Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Methodology Related Abstracts

28 The Methodology of Flip Chip Using Astro Place and Route Tool

Authors: Rohaya Abdul Wahab, Raja Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, Nazaliza Othman, Sharifah Saleh, Nabihah Razali, Rozaimah Baharim, Md Hanif Md Nasir

Abstract:

This paper will discuss flip chip methodology, in which I/O pads, standard cells, macros and bump cells array are placed in the floorplan, then routed using Astro place and route tool. Final DRC and LVS checking is done using Calibre verification tool. The design vehicle to run this methodology is an OpenRISC design targeted to Silterra 0.18 micrometer technology with 6 metal layers for routing. Astro has extensive support for flip chip placement and routing. Astro tool commands for flip chip are straightforward approach like the conventional standard wire bond packaging. However since we do not have flip chip commands in our Astro tool, no LEF file for bump cell and no LEF file for flip chip I/O pad, we create our own methodology to prepare for future flip chip tapeout. 

Keywords: Methodology, flip chip, bump cell, LEF, astro, calibre, SCHEME, TCL

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27 Assessing Social Vulnerability and Policy Adaption Application Responses Based on Landslide Risk Map

Authors: Z. A. Ahmad, R. C. Omar, I. Z. Baharuddin, R. Roslan

Abstract:

Assessments of social vulnerability, carried out holistically, can provide an important guide to the planning process and to decisions on resource allocation at various levels, and can help to raise public awareness of geo-hazard risks. The assessments can help to provide answers for basic questions such as the human vulnerability at the geo-hazard prone or disaster areas causing health damage, economic loss, loss of natural heritage and vulnerability impact of extreme natural hazard event. To overcome these issues, integrated framework for assessing the increasing human vulnerability to environmental changes caused by geo-hazards will be introduced using an indicator from landslide risk map that is related to agent based modeling platform. The indicators represent the underlying factors, which influence a community’s ability to deal with and recover from the damage associated with geo-hazards. Scope of this paper is particularly limited to landslides.

Keywords: Social, Methodology, Vulnerability, indicators, geo-hazard

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26 Applying Lean Six Sigma in an Emergency Department, of a Private Hospital

Authors: Sarah Al-Lumai, Fatima Al-Attar, Nour Jamal, Badria Al-Dabbous, Manal Abdulla

Abstract:

Today, many commonly used Industrial Engineering tools and techniques are being used in hospitals around the world for the goal of producing a more efficient and effective healthcare system. A common quality improvement methodology known as Lean Six-Sigma has been successful in manufacturing industries and recently in healthcare. The objective of our project is to use the Lean Six-Sigma methodology to reduce waiting time in the Emergency Department (ED), in a local private hospital. Furthermore, a comprehensive literature review was conducted to evaluate the success of Lean Six-Sigma in the ED. According to the study conducted by Ibn Sina Hospital, in Morocco, the most common problem that patients complain about is waiting time. To ensure patient satisfaction many hospitals such as North Shore University Hospital were able to reduce waiting time up to 37% by using Lean Six-Sigma. Other hospitals, such as John Hopkins’s medical center used Lean Six-Sigma successfully to enhance the overall patient flow that ultimately decreased waiting time. Furthermore, it was found that capacity constraints, such as staff shortages and lack of beds were one of the main reasons behind long waiting time. With the use of Lean Six-Sigma and bed management, hospitals like Memorial Hermann Southwest Hospital were able to reduce patient delays. Moreover, in order to successfully implement Lean Six-Sigma in our project, two common methodologies were considered, DMAIC and DMADV. After the assessment of both methodologies, it was found that DMAIC was a more suitable approach to our project because it is more concerned with improving an already existing process. With many of its successes, Lean Six-Sigma has its limitation especially in healthcare; but limitations can be minimized if properly approached.

Keywords: hospital, Methodology, Lean Six Sigma, DMAIC

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25 Requirement Analysis for Emergency Management Software

Authors: Tomáš Ludík, Jiří Barta, Josef Navrátil, Sabina Chytilová

Abstract:

Emergency management is a discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks. Appropriate emergency management software allows better management of these risks and has a direct influence on reducing potential negative impacts. Although there are several emergency management software products in the Czech Republic, they cover user requirements from the emergency management field only partially. Therefore, the paper focuses on the issues of requirement analysis within development of emergency management software. Analysis of the current state describes the basic features and properties of user requirements for software development as well as basic methods and approaches for gathering these requirements. Then, the paper presents more specific mechanisms for requirement analysis based on chosen software development approach: structured, object-oriented or agile. Based on these experiences it is designed new methodology for requirement analysis. Methodology describes how to map user requirements comprehensively in the field of emergency management and thus reduce misunderstanding between software analyst and emergency manager. Proposed methodology was consulted with department of fire brigade and also has been applied in the requirements analysis for their current emergency management software. The proposed methodology has general character and can be used also in other specific areas during requirement analysis.

