Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

metformin Related Abstracts

17 Pattern Of Polymorphism SLC22A1 Gene In Children With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Authors: Elly Usman, S. Dante, Diah Purnamasari


Type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2DM ) is a syndrome characterized by a state of increased blood sugar levels due to chronic disorders of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells and insulin action or a combination of both. The organic cation transporter 1, encoded by the SLC22A1 gene, responsible for the uptake of the antihyperglycemic drug, metformin, in the hepatocyte. We assessed whether a genetic variation in the SLC22A1 gene was associated with the glucose - lowering effect of metformin. Method case study research design. Samples are children with type 2 diabetes mellitus who meet the inclusion criteria. The results proportions SLC22A1 gene polymorphisms in children with diabetes mellitus type 2 amounted to 52.04 % at position 400T/C, there is one heterozygous and one at position 595T/C Conclusion The presence of SLC22A1 gene polymorphisms in children with diabetes mellitus type 2.

Keywords: Pharmacogenomics, diabetes Mellitus type 2, metformin, organic cation transporter 1

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16 Effect of Aquatic Seed Extract of (Cichorium intybus L.) and Metformin on Nitric Oxide in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

Authors: Lotfollah Rezagholizadeh


Background and Aim: Diabetes mellitus is related to high mortality and morbidity caused by the early development of atherosclerosis correlated to diabetic macroangiopathy. The endothelium-derived vasodilator, nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the development of vascular complications via the regulation of blood flow, and various antiatherosclerotic actions. Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have a decreased level of endothelial nitric oxide release. In this study we aimed to examine the effect of aquatic seed extract of Cichorium intybus L. (chicory) and metformin (a known prescription drug for diabetes) on NO levels in T2D rats. Methods: Five groups of adult male Wistar rats were used (n=6): Non-diabetic controls without extract treatment (Control), Non-diabetic controls with extract treatment (Chicory-control), T2D rats without extract treatment (NIA/STZ), T2D rats treated with the extract (Chicory-NIA/STZ), and T2D groups that received metformin (100 mg/kg) but no extract (Metformin-NIA/STZ). T2D was induced with intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of niacinamide (NIA, 200 mg/kg), 15 min after an i.p administration of streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg). Lyophilized chicory extract (125 mg/kg) was dissolved in 0.2 ml normal saline and administered one dose a day. The experiments lasted for 3 weeks after the diabetes induction. NO analysis was performed by assay based on the Griess reaction. Data were reported as the mean ± SD and statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. Results: Serum nitric oxide levels decreased significantly in NIA/STZ group compared with Control and Chicory-control. Treatment with chicory extract caused a significant increase in serum levels of NO in Chicory-NIA/STZ group compare to NIA/STZ group (p<05). Metformin-NIA/STZ group did not show considerable difference when compared with NIA/STZ, with respect to NO levels. In a group of rats made diabetic by STZ alone (type 1 diabetic rats, T1D), chicory did not have a significant ameliorating effect. Conclusion: In this study, we clearly showed a relationship between low serum nitric oxide levels and diabetes mellitus in rats. The increase in serum nitric oxide by chicory extract is an indication of antiatherogenic effect of this plant. Chicory seed extract was more efficient than metformin in improving the NO levels in NO-deficient T2D diabetic rats.

Keywords: Nitric Oxide, metformin, type 2 diabetes mellitus, chicory

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15 Vitamin D Supplementation Potentiates the Clinical Benefits of Metformin and Pioglitazone in Indian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: Mohd Asharf Ganie, Aafia Rashid, Mohd Afzal Zargar, Showkat Ali Zargar, Syed Mudasar, Tabasum Parvaiz, Zafar Amin Shah


