Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

methotrexate Related Abstracts

12 Pioglitazone Ameliorates Methotrexate-Induced Renal Endothelial Dysfunction via Amending Detrimental Changes in Antioxidant Profile, Systemic Cytokines and Apoptotic Factors

Authors: Sahar M. El-Gowilly, Mai M. Helmy, Hanan M. El-Gowelli

Abstract:

Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases. However, nephrotoxicity is one of the most important side effects of MTX. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, pioglitazone (PIO), is known to exert anti-inflammatory and reno-protective effects in various kidney injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential involvement of endothelial damage in MTX-induced renal injury and to elaborate the possible protective effect of PIO against MTX-induced nephropathy. Compared with saline-treated rats, treatment with MTX (7 mg/kg for 3 day) caused significant elevations in serum levels of urea and creatinine, increased renal nitrate/nitrite level and impaired renovascular responsiveness of isolated perfused kidney to endothelium-dependent vasodilations induced by acetylcholine (0.01-2.43 nmol) and isoprenaline (1µmol). These effects were abolished by concurrent treatment with PIO (2.5 mg/kg, for 5 days starting two days before MTX). Alternatively, MTX treatment did not affect endothelium-independent renovascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (1-30 μmole). The possibility that alterations in renal antioxidants, circulating cytokine and apoptotic factor (Fas) levels contributed to MTX-PIO interaction was assessed. PIO treatment abrogated renal oxidative stress (decreased reduced glutathione and catalase activity and increased malondialdehyde), elevated serum cytokine (interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1) and Fas induced by MTX. Histologically, MTX caused defused tubular cells swelling and vacuolization associated with endothelial damage in renal arterioles. These effects disappeared upon co-treated with PIO. Collectively, PIO abolished MTX-induced endothelium dysfunction and nephrotoxicity via ameliorating oxidative stress and rectifying cytokines and Fas abnormalities caused by MTX.

Keywords: Kidney, methotrexate, pioglitazone, endothelium

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11 Involvement of Multi-Drug Resistance Protein (Mrp) 3 in Resveratrol Protection against Methotrexate-Induced Testicular Damage

Authors: Mohamed A. Morsy, Azza A. K. El-Sheikh, Abdulla Y. Al-Taher

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of resveratrol (RES) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced testicular damage. RES (10 mg/kg/day) was given for 8 days orally and MTX (20 mg/kg i.p.) was given at day 4 of experiment, with or without RES in rats. MTX decreased serum testosterone, induced histopathological testicular damage, increased testicular tumor necrosis factor-α level and expression of nuclear factor-κB and cyclooxygenase-2. In MTX/RES group, significant reversal of these parameters was noticed, compared to MTX group. Testicular expression of multidrug resistance protein (Mrp) 3 was three- and five-folds higher in RES- and MTX/RES-treated groups, respectively. In vitro, using prostate cancer cells, each of MTX and RES alone induced cytotoxicity with IC50 0.18 ± 0.08 and 20.5 ± 3.6 µM, respectively. RES also significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of MTX. In conclusion, RES appears to have dual beneficial effect, as it promotes MTX tumor cytotoxicity, while protecting the testes, probably via up-regulation of testicular Mrp3 as a novel mechanism.

Keywords: Resveratrol, cyclooxygenase-2, methotrexate, multidrug resistance protein 3, tumor necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor-κB

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10 Development of Methotrexate Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for Topical Treatment of Psoriasis: Optimization, Evaluation, and in vitro Studies

Authors: Yogeeta O. Agrawal, Hitendra S. Mahajan, Sanjay J. Surana

Abstract:

