Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

methane Related Abstracts

17 Simulation of the Performance of the Reforming of Methane in a Primary Reformer

Authors: M. Boumaza, A. Alkattib

Abstract:

Steam reforming is industrially important as it is incorporated in several major chemical processes including the production of ammonia, methanol, hydrogen and ox alcohols. Due to the strongly endothermic nature of the process, a large amount of heat is supplied by fuel burning (commonly natural gas) in the furnace chamber. Reaction conversions, tube catalyst life, energy consumption and CO2 emission represent the principal factors affecting the performance of this unit and are directly influenced by the high operating temperatures and pressures. This study presents a simulation of the performance of the reforming of methane in a primary reformer, through a developed empirical relation which enables to investigate the effects of operating parameters such as the pressure, temperature, steam to carbon ratio on the production of hydrogen, as well as the fraction of non-converted methane. It appears from this analysis that the exit temperature Te, the operating pressure as well the steam to carbon ratio has an important effect on the reforming of methane.

Keywords: Performance, Hydrogen, methane, parameters, reforming

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16 On the Catalytic Combustion Behaviors of CH4 in a MCFC Power Generation System

Authors: Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Catalytic combustion is generally accepted as an environmentally preferred alternative for the generation of heat and power from fossil fuels mainly due to its advantages related to the stable combustion under very lean conditions with low emissions of NOx, CO, and UHC at temperatures lower than those occurred in conventional flame combustion. Despite these advantages, the commercial application of catalytic combustion has been delayed because of complicated reaction processes and the difficulty in developing appropriate catalysts with the required stability and durability. To develop the catalytic combustors, detailed studies on the combustion characteristics of catalytic combustion should be conducted. To the end, in current research, quantitative studies on the combustion characteristics of the catalytic combustors, with a Pd-based catalyst for MCFC power generation systems, relying on numerical simulations have been conducted. In addition, data from experimental studies of variations in outlet temperatures and fuel conversion, taken after operating conditions have been used to validate the present numerical approach. After introducing the governing equations for mass, momentum, and energy equations as well as a description of catalytic combustion kinetics, the effects of the excess air ratio, space velocity, and inlet gas temperature on the catalytic combustion characteristics are extensively investigated. Quantitative comparisons are also conducted with previous experimental data. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented.

Keywords: methane, catalytic combustion, BOP, MCFC power generation system, inlet temperature, excess air ratio, space velocity

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15 The Effect of System Parameters on the Biogas Production from Poultry Rendering Plant Anaerobic Digesters

Authors: N. Lovanh, J. Loughrin, G. Ruiz-Aguilar

Abstract:

Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system parameters on methane production from anaerobic digesters utilizing poultry rendering plant wastewater was carried out. Anaerobic batch reactors and continuous flow system subjected to different operation conditions (i.e., flow rate, temperature, and etc.) containing poultry rendering wastewater were set up to evaluate methane potential from each scenario. Biogas productions were sampled and monitored by gas chromatography and photoacoustic gas analyzer over six months of operation. The results showed that methane productions increased as the temperature increased. However, there is an upper limit to the increase in the temperature on the methane production. Flow rates and type of systems (batch vs. plug-flow regime) also had a major effect on methane production. Constant biogas production was observed in plug-flow system whereas batch system produced biogas quicker and tapering off toward the end of the six-month study. Based on these results, it is paramount to consider operating conditions and system setup in optimizing biogas production from agricultural wastewater.

Keywords: Biotechnology, methane, Anaerobic Digestion, poultry rendering wastewater

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14 Analysis of Population and Growth Rate Methanotof Bateria as Reducers Methane Gases Emission in Rice Field

Authors: Maimuna Nontji

Abstract:

The life cycle of rice plant has three phases of growth; they are the vegetative, reproductive and maturation phase. They greatly affect the life of dynamics metanotrof bacterial as reducer methane emissions in the rice field, both of population and on the rate of growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the population and growth rate of methanotrof isolates which has been isolated in previous studies. Isolates were taken at all the life cycle of rice plant. Population of analysis was conducted by standard plate count method and growth rate was analysed by logarithmic calculation. The results showed that each isolate varied in population and growth rate. The highest population was obtained in the isolates Gowa Methanotrof Reproductive (GMR 8) about 7.06 x 10 11 cfu / ml on 3 days of incubation and the lowest population was obtained in the Gowa Methanotrof Maturation (GMP 5) about 0.27 x 10 11 cfu / ml on 7 day of incubation. Some isolate were demonstrated in long growth rate about 5 days of incubation and another are 3 days.

