºC) for 180 days. During this period, aliquots from this biodiesel were subjected to induced degradation by the Rancimat method, which determines an important quality parameter, provided in the current methods, and is used to monitor the degradation processes that occur in the biodiesel over time. The induction period (IP) expresses the biodiesel oxidative stability. It was stablished that the minimum accepted IP value for biodiesel is 8 hours. The results show that ethylic biodiesel increased its IP value from 7,6 hours to 31 hours when using PG, and to 67 hours when using TBHQ, exceeding the minimum accepted IP value. When the antioxidants were added to the methylic biodiesel samples, the IP was raised to 28 hours when using PG, and to 62 hours when using TBHQ. These values were maintained throughout the entire period of study (180 days). On the other hand, the biodiesel samples without additives maintained an IP above the allowed value for only 30 days. Therefore, in order to preserve microalgae biodiesel for longer periods of time, it is necessary to add antioxidants to both derivatives, i.e., the ethylic and methylic.

Keywords: Storage, Biodiesel, Microalgae, oxidative stability, synthetic antioxidants

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
37 Comparison of Fuel Properties from Species of Microalgae and Selected Second-Generation Oil Feedstocks

Authors: Freddie L. Inambao, Andrew C. Eloka Eboka

Abstract:

Comparative investigation and assessment of microalgal technology as a biodiesel production option was studied alongside other second generation feedstocks. This was carried out by comparing the fuel properties of species of Chlorella vulgaris, Duneliella spp, Synechococus spp and Senedesmus spp with the feedstock of Jatropha (ex-basirika variety), Hura crepitans, rubber and Natal mahogany seed oils. The micro-algae were cultivated in an open pond using a photobioreactor (New Brunsink set-up model BF-115 Bioflo/CelliGen made in the US) with operating parameters: 14L capacity, working volume of 7.5L media, including 10% inoculum, at optical density of 3.144 @540nm and light intensity of 200 lux, for 23 and 16 days respectively. Various produced/accumulated biomasses were harvested by draining, flocculation, centrifugation, drying and then subjected to lipid extraction processes. The oils extracted from the algae and feedstocks were characterised and used to produce biodiesel fuels, by the transesterification method, using modified optimization protocol. Fuel properties of the final biodiesel products were evaluated for chemo-physical and fuel properties. Results revealed Chlorella vulgaris as the best strain for biomass cultivation, having the highest lipid productivity (5.2mgL-1h-1), the highest rate of CO2 absorption (17.85mgL-1min-1) and the average carbon sequestration in the form of CO2 was 76.6%. The highest biomass productivity was 35.1mgL-1h-1 (Chlorella), while Senedesmus had the least output (3.75mgL-1h-1, 11.73mgL-1min-1). All species had good pH value adaptation, ranging from 6.5 to 8.5. The fuel properties of the micro-algal biodiesel in comparison with Jatropha, rubber, Hura and Natal mahogany were within ASTM specification and AGO used as the control. Fuel cultivation from microalgae is feasible and will revolutionise the biodiesel industry.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Microalgae, Feedstock, photo-bioreactor, fuel properties, second generation, seed oils, open pond

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
36 Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Microalgae – Removal of Nitrogen

Authors: A. Siham Dehmani, B. Djamal Zerrouki

Abstract:

Domestic wastewater contains high concentrations of nitrogen, which can affect public health and cause harmful ecological impacts. The potential of microalgae as a source of renewable energy based on wastewater has received increasing interest worldwide in recent decades. The microalgae cultivation in wastewater has two advantages: wastewater treatment and algal biomass production. Our work aimed to remove nitrogen from municipal wastewater. Wastewater samples were taken from the wastewater treatment station located in Ouargla and used as a medium for the cultivation of chlorella microalgae strains inside a photobioreactor. Analysis of different parameters was done every 2 days along the period of the cultivation (10 days). The average removal efficiencies of nitrogen were maintained at 95%. Our results show the potential of integrating nutrient removal from wastewater by microalgae as a secondary wastewater treatment processes.

