Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Mexico Related Abstracts

18 The Structural Pillars in Contemporary Mexico: Legacies of the Past and Lessons for the Future

Authors: Lisdey Espinoza Pedraza

Abstract:

In places from Latin America to Africa, a big number of authoritarian regimes have given way to democratic forces and increasingly responsive and open societies. Many countries have embarked upon a process of democratisation for the first time while many others have moved to restore their democratic roots. Mexico is one of these countries, and although the Mexican state is not democratic neither dictatorial in the strict sense the Anglo-Saxon and European tradition has defined these concepts, it is possible to find elements that combine both concepts. History helps us understand and study the past, interpret the present and predict the future. In the case of the Mexican political system, history has had a very specific effect in each of the areas that comprise the making of what it is now the contemporary Mexican system. Each of the different historical periods has left a legacy that has marked the way the political system has evolved. The historical periods that Mexico has undergone since its emergence as an independent state, have permeated until modern days and some of these legacies are the ones which will help us understand and interpret many of the structures of the current Mexican political system. The most notorious characteristic of contemporary Latin America is its dependency, underdevelopment and economic disparity once this region if compared with Europe and North America. There is a widespread persistence of economic dependence and social problems despite the creation of independent countries. The role of the state is to supervise the development of relations among actors. The political phenomenon is full of a constant process of transitions and the particular case of the formation of the Mexican state evidences this.

Keywords: Latin America, Mexico, democratisation process, PRI, authoritarian regimes, political transitions

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17 Contemporary Mexican Shadow Politics: The War on Drugs and the Issue of Security

Authors: Lisdey Espinoza Pedraza

Abstract:

Organised crime in Mexico evolves faster that our capacity to understand and explain it. Organised gangs have become successful entrepreneurs in many ways ad they have somehow mimicked the working ways of the authorities and in many cases, they have successfully infiltrated the governmental spheres. This business model is only possible under a clear scheme of rampant impunity. Impunity, however, is not exclusive to the PRI. Nor the PRI, PAN, or PRD can claim the monopoly of corruption, but what is worse is that none can claim full honesty in their acts either. The current security crisis in Mexico shows a crisis in the Mexican political party system. Corruption today is not only a problem of dishonesty and the correct use of public resources. It is the principal threat to Mexican democracy, governance, and national security.

Keywords: Security, Drug Trafficking, Latin America, United States, Mexico, war on drugs

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16 Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: The Case of Mexico

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez

Abstract:

The causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth has been an important issue in the economic literature. This paper studies the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Mexico for the period of 1971-2011. In so doing, unit root tests and causality test are applied. The results show that the series are stationary in levels and that there is causality running from economic growth to energy consumption. The energy conservation policies have little or no impact on economic growth in México.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, Economic growth, Causality, Mexico

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15 Complexity in Managing Higher Education Institutions in Mexico: A System Dynamics Approach

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez, Medardo Serna

Abstract:

This paper analyses managing higher education institutions in emerging economies. The paper investigates the case of postgraduate studies development at public universities. In so doing, it adopts the complex theory approach to evaluate how postgraduate studies have evolved in these countries. The investigation suggests that the postgraduate studies sector at public universities can be seen as a complex adaptive system (CAS). Therefore, the paper adopts system dynamics (SD) methods to develop this analysis. The case of postgraduate studies at Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo in Mexico is investigated in this paper.

Keywords: System Dynamics, Complex Adaptive Systems, higher education institutions, Mexico

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14 Environmental Consequences of Metal Concentrations in Stream Sediments of Atoyac River Basin, Central Mexico: Natural and Industrial Influences

Authors: V. C. Shruti, P. F. Rodríguez-Espinosa, D. C. Escobedo-Urías, Estefanía Martinez Tavera, M. P. Jonathan

Abstract:

Atoyac River, a major south-central river flowing through the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala in Mexico is significantly impacted by the natural volcanic inputs in addition with wastewater discharges from urban, agriculture and industrial zones. In the present study, core samples were collected from R. Atoyac and analyzed for sediment granularity, major (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, P and S) and trace elemental concentrations (Ba, Cr, Cd, Mn, Pb, Sr, V, Zn, Zr). The textural studies reveal that the sediments are mostly sand sized particles exceeding 99% and with very few to no presence of mud fractions. It is observed that most of the metals like (avg: all values in μg g-1) Ca (35,528), Mg (10,789), K (7453), S (1394), Ba (203), Cr (30), Cd (4), Pb (11), Sr (435), Zn (76) and Zr (88) are enriched throughout the sediments mainly sourced from volcanic inputs, source rock composition of Atoyac River basin and industrial influences from the Puebla city region. Contamination indices, such as anthropogenic factor (AF), enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo), were used to investigate the level of contamination and toxicity as well as quantitatively assess the influences of human activities on metal concentrations. The AF values (>1) for Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, K, P and S suggested volcanic inputs from the study region, where as Cd and Zn are attributed to the impacts of industrial inputs in this zone. The EF and Igeo values revealed an extreme enrichment of S and Cd. The ecological risks were evaluated using potential ecological risk index (RI) and the results indicate that the metals Cd and V pose a major hazard for the biological community.

