Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

methane emission Related Abstracts

3 Estimation and Utilization of Landfill Gas from Egyptian Municipal Waste: A Case Study

Authors: Ali A. Hashim Habib, Ahmed A. Abdel-Rehim

Abstract:

Assuredly, massive amounts of wastes that are not utilized and dumped in uncontrolled dumpsites will be one of the major sources of diseases, fires, and emissions. With easy steps and minimum effort, energy can be produced from these gases. The present work introduces an experimental and theoretical analysis to estimate the amount of landfill gas and the corresponding energy which can be produced based on actual Egyptian municipal wastes composition. Two models were utilized and compared, EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) model and CDM (Clean Development Mechanisms) model to estimate methane generation rates and total CH4 emissions based on a particular landfill. The results showed that for every ton of municipal waste, 140 m3 of landfill gas can be produced. About 800 kW of electricity for a minimum of 24 years can be generated form one million ton of municipal waste. A total amount of 549,025 ton of carbon emission can be avoided during these 24 years.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, municipal solid waste, energy from landfill gases, landfill biogas, methane emission

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2 The Effect of Global Value Chain Participation on Environment

Authors: Piyaphan Changwatchai

Abstract:

Global value chain is important for current world economy through foreign direct investment. Multinational enterprises' efficient location seeking for each stage of production lead to global production network and more global value chain participation of several countries. Global value chain participation has several effects on participating countries in several aspects including the environment. The effect of global value chain participation on the environment is ambiguous. As a result, this research aims to study the effect of global value chain participation on countries' CO₂ emission and methane emission by using quantitative analysis with secondary panel data of sixty countries. The analysis is divided into two types of global value chain participation, which are forward global value chain participation and backward global value chain participation. The results show that, for forward global value chain participation, GDP per capita affects two types of pollutants in downward bell curve shape. Forward global value chain participation negatively affects CO₂ emission and methane emission. As for backward global value chain participation, GDP per capita affects two types of pollutants in downward bell curve shape. Backward global value chain participation negatively affects methane emission only. However, when considering Asian countries, forward global value chain participation positively affects CO₂ emission. The recommendations of this research are that countries participating in global value chain should promote production with effective environmental management in each stage of value chain. The examples of policies are providing incentives to private sectors, including domestic producers and MNEs, for green production technology and efficient environment management and engaging in international agreements in terms of green production. Furthermore, government should regulate each stage of production in value chain toward green production, especially for Asia countries.

Keywords: Environment, CO2 emission, methane emission, global value chain participation

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1 Orange Leaves and Rice Straw on Methane Emission and Milk Production in Murciano-Granadina Dairy Goat Diet

Authors: Tamara Romero, Manuel Romero-Huelva, Jose V. Segarra, Jose Castro, Carlos Fernandez

Abstract:

Many foods resulting from processing and manufacturing end up as waste, most of which is burned, dumped into landfills or used as compost, which leads to wasted resources, and environmental problems due to unsuitable disposal. Using residues of the crop and food processing industries to feed livestock has the advantage to obviating the need for costly waste management programs. The main residue generated in citrus cultivations and rice crop are pruning waste and rice straw, respectively. Within Spain, the Valencian Community is one of the world's oldest citrus and rice production areas. The objective of this experiment found out the effects of including orange leaves and rice straw as ingredients in the concentrate diets of goats, on milk production and methane (CH₄) emissions. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats (45 kg of body weight, on average) in mid-lactation were selected in a crossover design experiment, where each goat received two treatments in 2 periods. Both groups were fed with 1.7 kg pelleted mixed ration; one group (n= 5) was a control (C) and the other group (n= 5) used orange leaves and rice straw (OR). The forage was alfalfa hay, and it was the same for the two groups (1 kg of alfalfa was offered by goat and day). The diets employed to achieve the requirements during lactation period for caprine livestock. The goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages. After 14 days of adaptation, feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily over a 5 days period. Physico-chemical parameters and somatic cell count in milk samples were determined. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded individually by an open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. The data were analyzed by mixed model with diet and digestibility as fixed effect and goat as random effect. No differences were found for dry matter intake (2.23 kg/d, on average). Higher milk yield was found for C diet than OR (2.3 vs. 2.1 kg/goat and day, respectively) and, greater milk fat content was observed for OR than C (6.5 vs. 5.5%, respectively). The cheese extract was also greater in OR than C (10.7 vs. 9.6%). Goats fed OR diet produced significantly fewer CH₄ emissions than C diet (27 vs. 30 g/d, respectively). These preliminary results (LIFE Project LOWCARBON FEED LIFE/CCM/ES/000088) suggested that the use of these waste by-products was effective in reducing CH₄ emission without detrimental effect on milk yield.

Keywords: Agricultural waste, Goat, milk production, methane emission

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