Keywords: biomass, wastewater, treatment, Microalgae

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
35 Strategic Analysis of Energy and Impact Assessment of Microalgae Based Biodiesel and Biogas Production in Outdoor Raceway Pond: A Life Cycle Perspective

Authors: S. N. Mudliar, T. Sarat Chandra, M. Maneesh Kumar, V. S. Chauhan, S. Mukherji, R. Sarada

Abstract:

The life cycle assessment (LCA) of biodiesel production from freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus cultivated in open raceway pond is performed. Various scenarios for biodiesel production were simulated using primary and secondary data. The parameters varied in the modelled scenarios were related to biomass productivity, mode of culture mixing and type of energy source. The process steps included algae cultivation in open raceway ponds, harvesting by chemical flocculation, dewatering by mechanical drying option (MDO) followed by extraction, reaction and purification. Anaerobic digestion of defatted algal biomass (DAB) for biogas generation is considered as a co-product allocation and the energy derived from DAB was thereby used in the upstream of the process. The scenarios were analysed for energy demand, emissions and environmental impacts within the boundary conditions grounded on "cradle to gate" inventory. Across all the Scenarios, cultivation via raceway pond was observed to be energy intensive process. The mode of culture mixing and biomass productivity determined the energy requirements of the cultivation step. Emissions to Freshwater were found to be maximum contributing to 93-97% of total emissions in all the scenarios. Global warming potential (GWP) was the found to be major environmental impact accounting to about 99% of total environmental impacts in all the modelled scenarios. It was noticed that overall emissions and impacts were directly related to energy demand and an inverse relationship was observed with biomass productivity. The geographic location of an energy source affected the environmental impact of a given process. The integration of defatted algal remnants derived electricity with the cultivation system resulted in a 2% reduction in overall energy demand. Direct biogas generation from microalgae post harvesting is also analysed. Energy surplus was observed after using part of the energy in upstream for biomass production. Results suggest biogas production from microalgae post harvesting as an environmentally viable and sustainable option compared to biodiesel production.

Keywords: Microalgae, Energy demand, energy source, biomass productivity, Lifecycle Assessment (LCA), open raceway pond

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
34 Analysis of Mechanotransduction-Induced Microalgae under Direct Membrane Distortion

Authors: Gwang Heum Yoon, Hwa Sung Shin, Seul Ki Min, Jung Hyun Joo, Myung Kwon Cho, Sang Jun Sim

Abstract:

Mechanotransduction is a mechanism that external mechanical stimulation is converted to biochemical activity in the cell. When applying this mechanism to the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the dramatic result that the accumulation of intracellular lipid was up to 60% of dry weight basis occurred. Furthermore, various variations in cellular physiology occurred, but there is a lack of the development of the system and related research for applying that technology to control the mechanical stress and facilitate molecular analyses. In this study, applying a mechanical stress to microalgae, the microfluidic device system that finely induced direct membrane distortion of microalgae. Cellular membrane distortion led to deflagellation, calcium influx and lipid accumulation in microalgae. In conclusion, cytological studies such as mechanotransduction can be actualized by using this system and membrane distortion is a promising inducer for biodiesel production.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Microalgae, Mechanotransduction, membrane distortion

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
33 Phytochemicals, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Screening of Marine Microalgal Strain, Amphora Sp.

Authors: S. Beekrum, B. Odhav, R. Lalloo, E. A. Amonsou

Abstract:

Marine microalgae are rich sources of novel and biologically active metabolites; therefore they may be used in the food industry as natural food ingredients and functional foods. They have several biological applications related to health benefits, among others. The aim of the study focused on the screening of phytochemicals from Amphora sp. biomass extracts, and to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Amphora sp. biomass was obtained from CSIR (South Africa) and methanol, hexane and water extracts were prepared. The in vitro antimicrobial effect of extracts were tested against some pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans), using the disc diffusion assay. Qualitative analyses of phytochemicals were conducted by chemical tests. The present investigation revealed that all extracts showed relatively strong antibacterial activity against most of the tested bacteria. The highest phenolic content was found in the methanolic extract. Results of the DPPH assay showed that the biomass contained strong antioxidant capacity, 79% in the methanolic extract and 85% in the hexane extract. Extracts have displayed effectively reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. Results of this study have highlighted potential antioxidant activity in the methanol and hexane extracts. The results of the phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids and sterols with potential applications as food flavorants and functional foods, respectively. The use of Amphora sp. as a natural antioxidant source and a potential source of antibacterial compounds and phytochemicals in the food industry appears promising and should be investigated further.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Phytochemicals, Antioxidants, Microalgae, Cymbella

