Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

micro-hardness Related Abstracts

7 A Comparison of Double Sided Friction Stir Welding in Air and Underwater for 6mm S275 Steel Plate

Authors: Philip Baillie, Stuart W. Campbell, Alexander M. Galloway, Stephen R. Cater, Norman A. McPherson


This study compared the mechanical and microstructural properties produced during friction stir welding(FSW) of S275 structural steel in air and underwater. Post weld tests assessed the tensile strength, micro-hardness, distortion, Charpy impact toughness and fatigue performance in each case. The study showed that there was no significant difference in the strength, hardness or fatigue life of the air and underwater specimens. However, Charpy impact toughness was shown to decrease for the underwater specimens and was attributed to a lower degree of recrystallization caused by the higher rate of heat loss experienced when welding underwater. Reduced angular and longitudinal distortion was observed in the underwater welded plate compared to the plate welded in air.

Keywords: Fatigue, Underwater, Charpy impact toughness, distortion, friction stir welding(FSW), micro-hardness

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6 Evaluation of High Temperature Wear Performance of as Cladded and Tig Re-Melting Stellite 6 Cladded Overlay on Aisi-304L Using SMAW Process

Authors: Manjit Singha, Sandeep Singh Sandhu, A. S. Shahi


Stellite 6 is cobalt based superalloy used for protective coatings. It is used to improve the wear performance of stainless steel engineering components subjected to harsh environmental conditions. This paper reports the high temperature wear analysis of satellite 6 cladded on AISI 304 L substrate using SMAW process. Bead on plate experiment was carried out by varying current and electrode manipulation techniques to optimize the dilution and hardness. 80 Amp current and weaving technique was found to be the optimum set of parameters for overlaying which were further used for multipass multilayer cladding on two plates of AISI 304 L substrate. On the first plate, seven layers seven passes of stellite 6 was overlaid which was used in as cladded form and the second plate was overlaid with five layers five passes of satellite 6 with further TIG remelting. The wear performance was examined for normal temperature environmental condition and harsh temperature environmental condition. The satellite 6 coating with TIG remelting was found to be better in both the conditions even with lesser metal deposition due to its finer grain structure.

Keywords: micro-hardness, dilution, surfacing, stellite 6, overlay, SMAW, high-temperature frictional wear, micro-structure

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5 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of A201 Alloys with Additions of Si

Authors: Suzan Abd El Majid, Menachem Bamberger, Alexander Katsman


Two Al-4 wt. % Cu based alloys, A201 and A201+Si were investigated in the as-cast, solution treated and aged conditions. The addition of Si was used to improve the castability of the basic alloy. The all investigated alloys in the as-cast condition contained a eutectic structure along grain boundaries (GBs) with the composition Al-50at. %Cu that was found by HRSEM EDS. Addition of Si refined the grain structure and changed the amount of the eutectic regions, their size and shape. Additionally, the A201+Si microstructure contained Si rods and small amount of Al6Mn4Cu3Fe2Si-phase. Solution treatment (ST) at 550°C for ~ 20 hours resulted in a slight dissolution of the eutectic structure in the A201 alloy while substantial dissolution and change of the eutectic composition was detected in the A201+Si alloy. After ST, the A201alloy contained θ-Al2Cu, Al5Cu2Mn3 and Al9Cu7Mn3(Fe) phases associated to the GBs, while the ST A201+Si alloy contained θ-Al2Cu, Al6Mn4Cu3(Fe,Si) and Si94Mn3Al2Cu phases. Precipitation hardening during aging at 170°C was investigated for both alloys. The microhardness of the ST A201alloy increased during aging and reached the maximum value ~ 140 HV after 2 h of aging. Initial microhardness of the ST A201+Si alloy was distinctly higher than one of the ST A201 alloy, but it decreased during the first hour of aging, then increased and reached the same maximum value ~ 140 HV after ~ 4 h of aging. It was concluded that the Si addition influenced the precipitation sequence and slowed down the age hardening process. The Si induced grain refining and evolution of the eutectic structure during the heat treatments applied are discussed.