Methotrexate is effective in controlling recalcitrant psoriasis when administered by the oral or parenteral route long-term. However, the systematic use of this drug may provoke any of a number of side effects, notably hepatotoxic effects. To reduce these effects, clinical studies have been done with topical MTx. It is useful in treating a number of cutaneous conditions, including psoriasis. A major problem in topical administration of MTx currently available in market is that the drug is hydrosoluble and is mostly in the dissociated form at physiological pH. Its capacity for passive diffusion is thus limited. Localization of MTx in effected layers of skin is likely to improve the role of topical dosage form of the drug as a supplementary to oral therapy for treatment of psoriasis. One of the possibilities for increasing the penetration of drugs through the skin is the use of Nanostructured lipid Carriers. The objective of the present study was to formulate and characterize Methotrexate loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (MtxNLCs), to understand in vitro drug release and evaluate the role of the developed gel in the topical treatment of psoriasis. MtxNLCs were prepared by solvent diffusion technique using 3(2) full factorial design.The mean diameter and surface morphology of MtxNLC was evaluated. MtxNLCs were lyophilized and crystallinity of NLC was characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimtery (DSC) and powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The NLCs were incorporated in 1% w/w Carbopol 934 P gel base and in vitro skin deposition studies in Human Cadaver Skin were conducted. The optimized MtxNLCs were spherical in shape, with average particle size of 253(±9.92)nm, zeta potential of -30.4 (±0.86) mV and EE of 53.12(±1.54)%. DSC and XRD data confirmed the formation of NLCs. Significantly higher deposition of Methotrexate was found in human cadaver skin from MtxNLC gel (71.52 ±1.23%) as compared to Mtx plain gel (54.28±1.02%). Findings of the studies suggest that there is significant improvement in therapeutic index in treatment of psoriasis by MTx-NLCs incorporated gel base developed in this investigation over plain drug gel currently available in the market.

Keywords: Psoriasis, methotrexate, NLCs, hepatotoxic effects

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9 Pioglitazone Ameliorates Methotrexate-Induced Renal Endothelial Dysfunction via Amending Detrimental Changes in Antioxidant Profile, Systemic Cytokines and Fas Production

Authors: Sahar M. El-Gowilly, Mai M. Helmy, Hanan M. El-Gowelli

Abstract:

Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases. However, nephrotoxicity is one of its most important side effects. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, pioglitazone, is known to exert antiinflammatory and reno-protective effects in various kidney injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential involvement of endothelial damage in MTX-induced renal injury and to elaborate the possible protective effect of pioglitazone against MTX-induced endothelial impairment. Compared with saline-treated rats, treatment with MTX (7 mg/kg for 3 day) caused significant elevations in serum levels of urea and creatinine, increased renal nitrate/nitrite level and impaired renovascular responsiveness of isolated perfused kidney to endothelium-dependent vasodilations induced by acetylcholine (0.01-2.43 nmol) and isoprenaline (1µmol). These effects were abolished by concurrent treatment with pioglitazone (2.5 mg/kg, for 5 days starting two days before MTX). Alternatively, MTX treatment did not affect endothelium-independent renovascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (0.001-10 μmole). The possibility that alterations in renal antioxidants, circulating cytokine and apoptotic factor (Fas) levels contributed to MTX-pioglitazone interaction was assessed. Pioglitazone treatment abrogated renal oxidative stress (decreased reduced glutathione and catalase activity and increased malondialdehyde), elevated serum cytokine (interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1) and Fas induced by MTX. Histologically, MTX caused defused tubular cells swelling and vacuolization associated with endothelial damage in renal arterioles. These effects disappeared upon co-treated with pioglitazone. Collectively, pioglitazone abolished MTX-induced endothelium dysfunction and nephrotoxicity via ameliorating oxidative stress and rectifying cytokines and Fas abnormalities caused by MTX.