Keywords: Population, Emission, methane, methanotrof

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13 Quantification of Methane Emissions from Solid Waste in Oman Using IPCC Default Methodology

Authors: Wajeeha A. Qazi, Mohammed-Hasham Azam, Umais A. Mehmood, Ghithaa A. Al-Mufragi, Noor-Alhuda Alrawahi, Mohammed F. M. Abushammala

Abstract:

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposed in landfill sites decompose under anaerobic conditions and produce gases which mainly contain carbon dioxide (CO₂) and methane (CH₄). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO₂, and can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine MSW generation and the annual CH₄ emissions from the generated waste in Oman over the years 1971-2030. The estimation of total waste generation was performed using existing models, while the CH₄ emissions estimation was performed using the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) default method. It is found that total MSW generation in Oman might be reached 3,089 Gg in the year 2030, which approximately produced 85 Gg of CH₄ emissions in the year 2030.

Keywords: Emissions, methane, Solid Waste, landfills

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12 Characterization of Vegetable Wastes and Its Potential Use for Hydrogen and Methane Production via Dark Anaerobic Fermentation

Authors: M. Suresh Kumar, Ajay Dwivedi, A. N. Vaidya

Abstract:

The problem of fruit and vegetable waste management is a grave one and with ever increasing need to feed the exponentially growing population, more and more solid waste in the form of fruit and vegetables waste are generated and its management has become one of the key issues in protection of environment. Energy generation from fruit and vegetables waste by dark anaerobic fermentation is a recent an interesting avenue effective management of solid waste as well as for generating free and cheap energy. In the present study 17 vegetables were characterized for their physical as well as chemical properties, these characteristics were used to determine the hydrogen and methane potentials of vegetable from various models, and also lab scale batch experiments were performed to determine their actual hydrogen and methane production capacity. Lab scale batch experiments proved that vegetable waste can be used as effective substrate for bio hydrogen and methane production, however the expected yield of bio hydrogen and methane was much lower than predicted by models, this was due to the fact that other vital experimental parameters such as pH, total solids content, food to microorganism ratio was not optimized.

Keywords: Hydrogen, methane, vegetable waste, physico-chemical characteristics

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11 High Rate Bio-Methane Generation from Petrochemical Wastewater Using Improved CSTR

Authors: A. W. Zularisam, Md. Nurul Islam Siddique

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The effect of gradual increase in organic loading rate (OLR) and temperature on biomethanation from petrochemical wastewater treatment was investigated using CSTR. The digester performance was measured at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 to 2d, and start up procedure of the reactor was monitored for 60 days via chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, biogas and methane production. By enhancing the temperature from 30 to 55 ˚C Thermophilic condition was attained, and pH was adjusted at 7 ± 0.5 during the experiment. Supreme COD removal competence was 98±0.5% (r = 0.84) at an OLR of 7.5 g-COD/Ld and 4d HRT. Biogas and methane yield were logged to an extreme of 0.80 L/g-CODremoved d (r = 0.81), 0.60 L/g-CODremoved d (r = 0.83), and mean methane content of biogas was 65.49%. The full acclimatization was established at 55 ˚C with high COD removal efficiency and biogas production. An OLR of 7.5 g-COD/L d and HRT of 4 days were apposite for petrochemical wastewater treatment.