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
32 Phytoplankton of the Atlantic Ocean, off Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Ikenna Charles Onyema, Tolut Prince Bako

Abstract:

A study was carried out in the Atlantic Ocean off the Lighthouse Beach, Lagos. There were monthly and spatial variations in physical and chemical characteristics of the neritic ocean (August - December, 2014). Mean and standard deviation values for air temperature were 27. 67, ± 2.98 °C, water temperature (28.37 ± 1.88), pH (7.85 ± 0.17), conductivity (44738.75 ± 6262.76 µS/cm), total dissolved solids (29236.71 ± 4273.30 mg/L), salinity (27.11 ± 3.91 ‰), alkalinity (126.99 ± 42.81 mg/L) and chloride (15056. 67 ± 2165.78 mg/L). Higher estimates were recorded in the dry than wet months for these characteristics. On the other hand, reducing values were recorded for acidity (2.34 ± 0.63 mg/L), total hardness (4711.98 ± 691.50 mg/L), phosphate (1.1 ± 0.78 mg/L), sulphate (2601.99 ± 447.04 mg/L) and nitrate (0.12 ± 0.06 mg/L). Values for total suspended solids and biological oxygen demand values were low (<1mg/L). Twenty-one species of phytoplankton were recorded. Diatoms recorded 80.92% and were the dominant group. Hemidiscus cuneiformis, Coscinodiscus centralis, Coscinodiscus lineatus, Coscinodiscus radiatus and Oscillatoria limosa were more frequently occurring species. Biddulphia sinensis and four species of Ceratium, were representatives of the dry season. The dry season also recorded comparatively higher individuals of phytoplankton than the wet season. Spirogyra sp. (green algae) appeared only in the wet season. Species abundance (N) was highest in December at Station 1 (13.15%) (dry season) and lowest in August (wet season) at Station 3 (2.96%). The physico-chemical factors and phytoplankton reflected a tropical unpolluted neritic oceanic environment.

Keywords: sea, Microalgae, physico-chemistry, lighthouse beach

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
31 Oil Extraction from Microalgae Dunalliela sp. by Polar and Non-Polar Solvents

Authors: A. Zonouzi, M. Auli, M. Javanmard Dakheli, M. A. Hejazi

Abstract:

Microalgae are tiny photosynthetic plants. Nowadays, microalgae are being used as nutrient-dense foods and sources of fine chemicals. They have significant amounts of lipid, carotenoids, vitamins, protein, minerals, chlorophyll, and pigments. Oil extraction from algae is a hotly debated topic currently because introducing an efficient method could decrease the process cost. This can determine the sustainability of algae-based foods. Scientific research works show that solvent extraction using chloroform/methanol (2:1) mixture is one of the efficient methods for oil extraction from algal cells, but both methanol and chloroform are toxic solvents, and therefore, the extracted oil will not be suitable for food application. In this paper, the effect of two food grade solvents (hexane and hexane/ isopropanol) on oil extraction yield from microalgae Dunaliella sp. was investigated and the results were compared with chloroform/methanol (2:1) extraction yield. It was observed that the oil extraction yield using hexane, hexane/isopropanol (3:2) and chloroform/methanol (2:1) mixture were 5.4, 13.93, and 17.5 (% w/w, dry basis), respectively. The fatty acid profile derived from GC illustrated that the palmitic (36.62%), oleic (18.62%), and stearic acids (19.08%) form the main portion of fatty acid composition of microalgae Dunalliela sp. oil. It was concluded that, the addition of isopropanol as polar solvent could increase the extraction yield significantly. Isopropanol solves cell wall phospholipids and enhances the release of intercellular lipids, which improves accessing of hexane to fatty acids.