Keywords: Methodology, Requirement Analysis, Stakeholders, emergency software, use case diagram, user stories

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24 Development of a New Method for T-Joint Specimens Testing under Shear Loading

Authors: Radek Doubrava, Roman Růžek

Abstract:

Nonstandard tests are necessary for analyses and verification of new developed structural and technological solutions with application of composite materials. One of the most critical primary structural parts of a typical aerospace structure is T-joint. This structural element is loaded mainly in shear, bending, peel and tension. The paper is focused on the shear loading simulations. The aim of the work is to obtain a representative uniform distribution of shear loads along T-joint during the mechanical testing is. A new design of T-joint test procedure, numerical simulation and optimization of representative boundary conditions are presented. The different conditions and inaccuracies both in simulations and experiments are discussed. The influence of different parameters on stress and strain distributions is demonstrated on T-joint made of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic). A special test rig designed by VZLU (Aerospace Research and Test Establishment) for T-shear test procedure is presented.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Methodology, Composite, Mechanical testing, shear, t-joint

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23 The Role of Eclectic Approach to Teach Communicative Function at Secondary Level

Authors: Fariha Asif

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of eclectic approach in teaching of communicative functions. The objectives of the study were to get the information about the use of communicative functions through eclectic approach and to point out the most effective way of teaching functional communication and social interaction with the help of communicative activities through eclectic approach. The next step was to select sample from the selected population. As the research was descriptive so a questionnaire was developed on the basis of hypothesis and distributed to different selected schools of Lahore, Pakistan. Then data was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted through computer by finding percentages of different responses given by teachers to see the results. It was concluded that eclectic approach is effective in teaching communicative functions and communicative functions are better when taught through eclectic approach and communicative activities are more appropriate way of teaching communicative functions. It was found those teachers who were qualified in ELT gave better opinions as compare to those who did not have this degree. Techniques like presentations, dialogues and roleplay proved to be effective for teaching functional communication through communicative activities and also motivate the students not only in learning rules but also in using them to communicate with others.

Keywords: Teaching, Methodology, Functions, ESP

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22 An Optimal Perspective on Research in Translation Studies

Authors: Andrea Musumeci

Abstract:

General theory of translation has suffered the lack of a homogeneous academic dialect, a holistic methodology to account for the diversity of factors involved in the discipline. An underlying pattern amongst theories of translation belonging to different periods and schools has been identified. Such pattern, which is linguistics oriented, could play a role towards unified academic and professional environments, both in terms of research and as a professional category. The implementation of such an approach has also led to a critique of the concept of equivalence, as being not the best of ways to account for translating phenomena.

Keywords: Translating, Methodology, Optimal, Descriptive Analysis, research translation theory

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21 The Methodology of Out-Migration in Georgia

Authors: Shorena Tsiklauri

Abstract:

Out-migration is an important issue for Georgia as well as since independence has loosed due to emigration one fifth of its population. During Soviet time out-migration from USSR was almost impossible and one of the most important instruments in regulating population movement within the Soviet Union was the system of compulsory residential registrations, so-called “propiska”. Since independent here was not any regulation for migration from Georgia. The majorities of Georgian migrants go abroad by tourist visa and then overstay, becoming the irregular labor migrants. The official statistics on migration published for this period was based on the administrative system of population registration, were insignificant in terms of numbers and did not represent the real scope of these migration movements. This paper discusses the data quality and methodology of migration statistics in Georgia and we are going to answer the questions: what is the real reason of increasing immigration flows according to the official numbers since 2000s?

Keywords: Migration, Methodology, Data Quality, Georgia

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20 To Present and Explain Effective Methods in Teaching Social Science

Authors: Sulmaz Mozaffari, Zahra Mozaffari, Saman Mozaffari

Abstract:

Training is a counting and orderly process which purpose is to grow all as peals of the students to get the human knowledge and have the social norms. Also to help them grow their talents. Social science as in educational and training science at the sometime is very important for schools and universities. Unfortunately the method which is mostly used for teaching and training at present is student- teacher method and because of its ease the other methods are ignored. This research is to consider the most efficient methods in social science and analyse them. The Results show that the best methods in which the students are present during the teaching procedure.