Keywords: methane, Anaerobic Digestion, petrochemical wastewater, CSTR

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10 Increase Daily Production Rate of Methane Through Pasteurization Cow Dung

Authors: Mahmoud Hassan Onsa, Khalid Elbadawi Elshafea

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of the experiments to measure the impact of pasteurization cows dung on important parameter of anaerobic digestion (retention time) and measure the effect in daily production rate of biogas, were used local materials in these experiments, two experiments were carried out in two bio-digesters (1 and 2) (18.0 L), volume of the mixture 16.0-litre and the mass of dry matter in the mixture 4.0 Kg of cow dung. Pasteurization process has been conducted on the mixture into the digester 2, and put two digesters under room temperature. Digester (1) produced 268.5 liter of methane in period of 49 days with daily methane production rate 1.37L/Kg/day, and digester (2) produced 302.7-liter of methane in period of 26 days with daily methane production rate 2.91 L/Kg/day. This study concluded that the use of system pasteurization cows dung speed up hydrolysis in anaerobic process, because heat to certain temperature in certain time lead to speed up chemical reactions (transfer Protein to Amino acids, Carbohydrate to Sugars and Fat to Long chain fatty acids), this lead to reduce the retention time an therefore increase the daily methane production rate with 212%.

Keywords: methane, Pasteurization, cow dung, daily production, increase

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9 Effect of Substrate Type on Pollutant Removal and Greenhouse Gases Emissions in Constructed Wetlands with Ornamental Plants

Authors: Elizabeth Ramos, Maria E. Hernnadez, Claudia Ortiz

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Pollutant removal (N-NH4, COD, S-SO4, N-NO3 and P-PO4) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) emissions were investigated in constructed wetlands CW mesocosms with four types of substrate (gravel (G) zeolite (Z), Gravel+Plastic (GP) and zeolite+plastic), all planted with the ornamental plant lily (Lilium sp). Significantly higher N-NH4 removal was found in the CW-Z (97%) and CW-ZP (85%) compared with CW-G (61%) and CW-GP (17%), also significantly lower emissions of nitrous oxide were found in CW-Z (2.2 µgm-2min-1) and CW-ZP (2.5 µgm-2min-1) compared with CW-G(7.4 µgm-2min-1 ) and CW-GP (6.30 µgm-2min-1).

Keywords: methane, Zeolite, Nitrous Oxide, lily

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8 Using Low-Calorie Gas to Generate Heat and Electricity

Authors: Аndrey Marchenko, Oleg Linkov, Alexander Osetrov, Sergiy Kravchenko

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The low-calorie of gases include biogas, coal gas, coke oven gas, associated petroleum gas, gases sewage, etc. These gases are usually released into the atmosphere or burned on flares, causing substantial damage to the environment. However, with the right approach, low-calorie gas fuel can become a valuable source of energy. Specified determines the relevance of areas related to the development of low-calorific gas utilization technologies. As an example, in the work considered one of way of utilization of coalmine gas, because Ukraine ranks fourth in the world in terms of coal mine gas emission (4.7% of total global emissions, or 1.2 billion m³ per year). Experts estimate that coal mine gas is actively released in the 70-80 percent of existing mines in Ukraine. The main component of coal mine gas is methane (25-60%) Methane in 21 times has a greater impact on the greenhouse effect than carbon dioxide disposal problem has become increasingly important in the context of the increasing need to address the problems of climate, ecology and environmental protection. So marked causes negative effect of both local and global nature. The efforts of the United Nations and the World Bank led to the adoption of the program 'Zero Routine Flaring by 2030' dedicated to the cessation of these gases burn in flares and disposing them with the ability to generate heat and electricity. This study proposes to use coal gas as a fuel for gas engines to generate heat and electricity. Analyzed the physical-chemical properties of low-calorie gas fuels were allowed to choose a suitable engine, as well as estimate the influence of the composition of the fuel at its techno-economic indicators. Most suitable for low-calorie gas is engine with pre-combustion chamber jet ignition. In Ukraine is accumulated extensive experience in exploitation and production of gas engines with capacity of 1100 kW type GD100 (10GDN 207/2 * 254) fueled by natural gas. By using system pre- combustion chamber jet ignition and quality control in the engines type GD100 introduces the concept of burning depleted burn fuel mixtures, which in turn leads to decrease in the concentration of harmful substances of exhaust gases. The main problems of coal mine gas as a fuel for ICE is low calorific value, the presence of components that adversely affect combustion processes and terms of operation of the ICE, the instability of the composition, weak ignition. In some cases, these problems can be solved by adaptation engine design using coal mine gas as fuel (changing compression ratio, fuel injection quantity increases, change ignition time, increase energy plugs, etc.). It is shown that the use of coal mine gas engines with prechamber has not led to significant changes in the indicator parameters (ηi = 0.43 - 0.45). However, this significantly increases the volumetric fuel consumption, which requires increased fuel injection quantity to ensure constant nominal engine power. Thus, the utilization of low-calorie gas fuels in stationary gas engine type-based GD100 will significantly reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere when the generate cheap electricity and heat.