Keywords: Mexico, Atoyac River, contamination indices, metal concentrations, textural studies

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13 A Lesson in the Social Welfare System in Mexico: Limited Resources for Unlimited Needs

Authors: Vanessa L. Haro

Abstract:

Beginning with a historical foundation of Mexico, this marks the start of a close examination of this major Latin American country by providing the context needed to understand the reasons for Mexico’s strengths and struggles today, specific to their response to the issue of gender violence. Responding to the challenge of combating gender violence and inequality, Mexico has created social programs and initiatives in hopes of addressing these issues and modernizing their gender norms, which currently disempower and dehumanize women, while simultaneously denying women the necessary tools needed to fight back or bring balance to the gender scales. Nevertheless, women in Mexico have made their voices heard with the most salient image of that of the mothers protesting while holding the photos of their young daughters who lost their lives. This case study on gender issues in Mexico works to acknowledge the diverse forces that contribute to the issue of gender violence, and to make a statement that this is a crisis that requires a more dynamic response within Mexico’s social welfare policies, and should not be allowed to continue to progress as a normative phenomenon. As the advocacy groups and protesters cry out, “Ni una menos! (Not one less), meaning we will not lose one more woman and making the statement that all women’s lives matter.

Keywords: Poverty, Social welfare, Gender Issues, Mexico

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12 On the Determinants of Women’s Intrahousehold Decision-Making Power and the Impact of Diverging from Community Standards: A Generalised Ordered Logit Approach

Authors: Alma Sobrevilla

Abstract:

Using panel data from Mexico, this paper studies the determinants of women’s intrahousehold decision-making power using a generalised ordered logit model. Fixed effects estimations are also carried out to solve potential endogeneity coming from unobservable time-invariant factors. Finally, the paper analyses quadratic and community divergence effects of education on power. Results show heterogeneity in the effect of each of the determinants across different levels of decision-making power and suggest the presence of a significant quadratic effect of education. Having more education than the community average has a negative effect on power, supporting the notion that women tend to compensate their success outside the household with submissive attitudes at home.

Keywords: Women, Mexico, decision-making power, intrahousehold

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11 Rurality in Flux: A Perspective on Changing Face of Rural Tourism Enterprise

Authors: Gunjan Saxena

Abstract:

This paper presents case insights from India and Mexico to illustrate how tourism can work as a tool for bringing about peace and prosperity in disadvantaged communities living in peripheral rural localities. A reordering of rural space, given the slow but definite shift from production-oriented activities towards more complex and contested blends of production, consumption and protection indicates clearly that rurality is in flux. Whilst on one hand, there is a predominance of urban interests in the countryside, on the other rurality is boxed and presented for consumption in urban localities. Qualitative data, collected using semi-structured interviews and participant observation, is used in illustrating how creative enterprise is bringing about innovative use of rural ethos and space in response to consumer demands. Overall, this work seeks to contribute to debates on how rurality no longer represents a fixed space of tradition, but is packaged and promoted in a multi-faceted manner to creatively perform for and access tourism markets.

Keywords: India, Rural tourism, Mexico, creative enterprise

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10 Cultural Tourism in Mexico as a Strategy to Attract Chinese Tourists

Authors: Ruben Molina, Melissa Ochoa

Abstract:

The rapid expansion and facilities that the Chinese government has granted to its inhabitants to travel abroad has brought benefits to the economies of the countries where these tourists travel. Due to the great economic spill that these tourists make in their travels and the great potential they possess, they become one of the most attractive segments in the world, causing countries to seek to attract them for the profits. The Chinese tourist is a tourist who seeks to know the culture, culinary experiences, traditions and folklore of the place where they travel, more than seeking sun and beach. Mexico is a country that has a great mix of tourist products and services, which favors that the tourism offer focuses on the satisfaction of the needs and preferences of the different segments of international tourists who arrive in Mexico: sun and beach tourism and also cultural tourism. Mexico has 51 sites inscribed on the World Heritage List, of which 12 are natural, 37 are cultural and 2 are mixed. Despite the great tourist attraction of the country and the strategic importance of the sector for the economy, Mexico has not managed to have a large number of tourists or income from international tourism for 15 years. One way to increase the travel industry is to attract the Chinese tourist to Mexico, which is considered a priority by countries like the United States, France and Spain due to the advantages they entail. Therefore, this article will describe the tastes, preferences and habits of Chinese tourists coming to the most popular destinations in Mexico through a Likert scale and it will be described which are the most attractive cultural factors in Mexico for the Chinese tourists and will be proposing strategies of attraction for Mexico and its destinations.