Keywords: Microalgae, oil extraction, fatty acid profile, polar solvent‎

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
30 Evaluation of Two Functional Food Products: Tortillas and Yogurt Based on Spirulina platensis and Haematococcus pluvialis

Authors: Raul Alexis Sanchez Cornejo, Elena Ivonne Mancera Andrade, Gibran Sidney Aleman Nava, Angel Josue Arteaga Garces, Roberto Parra Saldivar

Abstract:

An unhealthy diet is one of the main factors for a wide range of chronical diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, among others. Nowadays, there is a current need to provide innovate healthy products to people in order to decrease the number of people with unhealthy diet. This study focuses on the production of two food products based on two microalgae strains: Tortillas with powder of Haematococcus pluvialis and Spirulina platensis biomass and yogurt with microencapsulated biomass of the same strains. S. platensis has been used widely as food supplements in a form of powder and pills due to its high content in proteins and fatty acids. Haematococcus pluvialis has been recognized for its ability to produce high-added value products under stressful conditions such as antioxidants (astaxanthin). Despite the benefits that those microalgae have, few efforts have been done to use them in food products. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the nutritional properties such as protein content, lipid fraction, carbohydrates, antioxidants,, and vitamins, that these microalgae strains provide to the food product. Additionally, physicochemical, and sensory evaluation were assessed to evaluate the quality of the product. The results obtained will dictate the feasibility of the product to be commercialized. These novel products will have the ability to change the nutritional intake and strength the health of the consumers.

Keywords: Functional food, Microalgae, yogurt, Haematococcus pluvialis, Spirulina platensis, tortilla

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
29 Screening Microalgae Strains Which Were Isolated from Agriculture and Municipal Wastewater Drain, Reno, Nevada and Reuse of Effluent Water from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant in Microalgae Cultivation for Biofuel Feedstock

Authors: Nita Rukminasari

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to select microalgae strains, which were isolated from agriculture and municipal wastewater drain, Reno, Nevada that has highest growth rate and lipid contents. The experiments in this study were carried out in two consecutive stages. The first stage is aimed at testing the survival capability of all isolated microalgae strains and determining the best candidates to grow in centrate cultivation system. The second stage was targeted at determination the highest growth rate and highest lipid content of the selected top performing algae strain when cultivated on centrate wastewater. 26 microalgae strains, which were isolated from municipal and agriculture waste water, were analyzed using Flow cytometer for FACS of lipid with BODIPY and Nile Red as a lipid dyes and they grew on 96 wells plate for 31 days to determine growth rate as a based line data for growth rate. The result showed that microalgae strains which showed a high mean of fluorescence for BODIPY and Nile Red were F3.BP.1, F3.LV.1, T1.3.1, and T1.3.3. Five microalgae strains which have high growth rate were T1.3.3, T2.4.1. F3.LV.1, T2.12.1 and T3.3.1. In conclusion, microalgae strain which showed the highest starch content was F3.LV.1. T1.3.1 had the highest mean of fluorescence for Nile Red and BODIPY. Microalgae strains were potential for biofuel feedstock such as F3.LV.1 and T1.3.1, those microalgae strains showed a positive correlation between growth rate at stationary phase, biomass and meant of fluorescence for Nile Red and BODIPY.

Keywords: biofuel, Microalgae, agriculture and municipal wastewater, centrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
28 Fuel Quality of Biodiesel from Chlorella protothecoides Microalgae Species

Authors: Mukesh Kumar, Mahendra Pal Sharma

Abstract:

Depleting fossil fuel resources coupled with serious environmental degradation has led to the search for alternative resources for biodiesel production as a substitute of Petro-diesel. Currently, edible, non-edible oils and microalgal plant species are cultivated for biodiesel production. Looking at the demerits of edible and non-edible oil resources, the focus is being given to grow microalgal species having high oil productivities, less maturity time and less land requirement. Out of various microalgal species, Chlorella protothecoides is considered as the most promising species for biodiesel production owing to high oil content (58 %), faster growth rate (24–48 h) and high biomass productivity (1214 mg/l/day). The present paper reports the results of optimization of reaction parameters of transesterification process as well as the kinetics of transesterification with 97% yield of biodiesel. The measurement of fuel quality of microalgal biodiesel shows that the biodiesel exhibit very good oxidation stability (O.S) of 7 hrs, more than ASTM D6751 (3 hrs) and EN 14112 (6 hrs) specifications. The CP and PP of 0 and -3 °C are finding as per ASTM D 2500-11 and ASTM D 97-12 standards. These results show that the microalgal biodiesel does not need any enhancement in O.S & CFP and hence can be recommended to be directly used as MB100 or its blends into diesel engine operation. Further, scope is available for the production of binary blends using poor quality biodiesel for engine operation.

Keywords: Microalgae, transesterification, fuel quality, methyl ester yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
27 Evaluation of Electro-Flocculation for Biomass Production of Marine Microalgae Phaodactylum tricornutum

Authors: Luciana C. Ramos, Leandro J. Sousa, Antônio Ferreira da Silva, Valéria Gomes Oliveira Falcão, Suzana T. Cunha Lima

Abstract:

The commercial production of biodiesel using microalgae demands a high-energy input for harvesting biomass, making production economically unfeasible. Methods currently used involve mechanical, chemical, and biological procedures. In this work, a flocculation system is presented as a cost and energy effective process to increase biomass production of Phaeodactylum tricornutum. This diatom is the only species of the genus that present fast growth and lipid accumulation ability that are of great interest for biofuel production. The algae, selected from the Bank of Microalgae, Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil), have been bred in tubular reactor with photoperiod of 12 h (clear/dark), providing luminance of about 35 μmol photons m-2s-1, and temperature of 22 °C. The medium used for growing cells was the Conway medium, with addition of silica. The seaweed growth curve was accompanied by cell count in Neubauer camera and by optical density in spectrophotometer, at 680 nm. The precipitation occurred at the end of the stationary phase of growth, 21 days after inoculation, using two methods: centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 5 min, and electro-flocculation at 19 EPD and 95 W. After precipitation, cells were frozen at -20 °C and, subsequently, lyophilized. Biomass obtained by electro-flocculation was approximately four times greater than the one achieved by centrifugation. The benefits of this method are that no addition of chemical flocculants is necessary and similar cultivation conditions can be used for the biodiesel production and pharmacological purposes. The results may contribute to improve biodiesel production costs using marine microalgae.

Keywords: biomass, Microalgae, Flocculation, diatom

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
26 Enhanced Growth of Microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Cultivated in Different Organic Waste and Effective Conversion of Algal Oil to Biodiesel

Authors: Ajith J. Kings, L. R. Monisha Miriam, R. Edwin Raj, S. Julyes Jaisingh, S. Gavaskar

Abstract:

Microalgae are a potential bio-source for rejuvenated solutions in various disciplines of science and technology, especially in medicine and energy. Biodiesel is being replaced for conventional fuels in automobile industries with reduced pollution and equivalent performance. Since it is a carbon neutral fuel by recycling CO2 in photosynthesis, global warming potential can be held in control using this fuel source. One of the ways to meet the rising demand of automotive fuel is to adopt with eco-friendly, green alternative fuels called sustainable microalgal biodiesel. In this work, a microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was cultivated and optimized in different media compositions developed from under-utilized waste materials in lab scale. Using the optimized process conditions, they are then mass propagated in out-door ponds, harvested, dried and oils extracted for optimization in ambient conditions. The microalgal oil was subjected to two step esterification processes using acid catalyst to reduce the acid value (0.52 mg kOH/g) in the initial stage, followed by transesterification to maximize the biodiesel yield. The optimized esterification process parameters are methanol/oil ratio 0.32 (v/v), sulphuric acid 10 vol.%, duration 45 min at 65 ºC. In the transesterification process, commercially available alkali catalyst (KOH) is used and optimized to obtain a maximum biodiesel yield of 95.4%. The optimized parameters are methanol/oil ratio 0.33(v/v), alkali catalyst 0.1 wt.%, duration 90 min at 65 ºC 90 with smooth stirring. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is employed as a tool for optimizing the process parameters. The biodiesel was then characterized with standard procedures and especially by GC-MS to confirm its compatibility for usage in internal combustion engine.