Keywords: Utilization, methane, gas engine, low-calorie gas, pre-combustion chamber

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7 Inventory of Local Forages in Indonesia That Potentially Reduce Methane (CH4) Emissions and Increase Productivity in Ruminants

Authors: Amriana Hifizah, Philip Edward Vercoe, Graeme Bruce Martin, Teuku Reza Ferasy, Muhammad Hambal

Abstract:

Many native forage plant species have been used in Indonesia as feed for ruminants. However, less information is available about how these plants affect productivity, let alone methane emissions. In the province of Aceh, where the traditional practice is to feed local forages to small ruminants, the farmers are not satisfied with the productivity of their livestock, and they attribute this problem to poor availability and too few options for good quality forages. Forage quality is reduced by high environmental temperatures which increase the amount of lignification. In addition to reducing productivity, these factors also increase enteric methane production. A preliminary survey about potential forage species was completed in three different districts, two of low elevation and one of high elevation: Syiah Kuala (05°30’5.08” N to 095°24’7.35” E), elevation 29 m MSL; Kajhu (05°32’34.6” N to 095°21’17.7” E), elevation 30 m MSL; Lembah Seulawah (05°28'06.4" N to 095°43' 14.2" E), elevation 254 m MSL. Information about local plants was collected in a semi-structured interview with scientists, government field officers and local farmers, in the city of Banda Aceh and in those three districts. The outcome was a list 40 species that could be useful, of which 21 were selected for further study. The selection process was based on several criteria: high availability, high protein content, low toxicity, and evidence of secondary metabolites (eg, history of medicinal plants for both human and animals). For some of the selected medicinal plants, there is experimental evidence of effects on methane production during rumen fermentation. Subsequently, the selected forages were tested for their effects on rumen fermentation in vitro, using batch culture. The data produced will be used to identify forages with the potential to reduce CH4 emissions. These candidates will then be assessed for their benefits (fermentability and productivity) and potential deleterious side-effects.

Keywords: methane, forage, Rumen, batch culture

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6 Biogas Control: Methane Production Monitoring Using Arduino

Authors: W. Ait Ahmed, M. Aggour, M. Naciri

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Extracting energy from biomass is an important alternative to produce different types of energy (heat, electricity, or both) assuring low pollution and better efficiency. It is a new yet reliable approach to reduce green gas emission by extracting methane from industry effluents and use it to power machinery. We focused in our project on using paper and mill effluents, treated in a UASB reactor. The methane produced is used in the factory’s power supply. The aim of this work is to develop an electronic system using Arduino platform connected to a gas sensor, to measure and display the curve of daily methane production on processing. The sensor will send the gas values in ppm to the Arduino board so that the later sends the RS232 hardware protocol. The code developed with processing will transform the values into a curve and display it on the computer screen.

Keywords: Code, Processing, Program, Biogas, methane, Gas Sensor, Arduino

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5 Gas Monitoring and Soil Control at the Natural Gas Storage Site (Minerbio, Italy)