Keywords: Kidney, methotrexate, pioglitazone, endothelium

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8 Revision of Arthroplasty in Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis: Methotrexate and Radiographic Lucency in RA Patients

Authors: Mike T. Wei, Douglas N. Mintz, Lisa A. Mandl, Arielle W. Fein, Jayme C. Burket, Yuo-Yu Lee, Wei-Ti Huang, Vivian P. Bykerk, Mark P. Figgie, Edward F. Di Carlo, Bruce N. Cronstein, Susan M. Goodman

Abstract:

Background/Purpose: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have excellent total hip arthroplasty (THA) survival, and methotrexate (MTX), an anti-inflammatory disease modifying drug which may affect bone reabsorption, may play a role. The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnosis leading to revision THA (rTHA) in RA patients and to assess the association of radiographic lucency with MTX use. Methods: All patients with validated diagnosis of RA in the institution’s THA registry undergoing rTHA from May 2007 - February 2011 were eligible. Diagnosis leading to rTHA and medication use was determined by chart review. Osteolysis was evaluated on available radiographs by measuring maximum lucency in each Gruen zone. Differences within RA patients with/without MTX in osteolysis, demographics, and medications were assessed with chi-squared, Fisher's exact tests or Mann-Whitney U tests as appropriate. The error rate for multiple comparisons of lucency in the different Gruen zones was corrected via false discovery rate methods. A secondary analysis was performed to determine differences in diagnoses leading to revision between RA and matched OA controls (2:1 match by sex age +/- 5 years). OA exclusion criteria included presence of rheumatic diseases, use of MTX, and lack of records. Results: 51 RA rTHA were identified and compared with 103 OA. Mean age for RA was 57.7 v 59.4 years for OA (p = 0.240). 82.4% RA were female v 83.5% OA (p = 0.859). RA had lower BMI than OA (25.5 v 28.2; p = 0.166). There was no difference in diagnosis leading to rTHA, including infection (RA 3.9 v OA 6.8%; p = 0.719) or dislocation (RA 23.5 v OA 23.3%; p = 0.975). There was no significant difference in the length of time the implant was in before revision: RA 11.0 v OA 8.8 years (p = 0.060). Among RA with/without MTX, there was no difference in use of biologics (30.0 v 43.3%, p = 0.283), steroids (47.6 v 50.0%, p = 0.867) or bisphosphonates (23.8 v 33.3%, p = 0.543). There was no difference in rTHA diagnosis with/without MTX, including loosening (52.4 v 56.7%, p = 0.762). There was no significant difference in lucencies with MTX use in any Gruen zone. Patients with MTX had femoral stem subsidence of 3.7mm v no subsidence without MTX (p = 0.006). Conclusion: There was no difference in the diagnosis leading to rTHR in RA and OA, although RA trended longer prior to rTHA. In this small retrospective study, there were no significant differences associated with MTX exposure or radiographic lucency among RA patients. The significance of subsidence is not clear. Further study of arthroplasty survival in RA patients is warranted.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, methotrexate, hip arthroplasty, revision arthroplasty

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7 Synthesis, Characterization and Bioactivity of Methotrexate Conjugated Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticles in vitro Model System Using Human Lung Carcinoma Cell Lines

Authors: Abdul Matin, Muhammad Ajmal, Uzma Yunus, Noaman-ul Haq, Hafiz M. Shohaib, Ambreen G. Muazzam

Abstract:

Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) have unique properties that are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer due to their precise properties like small size (ideal for delivery within the body) stability in solvent and tunable surface chemistry for targeted delivery. Here, highly fluorescent, monodispersed and water-soluble CNPs were synthesized directly from a suitable carbohydrate source (glucose and sucrose) by one-step acid assisted ultrasonic treatment at 35 KHz for 4 hours. This method is green, simple, rapid and economical and can be used for large scale production and applications. The average particle sizes of CNPs are less than 10nm and they emit bright and colorful green-blue fluorescence under the irradiation of UV-light at 365nm. The CNPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, fluorescent spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and TGA analysis. Fluorescent CNPs were used as fluorescent probe and nano-carriers for anticancer drug. Functionalized CNPs (with ethylene diamine) were attached with anticancer drug-Methotrexate. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility of CNPs-drug conjugates was evaluated by LDH assay and Sulforhodamine B assay using human lung carcinoma cell lines (H157). Our results reveled that CNPs showed biocompatibility and CNPs-anticancer drug conjugates have shown potent cytotoxic effects and high antitumor activities in lung cancer cell lines. CNPs are proved to be excellent substitute for conventional drug delivery cargo systems and anticancer therapeutics in vitro. Our future studies will be more focused on using the same nanoparticles in vivo model system.