Keywords: Strategic, Cultural tourism, Mexico, attraction, Chinese tourist

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9 Assessing Innovation Activity in Mexico and South Korea: An Econometric Approach

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez, Won Ho Kim, Ángel Licona

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This article analyzes innovation activity in Mexico and South Korea. It develops an econometric model to test for structural breaks in the number of patent applications filed by residents and nonresidents in these countries during the period of 1965 to 2012. These changes may suggest that firms’ innovative capabilities have changed because of implementing different science, technology and innovation (STI) policies in Mexico and South Korea. Two important features characterize this research from others already developed by these authors. First, the theoretical research framework in this research is the debate between the assimilation view of growth and the accumulation view of growth. This characteristic suggests that trade liberalization should be accompanied by an adequate STI policy to boost competitiveness among indigenous firms. Second, the analysis in this research stresses the importance of key actors (e.g. governments) to successfully develop innovation capabilities among indigenous firms. Therefore, the question conducting this research is how STI policies in Mexico and South Korea contributed to develop firms’ innovation capabilities in these countries during last decades? The results from this research suggests that STI policy in South Korea was more suitable to boost innovation firms to compete in markets. Data to develop this research was released by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

Keywords: Innovation, Science, technology and innovation policy, Mexico, South Korea

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8 Federalism and Foreign Affairs: The International Relations of Mexican Sub-State Governments

Authors: Jorge A. Schiavon

Abstract:

This article analyzes the international relations of sub-State governments (IRSSG) in Mexico. It aims to answer five questions: 1) What explains the recent and dramatic increase in their international activities? 2) What is the impact of federalism on the foreign affairs of the federal units? 3) What are the levels or degrees of IRSSG and how have they changed over the last years? 4) How do Mexican federal units institutionalize their international activities? 5) What are the perceptions and capacities of the federal units in their internationalization process? The first section argues that the growth in the IRSSG is generated by growing interdependence and globalization in the international system, and democratization, decentralization and structural reform in the national arena. The second section sustains that the renewed Mexican federalism has generated the incentives for SSG to participate more intensively in international affairs. The third section defends that there is a wide variation in their degree of international participation, which is measured in three moments in time (2004 2009 and 2014), and explains how this activity has changed in the last decade. The fourth section studies the institutionalization of the IRSSG in Mexico through the analysis of Inter-Institutional Agreements (IIA). Finally, the last section concentrates in explaining the perceptions and capacities of Mexican sub-State governments to conduct international relations.

Keywords: Foreign Policy, federalism, Mexico, international relations of sub-state governments, paradiplomacy

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7 Prioritizing Biodiversity Conservation Areas based on the Vulnerability and the Irreplaceability Framework in Mexico

Authors: Alma Mendoza-Ponce, Rogelio Corona-Núñez, Florian Kraxner

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Mexico is a megadiverse country and it has nearly halved its natural vegetation in the last century due to agricultural and livestock expansion. Impacts of land use cover change and climate change are unevenly distributed and spatial prioritization to minimize the affectations on biodiversity is crucial. Global and national efforts for prioritizing biodiversity conservation show that ~33% to 45% of Mexico should be protected. The width of these targets makes difficult to lead resources. We use a framework based on vulnerability and irreplaceability to prioritize conservation efforts in Mexico. Vulnerability considered exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity under two scenarios (business as usual, BAU based, on the SSP2 and RCP 4.5 and a Green scenario, based on the SSP1 and the RCP 2.6). Exposure to land use is the magnitude of change from natural vegetation to anthropogenic covers while exposure to climate change is the difference between current and future values for both scenarios. Sensitivity was considered as the number of endemic species of terrestrial vertebrates which are critically endangered and endangered. Adaptive capacity is used as the ration between the percentage of converted area (natural to anthropogenic) and the percentage of protected area at municipality level. The results suggest that by 2050, between 11.6 and 13.9% of Mexico show vulnerability ≥ 50%, and by 2070, between 12.0 and 14.8%, in the Green and BAU scenario, respectively. From an ecosystem perspective cloud forests, followed by tropical dry forests, natural grasslands and temperate forests will be the most vulnerable (≥ 50%). Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates; 62% of the endemic amphibians are critically endangered or endangered while 39%, 12% and 9% of the mammals, birds, and reptiles, respectively. However, the distribution of these amphibians counts for only 3.3% of the country, while mammals, birds, and reptiles in these categories represent 10%, 16% and 29% of Mexico. There are 5 municipalities out of the 2,457 that Mexico has that represent 31% of the most vulnerable areas (70%).These municipalities account for 0.05% of Mexico. This multiscale approach can be used to address resources to conservation targets as ecosystems, municipalities or species considering land use cover change, climate change and biodiversity uniqueness.