Authors: Ana Maria Carmen Ilie, Carmela Vaccaro

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Gas migration through wellbore failure, in particular from abandoned wells, is repeatedly identified as the highest risk mechanism. The vadose zone was subject to monitoring system close to the wellbore in Minerbio, methane storage site. The new technology has been well-developed and used with the purpose to provide reliable estimates of leakage parameters. Of these techniques, soil flux sampling at the soil surface, via the accumulation chamber method and soil flux sampling at the depths of 100cm below the ground surface, have been an important technique for characterizing the gas concentrations at the gas storage site. We present results of soil Radon Bq/m3, CO2%, CH4% and O2% concentration gases. Measurements have been taken for radon concentrations with an Durridge RAD7 Company, Inc., USA, instrument. We used for air and soil quality an Biogas ETG instrument monitoring system, with NDIR CO2, CH4 gas sensor and electrochemical O2 gas sensor. The measurements started in September-October 2015, where no outliers have been identified. The measurements have continued in March-April-July-August-September 2016, almost at the same time in the same place around the gas storage site, values measured 15 minutes for each sampling, to determine their concentration, their distribution and to understand the relationship among gases and atmospheric conditions. At a depth of 100 cm, the maximum soil radon gas concentrations were found to be 1770 ±±582 Bq/m3, the soil consists of 64.31% sand, 20.75% silt and 14.94% clay, and with 0.526 ppm of Uranium. The maximum concentration (September 2016), in soil at 100cm below the ground surface, with 83% sand, 8.96% silt and 7.89% clay, was about 0.06% CH4, and in atmosphere 0.06% CH4 at 40°C (T). In the other months the values have been on the range of 0.01% to 0.03% CH4. Since we did not have outliers in the gas storage site, soil-gas samples for isotopic analysis have not been done.

Keywords: methane, lithology, leakage gas monitoring, soil gas

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4 Analysis of Generated Biogas from Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Dung

Authors: Babatope Alabadan, Adeyinka Adesanya, I. E. Afangideh

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The use of energy is paramount to human existence. Every activity globally revolves round it. Over the years, different sources of energy (petroleum fuels predominantly) have been utilized. Animal waste treatment on the farm is a phenomenon that has called for rapt research attention. Generated wastes on farm pollute the environment in diverse ways. Waste-to-bioenergy treatments can provide livestock operators with multiple value-added, renewable energy products. The objective of this work is to generate methane (CH4) gas from the anaerobic digestion of piggery dung. A retention time of 15 and 30 days and a mesophilic temperature range were selected. The generated biogas composition was methane (CH4), carbondioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) using gas chromatography method. At 15 days retention time, 60% of (CH4) was collected while CO2 and traces of H2S and NH3 accounted for 40%. At 30 days retention time, 75% of CH4, 20% of CO2 was collected while traces of H2S and NH3 amounted to 5%. For on and off farm uses, biogas can be upgraded to biomethane by removing the CO2, NH3 and H2S. This product (CH4) can meet heating and power needs or serve as transportation fuels

Keywords: Biogas, methane, Anaerobic Digestion, piggery dung

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3 In vitro Evaluation of the Anti-Methanogenic Properties of Australian Native and Some Exotic Plants with a View of Their Potential Role in Management of Ruminant Livestock Emissions

Authors: Philip Vercoe, Ali Hardan

Abstract:

Samples of 29 Australian wild natives and exotic plants were tested in vitro batch rumen culture system for their methanogenic characteristics and potential usage as feed or antimicrobial to enhance sustainable livestock ruminant production system. The plants were tested for their in vitro rumen fermentation end products properties which include: methane production, total gas pressure, concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, ammonia, and acetate to propionate ratio. All of the plants were produced less methane than the positive control (i.e., oaten chaff) in vitro. Nearly 50 % of plants inhibiting methane by over 50% in comparison to the control. Eremophila granitica had the strongest inhibitory effect about 92 % on methane production comparing with oaten chaff. The exotic weed Arctotheca calendula (Capeweed) had the highest concentration of volatile fatty acids production as well as the highest in total gas pressure among all plants and the control. Some of the acacia species have the lowest production of total gas pressure. The majority of the plants produced more ammonia than the oaten chaff control. The plant species that produced the most ammonia was Codonocarpus cotinifolius, producing over 3 times as much methane as oaten chaff control while the lowest was Eremophila galeata. There was strong positive correlation between methane production and total gas production as well as between total gas production and the concentration of VFA produced with R² = 0.74, R² = 0.84, respectively. While there was weak positive correlation between methane production and the acetate to propionate ratio as well as between the concentration of VFA produced and methane production with R² = 0.41, R² = 0.52, respectively.