Keywords: Social Science, Methodology, Technology, student base methodology

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19 A New Mechanical Architecture Design of a Multifunctional Bed for Bedridden Healthcare

Authors: Rogelio Portillo Vélez, Eduardo Vázquez-Santacruz, Mariano Gamboa-Zúñiga

Abstract:

In this paper a new mechanical architecture design of a multi functional robot bed, is presented. The importance of this design relies on the fact that in next years the need of assistive devices development will increase in such way that elderly patients will use this kind of devices. This mechanical design implies following specific mechanisms which attend Mexican hospital requirements. This design is the base of next step of this kind of development given that it shows all technical details of the mechanical systems which are needed in order to construct the bed. This is first hospital bed design which could responds to the Latin America hospital requirements. We have obtained these hospital requirements using our diagnosis methodology [14]. From these results we have designed the mechanical system. This is the mechanical base of the hospital robotic bed which is being developed in our robotics laboratory. It will be useful in different hospital environments for elderly and disabled patients.

Keywords: Robotics, Methodology, assistive technology, Social impact, assistive robotics, feasibility analysis, operational feasibility, viability analysis matrix

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18 Defining Methodology for Multi Model Software Process Improvement Framework

Authors: Aedah Abd Rahman

Abstract:

Software organisations may implement single or multiple frameworks in order to remain competitive. There are wide selection of generic Software Process Improvement (SPI) frameworks, best practices and standards implemented with different focuses and goals. Issues and difficulties emerge in the SPI practices from the context of software development and IT Service Management (ITSM). This research looks into the integration of multiple frameworks from the perspective of software development and ITSM. The research question of this study is how to define steps of methodology to solve the multi model software process improvement problem. The objective of this study is to define the research approach and methodologies to produce a more integrated and efficient Multi Model Process Improvement (MMPI) solution. A multi-step methodology is used which contains the case study, framework mapping and Delphi study. The research outcome has proven the usefulness and appropriateness of the proposed framework in SPI and quality practice in Malaysian software industries. This mixed method research approach is used to tackle problems from every angle in the context of software development and services. This methodology is used to facilitate the implementation and management of multi model environment of SPI frameworks in multiple domains.

Keywords: Methodology, Service Management, delphi study, multi model software process improvement

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17 The Use of Educational Language Games

Authors: April Love Palad, Charita B. Lasala

Abstract:

Mastery on English language is one of the important goals of all English language teachers. This goal can be seen based from the students’ actual performance using the target language which is English. Learning the English language includes hard work where efforts need to be exerted and this can be attained gradually over a long period of time. It is extremely important for all English language teachers to know the effects of incorporating games in teaching. Whether this strategy can have positive or negative effects in students learning, teachers should always consider what is best for their learners. Games may help and provide confidents language learners. These games help teachers to create context in which the language is suitable and significant. Focusing in accuracy and fluency is the heart of this study and this will be obtain in either teaching English using the traditional method or teaching English using language games. It is very important for all English teachers to know which strategy is effective in teaching English to be able to cope with students’ underachievement in this subject. This study made use of the comparative-experimental method. It made use of the pre-post test design with the aim to explore the effectiveness of the language games as strategy used in language teaching for high school students. There were two groups of students being observed, the controlled and the experimental, employing the two strategies in teaching English –traditional and with the use of language games. The scores obtained by two samples were compared to know the effectiveness of the two strategies in teaching English. In this study, it found out that language games help improve students’ fluency and accuracy in the use of target language and this is very evident in the results obtained in the pre-test and post –test result as well the mean gain scores by the two groups of students. In addition, this study also gives us a clear view on the positive effects on the use of language games in teaching which also supported by the related studies based from this research. The findings of the study served as the bases for the creation of the proposed learning plan that integrated language games that teachers may use in their own teaching. This study further concluded that language games are effective in developing students’ fluency in using the English language. This justifies that games help encourage students to learn and be entertained at the same time. Aside from that, games also promote developing language competency. This study will be very useful to teachers who are in doubt in the use of this strategy in their teaching.

Keywords: Experimental, Language Teaching, Strategy, Methodology, comparative, language games

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16 Combining Experiments and Surveys to Understand the Pinterest User Experience

Authors: Jolie M. Martin

Abstract:

Running experiments while logging detailed user actions has become the standard way of testing product features at Pinterest, as at many other Internet companies. While this technique offers plenty of statistical power to assess the effects of product changes on behavioral metrics, it does not often give us much insight into why users respond the way they do. By combining at-scale experiments with smaller surveys of users in each experimental condition, we have developed a unique approach for measuring the impact of our product and communication treatments on user sentiment, attitudes, and comprehension.