Keywords: Carbon Nanoparticles, methotrexate, Lactate dehydrogenase, carbon nanoparticles-methotrexate conjugates, human lung carcinoma cell lines

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6 Involvement of BCRP/ABCG2 in Protective Mechanisms of Resveratrol against Methotrexate-Induced Renal Damage in Rats

Authors: Mohamed A. Morsy, Azza A. El-Sheikh, Abdulla Y. Al-Taher

Abstract:

Resveratrol (RES) is a well-known polyphenol antioxidant. We have previously shown that testicular protective effect of RES against the anticancer drug methotrexate (MTX)-induced toxicity involves transporter-mediated mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effect of RES on MTX-induced nephrotoxicity. Rats were administered RES (10 mg/kg/day) for 8 days, with or without a single MTX dose (20 mg/kg i.p.) at day 4 of the experiment. MTX induced nephrotoxicity evident by significantly increase in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine compared to control, as well as distortion of kidney microscopic structure. MTX also significantly increased renal nitric oxide level, with induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. MTX also significantly up-regulated fas ligand and caspase 3. Administering RES prior to MTX significantly improved kidney function and microscopic picture, as well as significantly decreased nitrosative and apoptotic markers compared to MTX alone. RES, but not MTX, caused significant increase in expression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), an apical efflux renal transporter that participates in urinary elimination of both MTX and RES. Interestingly, concomitant MTX and RES caused further up-regulation of renal Bcrp compared to RES alone. Using Human BCRP ATPase assay, both RES and MTX exhibited dose-dependent increase in ATPase activity, with Km values of 0.52 ± 0.03 and 30.9 ± 4.2 µM, respectively. Furthermore, combined RES and MTX caused ATPase activity which was significantly less than maximum ATPase activity attained by the positive control; sulfasalazine (12.5 µM). In conclusion, RES exerted nephro-protection against MTX-induced toxicity through anti-nitrosative and anti-apoptotic effects, as well as via up-regulation of renal Bcrp.

Keywords: Resveratrol, nephrotoxicity, methotrexate, breast cancer resistance protein

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5 Curcumin and Methotrexate Loaded Montmollilite Clay for Sustained Oral Drug Delivery Application

Authors: Subrata Kar, Banani Kundu, Papiya Nandy, Ruma Basu, Sukhen Das

Abstract:

Natural montmorilollite clay is a common ingredient in pharmaceutical products, both as excipients and active support; hence considered as suitable candidate for Drug Delivery System. In this work, cationic detergent CTAB is used to increase the interlayer spacing of Na+-Montmoriollite clay to intercalate curcumin and methotrexate. Methotrexate is a folic acid antagonist, anti-proliferative and immunosuppressive agent; while curcumin is a bioactive constituent of rhizomes of Curcuma longa, possessing remarkable chemo-preventive and anti-inflammatory properties. The resultant inorganic-organic hybrids are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to confirm successful intercalation of curcumin and Methotrexate within clay layers. Pharmaceutical investigation of the hybrids is explored by studying the drug loading (%), encapsulation efficiency and release kinetics. Finally in-vitro studies are performed using cancer cells to find the effect of released curcumin to improve the sensitivity of clay bound methotrexate to ameliorate cell death compared to their effectiveness when used without the inorganic aluminosilicate vehicle.