Keywords: Characterization, Optimization, Microalgae, transesterification, organic media

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
25 Effective Solvents for Proteins Recovery from Microalgae

Authors: Tau Chuan LING, Win Nee Phong, Pau Loke Show

Abstract:

From an industrial perspective, the exploitation of microalgae for protein source is of great economical and commercial interest due to numerous attractive characteristics. Nonetheless, the release of protein from microalgae is limited by the multiple layers of the rigid thick cell wall that generally contain a large proportion of cellulose. Thus an efficient cell disruption process is required to rupture the cell wall. The conventional downstream processing methods which typically involve several unit operational steps such as disruption, isolation, extraction, concentration and purification are energy-intensive and costly. To reduce the overall cost and establish a feasible technology for the success of the large-scale production, microalgal industry today demands a more cost-effective and eco-friendly technique in downstream processing. One of the main challenges to extract the proteins from microalgae is the presence of rigid cell wall. This study aims to provide some guidance on the selection of the efficient solvent to facilitate the proteins released during the cell disruption process. The effects of solvent types such as methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and water in rupturing the microalgae cell wall were studied. It is interesting to know that water is the most effective solvent to recover proteins from microalgae and the cost is cheapest among all other solvents.

Keywords: Protein, solvents, Microalgae, Green

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
24 Efficiency of Pre-Treatment Methods for Biodiesel Production from Mixed Culture of Microalgae

Authors: Malith Premarathne, Shehan Bandara, Kaushalya G. Batawala, Thilini U. Ariyadasa

Abstract:

The rapid depletion of fossil fuel supplies and the emission of carbon dioxide by their continued combustion have paved the way for increased production of carbon-neutral biodiesel from naturally occurring oil sources. The high biomass growth rate and lipid production of microalgae make it a viable source for biodiesel production compared to conventional feedstock. In Sri Lanka, the production of biodiesel by employing indigenous microalgae species is at its emerging stage. This work was an attempt to compare the various pre-treatment methods before extracting lipids such as autoclaving, microwaving and sonication. A mixed culture of microalgae predominantly consisting of Chlorella sp. was obtained from Beire Lake which is an algae rich, organically polluted water body located in Colombo, Sri Lanka. After each pre-treatment method, a standard solvent extraction using Bligh and Dyer’s method was used to compare the total lipid content in percentage dry weight (% dwt). The fatty acid profiles of the oils extracted with each pretreatment method were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The properties of the biodiesels were predicted by Biodiesel Analyzer© Version 1.1, in order to compare with ASTM 6751-08 biodiesel standard.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Pre-treatment, Microalgae, lipid extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
23 The Use of Microalgae Cultivation for Improving the Effluent Behavior of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Wastes at Psychrophilic Range

Authors: Pedro M. Velasco, Cecilia C. Alday, Oscar C. Avello, Ximena T. Faundez, Luis M. Velasco

Abstract:

Anaerobic digestion (AD) plants of food waste (FW) produced by agro-industry, have been widely developed from last decade to nowadays, because of the advantages over aerobic active sludge systems. Despite several bioreactor configurations and operation modes have been successfully improved and implemented at industrial scale in a wide range of applications, effluent behavior, after AD, does not commonly meet requirements for direct disposal into the environment without further treatments. In addition, literature has rarely shown AD of food waste at psychrophilic range. This temperature range may be of interest for making AD plant operation easier and increasing the stability of digestion. In spite of literature shows several methods for post-treatment, such as the use of microalgae, these have not been cultivated on effluents from AD at psychrophilic range. Hence, with the aim of showing the potential use of AD of FW at the psychrophilic range (25ºC) and the viability of microalgae post-treatment, single batch reactors have been used for methane potential tests at laboratory scale. Afterwards, digestates, derived from this AD of FW sludge, were diluted with fresh water at different ratios (1:0, 1:1; 1:4) and used as culture media for photoautotrophic microalgae. Several parameters, such as pH, biogas production, and chemical oxygen demand, were measured periodically over several months. Results show that methane potential is 150 ml g-1 per volatile solid with up to 57.7 % of methane content. Moreover, microalgae has been successfully cultivated on all tested effluents and in case of 1:1 and 1:4 rates, the resulting effluents meet the quality levels required for irrigation water.