Keywords: Experiments, Methodology, User Experience, surveys

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15 Musical Education of Preschool Children: From the Average to the Gifted

Authors: Eudjen Cinc

Abstract:

The contemporary society, which is, whether we like it or not, oriented towards utilitarianism, pragmatics and professional flexibility, lives in a certain paradox. On the one hand, at least declaratively, the accent of modern society is on knowledge; knowledge is even considered to be a commodity, the popularity of education is increased as the only means of survival in the market-oriented world, while on the other hand modern society is moving towards simplification and decreasing the amount of information and areas which are considered necessary in the generally excepted concept of education. We cannot talk about the preschool teacher profession without mentioning work with gifted children. The preschool teacher knowing the characteristics of gifted children is of utmost importance because their early identification and professional guidance are of cardinal importance for the direction in which the children will develop. When we talk about musical ability, in the first phase, the role of preschool teachers in the identification and stimulation of gifted children naturally refers to monitoring children’s musical manifestation. The identification process and work with the gifted presupposes a good relationship with the family, synergy of these two important influences in the child’s education and upbringing.

Keywords: Music Education, Methodology, kindergarten, gifted children

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14 Site Investigations and Mitigation Measures of Landslides in Sainj and Tirthan Valley of Kullu District, Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: Laxmi Versain, R. S. Banshtu

Abstract:

Landslides are found to be the most commonly occurring geological hazards in the mountainous regions of the Himalaya. This mountainous zone is facing large number of seismic turbulences, climatic changes, and topography changes due to increasing urbanization. That eventually has lead several researchers working for best suitable methodologies to infer the ultimate results. Landslide Hazard Zonation has widely come as suitable method to know the appropriate factors that trigger the lansdslide phenomenon on higher reaches. Most vulnerable zones or zones of weaknesses are indentified and safe mitigation measures are to be suggested to mitigate and channelize the study of an effected area. Use of Landslide Hazard Zonation methodology in relative zones of weaknesses depend upon the data available for the particular site. The causative factors are identified and data is made available to infer the results. Factors like seismicity in mountainous region have closely associated to make the zones of thrust and faults or lineaments more vulnerable. Data related to soil, terrain, rainfall, geology, slope, nature of terrain, are found to be varied for various landforms and areas. Thus, the relative causes are to be identified and classified by giving specific weightage to each parameter. Factors which cause the instability of slopes are several and can be grouped to infer the potential modes of failure. The triggering factors of the landslides on the mountains are not uniform. The urbanization has crawled like ladder and emergence of concrete jungles are in a very fast pace on hilly region of Himalayas. The local terrains has largely been modified and hence instability of several zones are triggering at very fast pace. More strategic and pronounced methods are required to reduce the effect of landslide.

Keywords: Methodology, susceptible, zonation, LHZ, weightages

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13 Towards a Methodology for the Assessment of Neighbourhood Design for Happiness

Authors: Tina Pujara

Abstract:

Urban and regional research in the new emerging inter-disciplinary field of happiness is seemingly limited. However, it is progressively being recognized that there is enormous potential for social and behavioral scientists to add a spatial dimension to it. In fact, the happiness of communities can be notably influenced by the design and maintenance of the neighborhoods they inhabit. The probable key reasons being that places can facilitate human social connections and relationships. While it is increasingly being acknowledged that some neighborhood designs appear better suited for social connectedness than others, the plausible reasons for places to deter these characteristics and perhaps their influence on happiness are outwardly unknown. In addition, an explicit step wise methodology to assess neighborhood designs for happiness (of their communities) is not known to exist. This paper is an attempt towards developing such a methodological framework. The paper presents the development of a methodological framework for assessing neighborhood designs for happiness, with a particular focus on the outdoor shared spaces in neighborhoods. The developed methodological framework of investigation follows a mixed method approach and draws upon four different sources of information. The framework proposes an empirical examination of the contribution of neighborhood factors, particularly outdoor shared spaces, to individual happiness. One of the main tools proposed for this empirical examination is Jan Gehl’s Public Space Public Life (PSPL) Survey. The developed framework, as presented in the paper, is a contribution towards the development of a consolidated methodology for assessing neighborhood designs for happiness, which can further serve as a unique tool to inform urban designers, architects and other decision makers.