Keywords: Curcumin, Anticancer Activity, montmorillonite, methotrexate, release kinetics, loading efficiency

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4 Preparation, Characterization, and in-Vitro Drug Release Study of Methotrexate-Loaded Hydroxyapatite-Sodium Alginate Nanocomposites

Authors: Friday G. Okibe, Edit B. Agbaji, Victor O. Ajibola, Christain C. Onoyima

Abstract:

Controlled drug delivery systems reduce dose-dependent toxicity associated with potent drugs, including anticancer drugs. In this research, hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate nanocomposites (HASA) were successfully prepared and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The FTIR result showed absorption peaks characteristics of pure hydroxyapatite (HA), and also confirmed the chemical interaction between hydroxyapatite and sodium alginate in the formation of the composite. Image analysis from SEM revealed nano-sized hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate nanocomposites with irregular morphologies. Particle size increased with the formation of the nanocomposites relative to pure hydroxyapatite, with no significant change in particles morphologies. Drug loading and in-vitro drug release study were carried out using synthetic body fluid as the release medium, at pH 7.4 and 37 °C and under perfect sink conditions. The result shows that drug loading is highest for pure hydroxyapatite and decreased with increasing quantity of sodium alginate. However, the release study revealed that HASA-5%wt and HASA-20%wt presented better release profile than pure hydroxyapatite, while HASA-33%wt and HASA-50%wt have poor release profiles. This shows that Methotrexate-loaded hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate if prepared under optimal conditions is a potential carrier for effective delivery of Methotrexate.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, hydroxyapatite, methotrexate, drug-delivery, sodium alginate

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3 Electrochemical Detection of the Chemotherapy Agent Methotrexate in vitro from Physiological Fluids Using Functionalized Carbon Nanotube past Electrodes

Authors: Shekher Kummari, V. Sunil Kumar, K. Vengatajalabathy Gobi

Abstract:

A simple, cost-effective, reusable and reagent-free electrochemical biosensor is developed with functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube paste electrode (f-CNTPE) for the sensitive and selective determination of the important chemotherapeutic drug methotrexate (MTX), which is widely used for the treatment of various cancer and autoimmune diseases. The electrochemical response of the fabricated electrode towards the detection of MTX is examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). CV studies have shown that f-CNTPE electrode system exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of MTX in phosphate buffer (0.2 M) compared with a conventional carbon paste electrode (CPE). The oxidation peak current is enhanced by nearly two times in magnitude. Applying the DPV method under optimized conditions, a linear calibration plot is achieved over a wide range of concentration from 4.0×10⁻⁷ M to 5.5×10⁻⁶ M with the detection limit 1.6×10⁻⁷ M. further, by applying the SWV method a parabolic calibration plot was achieved starting from a very low concentration of 1.0×10⁻⁸ M, and the sensor could detect as low as 2.9×10⁻⁹ M MTX in 10 s and 10 nM were detected in steady state current-time analysis. The f-CNTPE shows very good selectivity towards the specific recognition of MTX in the presence of important biological interference. The electrochemical biosensor detects MTX in-vitro directly from pharmaceutical sample, undiluted urine and human blood serum samples at a concentration range 5.0×10⁻⁷ M with good recovery limits.

Keywords: Amperometry, methotrexate, MWCNT, electrochemical detection, human blood serum, SWV

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2 The Effect of the Combination of Methotrexate Nanoparticles and TiO2 on Breast Cancer

Authors: Nusaiba Al-Nemrawi, Belal Al-Husein

Abstract:

Methotrexate (MTX) is a stoichiometric inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, which is essential for DNA synthesis. MTX is a chemotherapeutic agent used for treating many types of cancer cells. However, cells’ resistant to MTX is very common and its pharmacokinetic behavior is highly problematic. of MTX within tumor cells, we propose encapsulation of antitumor drugs in nanoparticulated systems. Chitosan (CS) is a naturally occurring polymer that is biocompatibe, biodegradable, non-toxic, cationic and bioadhesive. CS nanoparticles (CS-NPs) have been used as drug carrier for targeted delivery. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), a natural mineral oxide, which is used in biomaterials due to its high stability and antimicrobial and anticorrosive properties. TiO2 showed a potential as a tumor suppressor. In this study a new formulation of MTX loaded in CS NPs (CS-MTX NPs) and coated with Titanium oxide (TiO2) was prepared. The mean particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index were measured. The interaction between CS NPs and TiO2 NPs was confirmed using FTIR and XRD. CS-MTX NPs was studied in vitro using the tumor cell line MCF-7 (human breast cancer). The results showed that CS-MTX has a size around 169 nm and as they were coated with TiO2, the size ranged between and depending on the ratio of CS-MTX to TiO2 ratio used in the preparation. All NPs (uncoated and coated carried positive charges and were monodispersed. The entrapment efficacy was around 65%. Both FTIR and XRD proved that TiO2 interacted with CS-MTX NPs. The drug invitro release was controlled and sustained over days. Finally, the studied in vitro using the tumor cell line MCF-7 suggested that combining nanomaterials with anticancer drugs CS-MTX NPs may be more effective than free MTX for cancer treatment. In conclusion, the combination of CS-MTX NPs and TiO2 NPs showed excellent time-dependent in vitro antitumor behavior, therefore, can be employed as a promising anticancer agent to attain efficient results towards MCF-7 cells.

Keywords: Cancer, titanium dioxide, methotrexate, chitosan nanoparticles

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1 Methotrexate Associated Skin Cancer: A Signal Review of Pharmacovigilance Center

Authors: Abdulaziz Alakeel, Abdulrahman Alomair, Mohammed Fouda

Abstract:

Introduction: Methotrexate (MTX) is an antimetabolite used to treat multiple conditions, including neoplastic diseases, severe psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Skin cancer is the out-of-control growth of abnormal cells in the epidermis, the outermost skin layer, caused by unrepaired DNA damage that triggers mutations. These mutations lead the skin cells to multiply rapidly and form malignant tumors. The aim of this review is to evaluate the risk of skin cancer associated with the use of methotrexate and to suggest regulatory recommendations if required. Methodology: Signal Detection team at Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) performed a safety review using National Pharmacovigilance Center (NPC) database as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) VigiBase, alongside with literature screening to retrieve related information for assessing the causality between skin cancer and methotrexate. The search conducted in July 2020. Results: Four published articles support the association seen while searching in literature, a recent randomized control trial published in 2020 revealed a statistically significant increase in skin cancer among MTX users. Another study mentioned methotrexate increases the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer when used in combination with immunosuppressant and biologic agents. In addition, the incidence of melanoma for methotrexate users was 3-fold more than the general population in a cohort study of rheumatoid arthritis patients. The last article estimated the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in a cohort study shows a statistically significant risk increase for CMM was observed in MTX exposed patients. The WHO database (VigiBase) searched for individual case safety reports (ICSRs) reported for “Skin Cancer” and 'Methotrexate' use, which yielded 121 ICSRs. The initial review revealed that 106 cases are insufficiently documented for proper medical assessment. However, the remaining fifteen cases have extensively evaluated by applying the WHO criteria of causality assessment. As a result, 30 percent of the cases showed that MTX could possibly cause skin cancer; five cases provide unlikely association and five un-assessable cases due to lack of information. The Saudi NPC database searched to retrieve any reported cases for the combined terms methotrexate/skin cancer; however, no local cases reported up to date. The data mining of the observed and the expected reporting rate for drug/adverse drug reaction pair is estimated using information component (IC), a tool developed by the WHO Uppsala Monitoring Centre to measure the reporting ratio. Positive IC reflects higher statistical association, while negative values translated as a less statistical association, considering the null value equal to zero. Results showed that a combination of 'Methotrexate' and 'Skin cancer' observed more than expected when compared to other medications in the WHO database (IC value is 1.2). Conclusion: The weighted cumulative pieces of evidence identified from global cases, data mining, and published literature are sufficient to support a causal association between the risk of skin cancer and methotrexate. Therefore, health care professionals should be aware of this possible risk and may consider monitoring any signs or symptoms of skin cancer in patients treated with methotrexate.

Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, Skin Cancer, methotrexate, signal detection

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