Keywords: Microstructure, micro-hardness, A201 alloys, castability

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4 Effect of Post Hardening on PVD Coated Tools

Authors: Manjinder Bajwa, Mahipal Singh, Ashish Tulli


In the research, the effect of varying cutting parameters, design parameters and heat treatment processes were studied on the cutting performance (Tool life) of a PVD coated tool. Thus, in a quest for these phenomenon comparison, a single coated tool and a multicoated tool were analyzed after suitable heat treatment process. TNMG shaped insert with single coating of TiCN and multi-coating of TiAlN/TiN were developed on tungsten carbide substrate. These coated inserts were then successfully annealed and normalized for a temperature of 350°C for 30 minutes and their cutting performance was evaluated as per the flank wear obtained after turning of mild steel. The results showed that heat treatment had a suitable impact on the tool life of the coated insert and also led to increase in the micro-hardness of the tool coatings and decrease in the wear rate.

Keywords: flank wear, annealing, micro-hardness, PVD coatings, normalizing

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3 Measurements of Physical Properties of Directionally Solidified Al-Si-Cu Ternary Alloy

Authors: Aynur Aker, Hasan Kaya


Al-12.6wt.%Si-2wt.%Cu ternary alloy of near eutectic composition was directionally solidified upward at a constant temperature gradient in a wide range of growth rates (V=8.25-165.41 µm/s). The microstructures (λ), microhardness (HV), tensile stress (σ) and electrical resistivity (ρ) were measured from directionally solidified samples. The dependence of microstructures, microhardness and electrical resistivity on growth rate (V) was also determined by statistical analysis. According to these results, it has been found that for increasing values of V, the values of HV, σ and ρ increase. Variations of electrical resistivity for casting Al-Si-Cu alloy were also measured at the temperature in range 300-500 K. The enthalpy (ΔH) and the specific heat (Cp) for the Al-Si-Cu alloy were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from heating trace during the transformation from solid to liquid. The results obtained in this work were compared with the similar experimental results in the literature.

Keywords: Microstructures, Enthalpy, micro-hardness, Al-Si-Cu alloy, tensile stress electrical resistivity

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2 Wear Performance of Stellite 21 Cladded Overlay on Aisi 304L

Authors: Arun Kumar, Karanvir Singh Ghuman, Sandeep Singh Sandhua


Stellite 21 is cobalt based super alloy used in improving the wear performance of stainless steel engineering components subjected to harsh environmental conditions. This piece of research focuses on the wear analysis of satellite 21 cladded on AISI 304 L substrate using SMAW process. Bead on plate experiments were carried out by varying current and electrode manipulation techniques to optimize the dilution and microhardness. 80 Amp current and weaving technique was found to be optimum set of parameters for overlaying which were further used for multipass multilayer cladding of AISI 304 L substrate. The wear performance was examined on pin on dics wear testing machine under room temperature conditions. The results from this study show that Stellite 21 overlays show a significant improvement in the frictional wear resistance after TIG remelting. It is also established that low dilution procedures are important in controlling the metallurgical composition of these overlays which has a consequent effect in enhancing hardness and wear resistance of these overlays.

Keywords: micro-hardness, dilution, surfacing, SMAW, stellite 21, frictional wear

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1 Influence of Vegetable Oil-Based Controlled Cutting Fluid Impinging Supply System on Micro Hardness in Machining of Ti-6Al-4V

Authors: Fawad Inam, Islam Shyha, Salah Gariani, Dehong Huo


A controlled cutting fluid impinging supply system (CUT-LIST) was developed to deliver an accurate amount of cutting fluid into the machining zone via well-positioned coherent nozzles based on a calculation of the heat generated. The performance of the CUT-LIST was evaluated against a conventional flood cutting fluid supply system during step shoulder milling of Ti-6Al-4V using vegetable oil-based cutting fluid. In this paper, the micro-hardness of the machined surface was used as the main criterion to compare the two systems. CUT-LIST provided significant reductions in cutting fluid consumption (up to 42%). Both systems caused increased micro-hardness value at 100 µm from the machined surface, whereas a slight reduction in micro-hardness of 4.5% was measured when using CUL-LIST. It was noted that the first 50 µm is the soft sub-surface promoted by thermal softening, whereas down to 100 µm is the hard sub-surface caused by the cyclic internal work hardening and then gradually decreased until it reached the base material nominal hardness. It can be concluded that the CUT-LIST has always given lower micro-hardness values near the machined surfaces in all conditions investigated.

Keywords: micro-hardness, Ti-6Al-4V, impinging supply system, shoulder milling, vegetable oil-based cutting fluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 170