Keywords: Methodology, Happiness, neighbourhood design, outdoor shared spaces

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12 A Polyphonic Look at Trends

Authors: Turquesa Topper

Abstract:

The reflection focuses on recording and explaining the considerations, conceptualizations and methodological approach with which from the University, that is to say, from the academic field, the study of Trends is addressed with the intention of training professionals in the area, an area that requires disciplinary boundaries and builds a polyphonic vision. When referring to the objective of our Laboratory the detection of aesthetic trends of consumption, we find ourselves in the requirement to define our object: trends, aesthetic trends of consumption, more specifically. The pages cover a conception of trends from a theoretical framework that incorporates contributions from linguistics, semiotics, sociology, cultural studies and project disciplines, in order to consolidate a polyphonic look. The text investigates in the pre-discursive aspect of the trends, in the circulation of the notion of style and in the dynamics of affirmation - denial as the constitutive dynamics of Fashion linked to any process of innovation. From such inquiry, it is presented to Fashion as a system that operates directly on the construction of socio-individual identities unfolding through the liquefaction of signs in trends.

Keywords: Methodology, Fashion, Trends, Narrative

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11 Integration of Quality Function Deployment and Modular Function Deployment in Product Development

Authors: Naga Velamakuri, Jyothi K. Reddy

Abstract:

Quality must be designed into a product and not inspected has become the main motto of all the companies globally. Due to the rapidly increasing technology in the past few decades, the nature of demands from the consumers has become more sophisticated. To sustain this global revolution of innovation in production systems, companies have to take steps to accommodate this technology growth. In this process of understanding the customers' expectations, all the firms globally take steps to deliver a perfect output. Most of these techniques also concentrate on the consistent development and optimization of the product to exceed the expectations. Quality Function Deployment(QFD) and Modular Function Deployment(MFD) are such techniques which rely on the voice of the customer and help deliver the needs. In this paper, Quality Function Deployment and Modular Function Deployment techniques which help in converting the quantitative descriptions to qualitative outcomes are discussed. The area of interest would be to understand the scope of each of the techniques and the application range in product development when these are applied together to any problem. The research question would be mainly aimed at comprehending the limitations using modularity in product development.

Keywords: Methodology, quality function deployment, house of quality, modular function deployment

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10 A Comparative Analysis Of Da’wah Methodology Applied by the Two Variant Factions of Jama’atu Izalatil Bid’ah Wa-Iqamatis Sunnah in Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Alhaji Bala

Abstract:

The Jama’atu Izalatil Bid’ah Wa-Iqamatis Sunnah is a Da’wah organization and reform movement launched in Jos - Nigeria in 1978 as a purely reform movement under the leadership of late Shaykh Ismai’la Idris. The organization started a full fledge preaching sessions at National, State and Local Government levels immediately after its formation. The contributions of this organization to da'wah activities in Nigeria are paramount. The organization conducted its preaching under the council of preaching with the help of the executives, elders and patrons of the movement. Teaching and preaching have been recognized as the major programs of the society. Its preaching activities are conducted from ward, local, state and national levels throughout the states of Nigeria and beyond. It also engaged itself in establishing Mosques, schools and offers sermons during Friday congregation and Eid days throughout its mosques where its sermon is translated into vernacular language, this attracted many Muslims who don’t understand Arabic to patronize the its activities. The organization however split into two faction due to different approaches to Da’wah methodology and some seemingly selfish interests among its leaders. It is upon this background that this research was conducted using analytical method to compare and contrast the da’wah methodology applied by the two factions of the organization. The research discussed about the formation, Da’wah activities of the organization. It also compared and contrast the Da’wah approach and methodology of the two factions. The research finding reveals that different approach and methods applied by these factions is one of the main reason of their split in addition to other selfish interest among its leaders.

Keywords: Methodology, Organization, activities, Da’wah

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9 Comparison of Fuel Cell Installation Methods at Large Commercial and Industrial Sites

Authors: Masood Sattari

Abstract:

Using fuel cell technology to generate electricity for large commercial and industrial sites is a growing segment in the fuel cell industry. The installation of these systems involves design, permitting, procurement of long-lead electrical equipment, and construction involving multiple utilities. The installation of each fuel cell system requires the same amount of coordination as the construction of a new structure requiring a foundation, gas, water, and electricity. Each of these components provide variables that can delay and possibly eliminate a new project. As the manufacturing process and efficiency of fuel cell systems improves, so must the installation methods to prevent a ‘bottle-neck’ in the installation phase of the deployment. Installation methodologies to install the systems vary among companies and this paper will examine the methodologies, describe the benefits and drawbacks for each, and provide guideline for the industry to improve overall installation efficiency.