Keywords: Biogas, Microalgae, Anaerobic Digestion, Food Waste, psychrophilic range

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
22 Moderate Electric Field Influence on Carotenoids Extraction Time from Heterochlorella luteoviridis

Authors: Debora P. Jaeschke, Ligia D. F. Marczak, Eduardo A. Merlo, Rosane Rech, Giovana D. Mercali

Abstract:

Carotenoids are high value added pigments that can be alternatively extracted from some microalgae species. However, the application of carotenoids synthetized by microalgae is still limited due to the utilization of organic toxic solvents. In this context, studies involving alternative extraction methods have been conducted with more sustainable solvents to replace and reduce the solvent volume and the extraction time. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the extraction time of carotenoids from the microalgae Heterochlorella luteoviridis using moderate electric field (MEF) as a pre-treatment to the extraction. The extraction methodology consisted of a pre-treatment in the presence of MEF (180 V) and ethanol (25 %, v/v) for 10 min, followed by a diffusive step performed for 50 min using a higher ethanol concentration (75 %, v/v). The extraction experiments were conducted at 30 °C and, to keep the temperature at this value, it was used an extraction cell with a water jacket that was connected to a water bath. Also, to enable the evaluation of MEF effect on the extraction, control experiments were performed using the same cell and conditions without voltage application. During the extraction experiments, samples were withdrawn at 1, 5 and 10 min of the pre-treatment and at 1, 5, 30, 40 and 50 min of the diffusive step. Samples were, then, centrifuged and carotenoids analyses were performed in the supernatant. Furthermore, an exhaustive extraction with ethyl acetate and methanol was performed, and the carotenoids content found for this analyses was considered as the total carotenoids content of the microalgae. The results showed that the application of MEF as a pre-treatment to the extraction influenced the extraction yield and the extraction time during the diffusive step; after the MEF pre-treatment and 50 min of the diffusive step, it was possible to extract up to 60 % of the total carotenoids content. Also, results found for carotenoids concentration of the extracts withdrawn at 5 and 30 min of the diffusive step did not presented statistical difference, meaning that carotenoids diffusion occurs mainly in the very beginning of the extraction. On the other hand, the results for control experiments showed that carotenoids diffusion occurs mostly during 30 min of the diffusive step, which evidenced MEF effect on the extraction time. Moreover, carotenoids concentration on samples withdrawn during the pre-treatment (1, 5 and 10 min) were below the quantification limit of the analyses, indicating that the extraction occurred in the diffusive step, when ethanol (75 %, v/v) was added to the medium. It is possible that MEF promoted cell membrane permeabilization and, when ethanol (75 %) was added, carotenoids interacted with the solvent and the diffusion occurred easily. Based on the results, it is possible to infer that MEF promoted the decrease of carotenoids extraction time due to the increasing of the permeability of the cell membrane which facilitates the diffusion from the cell to the medium.

Keywords: Microalgae, Ethanol, Pigments, moderate electric field (MEF)

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
21 Growth Performance Of fresh Water Microalgae Chlorella sp. Exposed to Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Titin Handayani, Adi Mulyanto, Fajar Eko Priyanto

Abstract:

It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO₂ emissions. Based on light and CO₂, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient feeding of CO₂, especially on a large scale, is one of them. Current methods for CO₂ feeding to algae cultures rely on the sparging pure CO₂ or directly from flue gas. The limiting factor in this system is the solubility of CO₂ in water, which demands a considerable amount of energy for an effective gas to liquid transfer and leads to losses to the atmosphere. Due to the current ineffective methods for CO₂ introduction into algae ponds very large surface areas would be required for enough ponds to capture a considerable amount of the CO₂. The purpose of this study is to assess technology to capture carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions generated by industry by utilizing of microalgae Chlorella sp. The microalgae were cultivated in a bioreactor culture pond raceway type. The result is expected to be useful in mitigating the effects of greenhouse gases in reducing the CO₂ emissions. The research activities include: (1) Characterization of boiler flue gas, (2) Operation of culture pond, (3) Sampling and sample analysis. The results of this study showed that the initial assessment absorption of the flue gas by microalgae using 1000 L raceway pond completed by heat exchanger were quite promising. The transfer of CO₂ into the pond culture system was run well. This identified from the success of cooling the boiler flue gas from the temperature of about 200 °C to below ambient temperature. Except for the temperature, the gas bubbles into the culture media were quite fine. Therefore, the contact between the gas and the media was well performed. The efficiency of CO₂ absorption by Chlorella sp reached 6.68 % with an average CO₂ loading of 0.29 g/L/day.

Keywords: Microalgae, CO2 emission, heat exchange, Chlorella sp, milk industry, raceway pond

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
20 Process for Production of Added-Value Water–Extract from Liquid Biomass

Authors: Lozano Paul

Abstract:

Coupled Membrane Separation Technology (CMST), including Cross Flow Microfiltration (CFM) and Reverse Osmosis (RO), are used to concentrate microalgae biomass or/and to extract and concentrate water-soluble metabolites produced during micro-algae production cycle, as well as water recycling. Micro-algae biomass was produced using different feeding mixtures of ingredients: pure chemical origin compounds and natural/ecological water-extracted components from available local plants. Micro-algae was grown either in conventional plastic bags (100L/unit) or in small-scale innovative bioreactors (75L). Biomass was concentrated as CFM retentate using a P19-60 ceramic membrane (0.2μm pore size), and water-soluble micro-algae metabolites left in the CFM filtrate were concentrated by RO. Large volumes of water (micro-algae culture media) of were recycled by the CMTS for another biomass production cycle.

Keywords: Extraction, Microalgae, membrane process, natural compound

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
19 Investigation of Turbulent Flow in a Bubble Column Photobioreactor and Consequent Effects on Microalgae Cultivation Using Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation

Authors: Ramkrishna Sen, Geetanjali Yadav, Arpit Mishra, Parthsarathi Ghosh

Abstract:

The world is facing problems of increasing global CO2 emissions, climate change and fuel crisis. Therefore, several renewable and sustainable energy alternatives should be investigated to replace non-renewable fuels in future. Algae presents itself a versatile feedstock for the production of variety of fuels (biodiesel, bioethanol, bio-hydrogen etc.) and high value compounds for food, fodder, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Microalgae are simple microorganisms that require water, light, CO2 and nutrients for growth by the process of photosynthesis and can grow in extreme environments, utilize waste gas (flue gas) and waste waters. Mixing, however, is a crucial parameter within the culture system for the uniform distribution of light, nutrients and gaseous exchange in addition to preventing settling/sedimentation, creation of dark zones etc. The overarching goal of the present study is to improve photobioreactor (PBR) design for enhancing dissolution of CO2 from ambient air (0.039%, v/v), pure CO2 and coal-fired flue gas (10 ± 2%) into microalgal PBRs. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a state-of-the-art technique has been used to solve partial differential equations with turbulence closure which represents the dynamics of fluid in a photobioreactor. In this paper, the hydrodynamic performance of the PBR has been characterized and compared with that of the conventional bubble column PBR using CFD. Parameters such as flow rate (Q), mean velocity (u), mean turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) were characterized for each experiment that was tested across different aeration schemes. The results showed that the modified PBR design had superior liquid circulation properties and gas-liquid transfer that resulted in creation of uniform environment inside PBR as compared to conventional bubble column PBR. The CFD technique has shown to be promising to successfully design and paves path for a future research in order to develop PBRs which can be commercially available for scale-up microalgal production.

Keywords: Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Microalgae, flue gas, bubble column photbioreactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 119