Keywords: Climate Change, Biodiversity, land use change, Vulnerability, Mexico

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6 Perception of Violence through the Drawing: A Research with Mexican University Students

Authors: Yessica Martinez Soto, Cesar E. Jimenez Yanez, Margarita Barak Velasquez, Yaralin Aceves Villanueva

Abstract:

The presence of violent behavior in society is growing rapidly, which causes people to live in an environment of constant tension due to fear of becoming victims of violent acts. It is up to social scientists to be able to carry out analyzes in this regard to identify the different ways in which violence is normalized among people. The interest of this research work focuses on investigating the perception of violence in Mexican University students through the technique of drawing. To carry out this research, we worked with 67 university students from the Autonomous University of Baja California in Mexico, who drew an image of how they understood the concept of violence. His works showed us a variety of emotions, actions, and elements that relate and link with violence. One of the methodological tools to recognize and establish the link between the knowledge of a concept between discourse and practice is through graphic representations, that is, drawings. Although the drawing gives us a personal interpretation of the reality of each artist, the repetition of elements and the representation of similar situations allowed us to identify the degrees of incidence of the different types of violence and the areas in which it manifests itself.

Keywords: Violence, Social Representations, college students, Mexico

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5 Undocumented Migrants on the Northern Border of Mexico: Social Imaginary, and Social Representations

Authors: Yessica Martinez Soto, César Enrique Jiménez Yañez

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In the present work, the phenomenon of undocumented migration in the northern border of Mexico is analyzed through the graphic representation of the experience of people who migrate in an undocumented way to the United States. 33 of them drew what it meant for them to migrate. Our objective is to analyze the social phenomenon of migration through the drawings of migrants, using the concepts of social imaginary and social representations, identifying the different significant elements with which this symbolically builds their experience. Drawing, as a methodological tool, will help us to understand the migratory experience beyond words.

Keywords: Social Representations, Mexico, social imaginary, undocumented migrants

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4 Motherhood in the Poetry of Rosario Castellanos: Other Face of Womanhood

Authors: Dovile Kuzminskaite

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Rosario Castellanos is one of the most important Mexican writers; in her poetry and essays, she demythologizes social stereotypes about womanhood that were deeply present in Mexican society of the XXth century. In her extent poetic work, Rosario Castellanos demythologizes such concepts as romance, marriage, and motherhood, showing them in a way which did not agree with the norms of the catholic based society of her times. The aim of this research is to analyze the poetry of Rosario Castellanos working on sematic and structural levels and to investigate closely how she represents motherhood, what is the role of mother and the relationship of mother and child in her poems. Also, it is of interest to observe what are the elements used in the process of creating a different concept of motherhood. In order to reflect on this subject, this research will be based on semiotics, queer studies, and the philosophy of Michel Foucault, who introduces the concept of power when reflecting on gender and society. Rosario Castellanos turned into an example of disobedience and otherness for a generation of intellectuals in Spanish speaking countries, and because of this reason, it is of great importance to understand the politic and social statements that are represented by her poetry.

Keywords: Women, Poetry, Mexico, motherhood

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3 Participatory Cartography for Disaster Reduction in Pogreso, Yucatan Mexico

Authors: Gustavo Cruz-Bello

Abstract:

Progreso is a coastal community in Yucatan, Mexico, highly exposed to floods produced by severe storms and tropical cyclones. A participatory cartography approach was conducted to help to reduce floods disasters and assess social vulnerability within the community. The first step was to engage local authorities in risk management to facilitate the process. Two workshop were conducted, in the first, a poster size printed high spatial resolution satellite image of the town was used to gather information from the participants: eight women and seven men, among them construction workers, students, government employees and fishermen, their ages ranged between 23 and 58 years old. For the first task, participants were asked to locate emblematic places and place them in the image to familiarize with it. Then, they were asked to locate areas that get flooded, the buildings that they use as refuges, and to list actions that they usually take to reduce vulnerability, as well as to collectively come up with others that might reduce disasters. The spatial information generated at the workshops was digitized and integrated into a GIS environment. A printed version of the map was reviewed by local risk management experts, who validated feasibility of proposed actions. For the second workshop, we retrieved the information back to the community for feedback. Additionally a survey was applied in one household per block in the community to obtain socioeconomic, prevention and adaptation data. The information generated from the workshops was contrasted, through T and Chi Squared tests, with the survey data in order to probe the hypothesis that poorer or less educated people, are less prepared to face floods (more vulnerable) and live near or among higher presence of floods. Results showed that a great majority of people in the community are aware of the hazard and are prepared to face it. However, there was not a consistent relationship between regularly flooded areas with people’s average years of education, house services, or house modifications against heavy rains to be prepared to hazards. We could say that the participatory cartography intervention made participants aware of their vulnerability and made them collectively reflect about actions that can reduce disasters produced by floods. They also considered that the final map could be used as a communication and negotiation instrument with NGO and government authorities. It was not found that poorer and less educated people are located in areas with higher presence of floods.

Keywords: Climate Change, floods, Participatory Mapping, Social Vulnerability, Mexico

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2 A Predictive Model of Supply and Demand in the State of Jalisco, Mexico

Authors: M. Gil, R. Montalvo

Abstract:

Business Intelligence (BI) has become a major source of competitive advantages for firms around the world. BI has been defined as the process of data visualization and reporting for understanding what happened and what is happening. Moreover, BI has been studied for its predictive capabilities in the context of trade and financial transactions. The current literature has identified that BI permits managers to identify market trends, understand customer relations, and predict demand for their products and services. This last capability of BI has been of special concern to academics. Specifically, due to its power to build predictive models adaptable to specific time horizons and geographical regions. However, the current literature of BI focuses on predicting specific markets and industries because the impact of such predictive models was relevant to specific industries or organizations. Currently, the existing literature has not developed a predictive model of BI that takes into consideration the whole economy of a geographical area. This paper seeks to create a predictive model of BI that would show the bigger picture of a geographical area. This paper uses a data set from the Secretary of Economic Development of the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Such data set includes data from all the commercial transactions that occurred in the state in the last years. By analyzing such data set, it will be possible to generate a BI model that predicts supply and demand from specific industries around the state of Jalisco. This research has at least three contributions. Firstly, a methodological contribution to the BI literature by generating the predictive supply and demand model. Secondly, a theoretical contribution to BI current understanding. The model presented in this paper incorporates the whole picture of the economic field instead of focusing on a specific industry. Lastly, a practical contribution might be relevant to local governments that seek to improve their economic performance by implementing BI in their policy planning.

Keywords: Business Intelligence, Supply and demand, predictive model, Mexico

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1 Disability Policy and Leaders in México

Authors: Jennifer Isabelle Rios Rendón, Ursula Sanchez, Dana Lee Baker

Abstract:

Disability Policy in México has witnessed numerous changed throughout the years. Physical disabilities are more often recognized in Mexican culture. However, with an emerging focus on neurological disabilities or differences in individuals’ new policies are needed to serve better and understand the needs of these populations. The need to understand and communicate with local leaders is imperative, as the lens used to analyze autism has historically been from a Western school of thought. We are looking to comprehend the disability policy subsystem in México - specifically how autism is perceived, the language used to describe it, and how it ties to the cultural stigma of disabilities that exist in México. Therefore, to understand this, we seek to interview multiple policy leaders on their experience in autism and disability policy. The goal is to conduct qualitative research through interviews with local autism and disability leaders in México. This methodology aims to answer the questions of what language commonly and culturally is utilized in disability policy, the context of how autism is perceived in México, and in general, the lived experience of the disability policy leaders that take part in this effort in México. Local activists and policy leaders were initially found through an online search then collected using snowball sampling. The interviews were conducted through a series of pre-formulated questions that the policy leader answered via email or a phone conversation with the researchers. Acknowledging the importance of language and accessibility, the need for the content to be in both English and Spanish as well as auditory and visual is essential to take steps in the inclusion of a Neurodiverse group of leaders. This work is a demonstration of the framework of the investigation which hopes to create a more complete understanding of the policy and political culture around autism in México. Results of the project include new insight into the developing relationship between the President Andrés Manuel López Obrador’s administration, disability activists, and neurodiverse communities. The project contributes to denormalizing the legacy of white supremacy in autism related, historically rooted in the assumption that autism occurs predominantly in white communities.

Keywords: autism, Disability Policy, Mexico, disability leaders, Neurodiversity

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