Keywords: Construction, Methodology, Procurement, Installation

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8 Implementation of International Standards in the Field of Higher Secondary Education in Kerala

Authors: Bernard Morais Joosa

Abstract:

Kerala, the southern state of India, is known for its accomplishments in universal education and enrollments. Through this mission, the Government proposes comprehensive educational reforms including 1000 Government schools into international standards during the first phase. The idea is not only to improve the infrastructural facilities but also to reform the teaching and learning process to the present day needs by introducing ICT enabled learning and providing smart classrooms. There will be focus on creating educational programmes which are useful for differently abled students. It is also meant to reinforce the teaching–learning process by providing ample opportunities to each student to construct their own knowledge using modern technology tools. The mission will redefine the existing classroom learning process, coordinate resource mobilization efforts and develop ‘Janakeeya Vidyabhyasa Mathruka.' Special packages to support schools which are in existence for over 100 years will also be attempted. The implementation will enlist full involvement and partnership of the Parent Teacher Association. Kerala was the first state in the country to attain 100 percent literacy more than two and a half decades ago. Since then the State has not rested on its laurels. It has moved forward in leaps and bounds conquering targets that no other State could achieve. Now the government of Kerala is taking off towards new goal of comprehensive educational reforms. And it focuses on Betterment of educational surroundings, use of technology in education, renewal of learning method and 1000 schools will be uplifted as Smart Schools. Need to upgrade 1000 schools into international standards and turning classrooms from standard 9 to 12 in high schools and higher secondary into high-tech classrooms and a special unique package for the renovation of schools, which have completed 50 and 100 years. The government intends to focus on developing standards first to eighth standards in tune with the times by engaging the teachers, parents, and alumni to recapture the relevance of public schools. English learning will be encouraged in schools. The idea is not only to improve the infrastructure facilities but also reform the curriculum to the present day needs. Keeping in view the differently-abled friendly approach of the government, there will be focus on creating educational program which is useful for differently abled students. The idea is to address the infrastructural deficiencies being faced by such schools. There will be special emphasis on ensuring internet connectivity to promote IT-friendly existence. A task-force and a full-time chief executive will be in charge of managing the day to day affairs of the mission. Secretary of the Public Education Department will serve as the Mission Secretary and the Chairperson of Task Force. As the Task Force will stress on teacher training and the use of information technology, experts in the field, as well as Directors of SCERT, IT School, SSA, and RMSA, will also be a part of it.

Keywords: pedagogy, Methodology, Technology, educational standards

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7 Developing Oral Communication Competence in a Second Language: The Communicative Approach

Authors: Ikechi Gilbert

Abstract:

Oral communication is the transmission of ideas or messages through the speech process. Acquiring competence in this area which, by its volatile nature, is prone to errors and inaccuracies would require the adoption of a well-suited teaching methodology. Efficient oral communication facilitates exchange of ideas and easy accomplishment of day-to-day tasks, by means of a demonstrated mastery of oral expression and the making of fine presentations to audiences or individuals while recognizing verbal signals and body language of others and interpreting them correctly. In Anglophone states such as Nigeria, Ghana, etc., the French language, for instance, is studied as a foreign language, being used majorly in teaching learners who have their own mother tongue different from French. The same applies to Francophone states where English is studied as a foreign language by people whose official language or mother tongue is different from English. The ideal approach would be to teach these languages in these environments through a pedagogical approach that properly takes care of the oral perspective for effective understanding and application by the learners. In this article, we are examining the communicative approach as a methodology for teaching oral communication in a foreign language. This method is a direct response to the communicative needs of the learner involving the use of appropriate materials and teaching techniques that meet those needs. It is also a vivid improvement to the traditional grammatical and audio-visual adaptations. Our contribution will focus on the pedagogical component of oral communication improvement, highlighting its merits and also proposing diverse techniques including aspects of information and communication technology that would assist the second language learner communicate better orally.

Keywords: Communication, Methodology, Competence, pedagogical component

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6 A Data Driven Methodological Approach to Economic Pre-Evaluation of Reuse Projects of Ancient Urban Centers

Authors: Pietro D'Ambrosio, Roberta D'Ambrosio

Abstract:

The upgrading of the architectural and urban heritage of the urban historic centers almost always involves the planning for the reuse and refunctionalization of the structures. Such interventions have complexities linked to the need to take into account the urban and social context in which the structure and its intrinsic characteristics such as historical and artistic value are inserted. To these, of course, we have to add the need to make a preliminary estimate of recovery costs and more generally to assess the economic and financial sustainability of the whole project of re-socialization. Particular difficulties are encountered during the pre-assessment of costs since it is often impossible to perform analytical surveys and structural tests for both structural conditions and obvious cost and time constraints. The methodology proposed in this work, based on a multidisciplinary and data-driven approach, is aimed at obtaining, at very low cost, reasonably priced economic evaluations of the interventions to be carried out. In addition, the specific features of the approach used, derived from the predictive analysis techniques typically applied in complex IT domains (big data analytics), allow to obtain as a result indirectly the evaluation process of a shared database that can be used on a generalized basis to estimate such other projects. This makes the methodology particularly indicated in those cases where it is expected to intervene massively across entire areas of historical city centers. The methodology has been partially tested during a study aimed at assessing the feasibility of a project for the reuse of the monumental complex of San Massimo, located in the historic center of Salerno, and is being further investigated.