Keywords: methane, in vitro Rumen Fermentation, wild Australian native plants, forages

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2 The Impact of Garlic and Citrus Extracts on Energy Retention and Methane Production in Ruminants in vitro

Authors: Michael Graz, Natasha Hurril, Andrew Shearer

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Research on feed supplementation with natural compounds is currently being intensively pursued with a view to improving energy utilisation in ruminants and mitigating the production of methane by these animals. Towards this end, a novel combination of extracts from garlic and bitter orange was therefore selected for trials on the basis of their previously published in vitro anti-methanogenic potential. Three separate in vitro experiments were conducted to determine energy utilisation and greenhouse gas production. These included use of rumen fluid from fistulated cows and sheep in batch culture, the Hohenheim gas test, and the Rusitec technique. Experimental and control arms were utilised, with 5g extracts per kilogram of total dietary dry matter (0.05g/kg active compounds) being used to supplement or not supplement the in vitro systems. Respiratory measurements were conducted on experimental day 1 for the batch culture and Hohenheim gas test and on day 14-21 for the Rusitec Technique (in a 21-day trial). Measurements included methane (CH4) production, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, molar proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate and degradation of organic matter (Rusitec). CH4 production was reduced by 82% (±16%), 68% (±11%) and 37% (±4%) in the batch culture, Hohenheim gas test and Rusitec, respectively. Total VFA production was reduced by 13% (±2%) and 2% (±0.1%) in the batch culture and Hohenheim gas test whilst it was increased by 8% (±2%) in the Rusitec. Total VFA production was reduced in all tests between 2 and 10%, whilst acetate production was reduced between 10% and 29%. Propionate production which is an indicator of weight gain was increased in all cases between 16% and 30%. Butyrate production which is considered an indicator of potential milk yield was increased by between 6 and 11%. Degradation of organic matter in the Rusitec experiments was improved by 10% (±0.1%). In conclusion, the study demonstrated the potential of the combination of garlic and citrus extracts to improve digestion, enhance body energy retention and limit CH4 formation in relation to feed intake.

Keywords: methane, citrus, Ruminants, garlic

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1 Flame Propagation Velocity of Selected Gas Mixtures Depending on the Temperature

Authors: Kaczmarzyk Piotr, Anna Dziechciarz, Wojciech Klapsa

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The purpose of this paper is demonstration the test results of research influence of temperature on the velocity of flame propagation using gas and air mixtures for selected gas mixtures. The research was conducted on the test apparatus in the form of duct 2 m long. The test apparatus was funded from the project: “Development of methods to neutralize threats of explosion for determined tanks contained technical gases, including alternative sources of supply in the fire environment, taking into account needs of rescuers” number: DOB-BIO6/02/50/2014. The Project is funded by The National Centre for Research and Development. This paper presents the results of measurement of rate of pressure rise and rate in flame propagation, using test apparatus for mixtures air and methane or air and propane. This paper presents the results performed using the test apparatus in the form of duct measuring the rate of flame and overpressure wave. Studies were performed using three gas mixtures with different concentrations: Methane (3% to 8% vol), Propane (3% to 6% vol). As regard to the above concentrations, tests were carried out at temperatures 20 and 30 ̊C. The gas mixture was supplied to the inside of the duct by the partial pressure molecules. Data acquisition was made using 5 dynamic pressure transducers and 5 ionization probes, arranged along of the duct. Temperature conditions changes were performed using heater which was mounted on the duct’s bottom. During the tests, following parameters were recorded: maximum explosion pressure, maximum pressure recorded by sensors and voltage recorded by ionization probes. Performed tests, for flammable gas and air mixtures, indicate that temperature changes have an influence on overpressure velocity. It should be noted, that temperature changes do not have a major impact on the flame front velocity. In the case of propane and air mixtures (temperature 30 ̊C) was observed DDT (Deflagration to Detonation) phenomena. The velocity increased from 2 to 20 m/s. This kind of explosion could turn into a detonation, but the duct length is too short (2 m).

Keywords: methane, propane, explosion, flame propagation, flame propagation velocity

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