Keywords: Methodology, Evaluation, Restoration, reuse

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5 Methodology for the Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Pneumatics Systems

Authors: Mario Lupaca, Karol Munoz, Victor De Negri

Abstract:

The present article presents a methodology for the improvement of the energy efficiency in pneumatic systems through the restoring of air. In this way, three techniques of expansion of a cylinder are identified: Expansion using the air of the compressor (conventional), restoring the air (efficient), and combining the air of the compressor and the restored air (hybrid). The methodology starts with the development of the GRAFCET of the system so that it can be decided whether to expand the cylinder in a conventional, efficient, or hybrid way. The methodology can be applied to any case. Finally, graphs of comparison between the three methods of expansion with certain cylinder strokes and workloads are presented, to facilitate the subsequent selection of one system or another.

Keywords: Methodology, Efficiency, energetic, GRAFCET, pneumatic

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4 Application of Design Thinking for Technology Transfer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems for the Creative Industry

Authors: M. de Miguel Molina, V. Santamarina Campos, B. de Miguel Molina, M. Á. Carabal Montagud

Abstract:

With this contribution, we want to show a successful example of the application of the Design Thinking methodology, in the European project 'Technology transfer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) for the creative industry'. The use of this methodology has allowed us to design and build a drone, based on the real needs of prospective users. It has demonstrated that this is a powerful tool for generating innovative ideas in the field of robotics, by focusing its effectiveness on understanding and solving real user needs. In this way, with the support of an interdisciplinary team, comprised of creatives, engineers and economists, together with the collaboration of prospective users from three European countries, a non-linear work dynamic has been created. This teamwork has generated a sense of appreciation towards the creative industries, through continuously adaptive, inventive, and playful collaboration and communication, which has facilitated the development of prototypes. These have been designed to enable filming and photography in interior spaces, within 13 sectors of European creative industries: Advertising, Architecture, Fashion, Film, Antiques and Museums, Music, Photography, Televison, Performing Arts, Publishing, Arts and Crafts, Design and Software. Furthermore, it has married the real needs of the creative industries, with what is technologically and commercially viable. As a result, a product of great value has been obtained, which offers new business opportunities for small companies across this sector.

Keywords: Innovation, Methodology, Design Thinking, End Users, stakeholder, creative industry, focus group, par, RPAS, aerial film, design for effectiveness, active toolkit, storyboards, indoor drone

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3 Methodological Approach to the Elaboration and Implementation of the Spatial-Urban Plan for the Special Purpose Area: Case-Study of Infrastructure Corridor of Highway E-80, Section Nis-Merdare, Serbia

Authors: Nebojsa Stefanovic, Sasa Milijic, Natasa Danilovic Hristic

Abstract:

Spatial plan of the special purpose area constitutes a basic tool in the planning of infrastructure corridor of a highway. The aim of the plan is to define the planning basis and provision of spatial conditions for the construction and operation of the highway, as well as for developing other infrastructure systems in the corridor. This paper presents a methodology and approach to the preparation of the Spatial Plan for the special purpose area for the infrastructure corridor of the highway E-80, Section Niš-Merdare in Serbia. The applied methodological approach is based on the combined application of the integrative and participatory method in the decision-making process on the sustainable development of the highway corridor. It was found that, for the planning and management of the infrastructure corridor, a key problem is coordination of spatial and urban planning, strategic environmental assessment and sectoral traffic planning and designing. Through the development of the plan, special attention is focused on increasing the accessibility of the local and regional surrounding, reducing the adverse impacts on the development of settlements and the economy, protection of natural resources, natural and cultural heritage, and the development of other infrastructure systems in the corridor of the highway. As a result of the applied methodology, this paper analyzes the basic features such as coverage, the concept, protected zones, service facilities and objects, the rules of development and construction, etc. Special emphasis is placed to methodology and results of the Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Spatial Plan, and to the importance of protection measures, with the special significance of air and noise protection measures. For evaluation in the Strategic Environmental Assessment, a multicriteria expert evaluation (semi-quantitative method) of planned solutions was used in relation to the set of goals and relevant indicators, based on the basic set of indicators of sustainable development. Evaluation of planned solutions encompassed the significance and size, spatial conditions and probability of the impact of planned solutions on the environment, and the defined goals of strategic assessment. The framework of the implementation of the Spatial Plan is presented, which is determined for the simultaneous elaboration of planning solutions at two levels: the strategic level of the spatial plan and detailed urban plan level. It is also analyzed the relationship of the Spatial Plan to other applicable planning documents for the planning area. The effects of this methodological approach relate to enabling integrated planning of the sustainable development of the infrastructure corridor of the highway and its surrounding area, through coordination of spatial, urban and sectoral traffic planning and design, as well as the participation of all key actors in the adoption and implementation of planned decisions. By the conclusions of the paper, it is pointed to the direction for further research, particularly in terms of harmonizing methodology of planning documentation and preparation of technical-design documentation.

Keywords: Environment, Urban, Methodology, Impact, Highway, spatial plan, corridor

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2 Screening Methodology for Seismic Risk Assessment of Aging Structures in Oil and Gas Plants

Authors: Mohammad Nazri Mustafa, Pedram Hatami Abdullah, M. Fakhrur Razi Ahmad Faizul

Abstract:

With the issuance of Malaysian National Annex 2017 as a part of MS EN 1998-1:2015, the seismic mapping of Malaysian Peninsular including Sabah and Sarawak has undergone some changes in terms of the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) value. The revision to the PGA has raised a concern on the safety of oil and gas onshore structures as these structures were not designed to accommodate the new PGA values which are much higher than the previous values used in the original design. In view of the high numbers of structures and buildings to be re-assessed, a risk assessment methodology has been developed to prioritize and rank the assets in terms of their criticality against the new seismic loading. To-date such risk assessment method for oil and gas onshore structures is lacking, and it is the main intention of this technical paper to share the risk assessment methodology and risk elements scoring finalized via Delphi Method. The finalized methodology and the values used to rank the risk elements have been established based on years of relevant experience on the subject matter and based on a series of rigorous discussions with professionals in the industry. The risk scoring is mapped against the risk matrix (i.e., the LOF versus COF) and hence, the overall risk for the assets can be obtained. The overall risk can be used to prioritize and optimize integrity assessment, repair and strengthening work against the new seismic mapping of the country.

Keywords: Seismic, Methodology, Risk, PGA

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1 Navigating Complex Communication Dynamics in Qualitative Research

Authors: Steven J. Singer, Julianna F. Kamenakis, Allison R. Shapiro, Kimberly M. Cacciato

Abstract:

This study examines the dynamics of communication among researchers and participants who have various levels of hearing, use multiple languages, have various disabilities, and who come from different social strata. This qualitative methodological study focuses on the strategies employed in an ethnographic research study examining the communication choices of six sets of parents who have Deaf-Disabled children. The participating families varied in their communication strategies and preferences including the use of American Sign Language (ASL), visual-gestural communication, multiple spoken languages, and pidgin forms of each of these. The research team consisted of two undergraduate students proficient in ASL and a Deaf principal investigator (PI) who uses ASL and speech as his main modes of communication. A third Hard-of-Hearing undergraduate student fluent in ASL served as an objective facilitator of the data analysis. The team created reflexive journals by audio recording, free writing, and responding to team-generated prompts. They discussed interactions between the members of the research team, their evolving relationships, and various social and linguistic power differentials. The researchers reflected on communication during data collection, their experiences with one another, and their experiences with the participating families. Reflexive journals totaled over 150 pages. The outside research assistant reviewed the journals and developed follow up open-ended questions and prods to further enrich the data. The PI and outside research assistant used NVivo qualitative research software to conduct open inductive coding of the data. They chunked the data individually into broad categories through multiple readings and recognized recurring concepts. They compared their categories, discussed them, and decided which they would develop. The researchers continued to read, reduce, and define the categories until they were able to develop themes from the data. The research team found that the various communication backgrounds and skills present greatly influenced the dynamics between the members of the research team and with the participants of the study. Specifically, the following themes emerged: (1) students as communication facilitators and interpreters as barriers to natural interaction, (2) varied language use simultaneously complicated and enriched data collection, and (3) ASL proficiency and professional position resulted in a social hierarchy among researchers and participants. In the discussion, the researchers reflected on their backgrounds and internal biases of analyzing the data found and how social norms or expectations affected the perceptions of the researchers in writing their journals. Through this study, the research team found that communication and language skills require significant consideration when working with multiple and complex communication modes. The researchers had to continually assess and adjust their data collection methods to meet the communication needs of the team members and participants. In doing so, the researchers aimed to create an accessible research setting that yielded rich data but learned that this often required compromises from one or more of the research constituents.

Keywords: Methodology, American sign language, deaf-disabled, complex communication

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