Accumulating evidence suggests that Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) might at least contribute to the metabolic co-morbidities in PCOS. Hence, we aimed to study the effect of vitamin D supplementation in co-prescription with insulin sensitizers like metformin and pioglitazone on clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. In this open label randomized, controlled trial a total of 120 women with PCOS diagnosis (AE-PCOS 2009 Criteria) were assigned to four treatment groups (n= 30 in each): group I (metformin 1 gm/day in combination with cholecalciferol 4000 IU/day), group II (pioglitazone 30 mg/day in combination with cholecalciferol 4000 IU/day), group III (metformin 1 gm /day) and group IV (pioglitazone 30 mg/day). Vitamin D supplementation was given as 60,000 units every two weeks for 24 weeks. All the subjects were routinely evaluated for clinical, biochemical, hormonal and insulin sensitivity parameters in addition to various safety parameters especially serum calcium levels at baseline and after 24 weeks of the treatment. Our results indicate that 95.5% of PCOS women were vitamin D deficient at baseline. Serum 25 (OH) D levels increased significantly (p < 0.001) in groups I and II without any adverse effects after 24 weeks of oral administration of 4000 IU cholecalciferol daily. However, serum 25 (OH) D levels remained unchanged in group III and IV. By six months, number of menstrual cycles per year increased whereas Ferriman-Gallwey score, serum total testosterone and HOMA-IR decreased significantly (P < 0.001) in the treatment groups supplemented with cholecalciferol as compared to those treated either drug alone. No significant beneficial changes were observed on weight, BMI, blood pressure, glucose tolerance and serum lipids in any of the groups supplemented with cholecalciferol. We conclude that daily dose of 4000 IU cholecalciferol might be a useful adjunct in complex treatment of PCOS with fewer adverse events. Furthermore, pioglitazone and cholecalciferol combination seems to be marginally better although there was no statistical significance.

Keywords: insulin resistance, metformin, PCOS, pioglitazone, spironolactone, vitamin D supplementation

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14 The Use of Metformin in Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and Glucose Control in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) at Tripoli Medical Center

Authors: Ebtisam A. Benomran, Abdurrauf M. Gusbi, Malak S. Elazarg, M. Sultan, Layla M. Kafu, Arwa M. Matoug, Esra E. Benamara


Normal pregnancy is associated with metabolic changes leading to decreased insulin sensitivity and reduced glucose tolerance, however, 3-5% of pregnant women proceed to develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Researcher studied the use of metformin in many fields and the benefit to risk balance of using metformin during pregnancy and the risk of fetotoxic. In this study we examined the use of Metformin to control Glucose in pregnant Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and evaluate its safety use during the first trimester of pregnancy.A group of pregnant patients with gestational diabetes mellitus from the first trimester of pregnancy, non smoking with no family history of congenital malformation disease, aged between (20-45 years) and have no liver diseases and who had indicating good compliance at more than one visit over several month until delivery put on Metformin were participated in this trial. Our study shown that all the studied group of pregnant women using metformin 500 mg daily delivered a healthy babies. Meta-analysis by mother risk program showed no increase in incidence of malformations by use Metformin during the first trimester of pregnancy. A hundred outpatients were participated in the survey on the general knowledge and awareness of diabetic patients to their illness and medication used their aged between 20-40 years old. In this survey we realize that 90% of the doctors are not giving the patient full information about their illness and the use of metformin during pregnancy, also about 65% of the patients did not know about the nutritionist in the hospital and the right control diet for diabetes. Courses on first aid, rapid diagnosis of poisoning and follow the written procedures to dealing with such cases.

Keywords: pregnancy, metformin, gestational diabetes, malformations

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13 Saponins from the Fruits of Solanum anguivi Reverse Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia and Increase Antioxidant Status in Stretozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Isaac Gbadura Adanlawo, Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti


This work investigated the antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of saponins from the fruit of Solanum anguivi, a plant generally used in folk medicine to treat diabetes and hypertension and to compare its effect with metformin in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of STZ (65 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Saponin (40 and 100 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage once daily for 21 days. Metformin (200 mg/kg b.w.) was administered as the positive control. The effect of saponin on blood glucose, serum lipids and enzymatic antioxidants defense systems, like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), as well as MDA levels in serum, liver and pancreas were studied. Saponins from S. anguivi fruits reduced the blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in STZ-diabetic rats. They also significantly abolished the increase in MDA level in serum, liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of SOD and CAT in serum, liver and pancreas were significantly increased as well as concentration of HDL in the serum. Metformin had the same effect as saponin but saponins seems to be more potent in reducing serum TC, TG, LDL, and MDA, and increasing SOD and CAT. Conclusions: These results suggest that saponins from S. anguivi fruits have anti-diabetic and antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertriglyceridemic antiperoxidative activities mediated through their antioxidant properties. Also, saponins appeared to have more hypolipidemic, antiperoxidative and antioxidant activity than metformin.

Keywords: Diabetes, metformin, saponin, streptozotocin, Solanum anguivi

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12 Effects of Concomitant Use of Metformin and Powdered Moringa Oleifera Leaves on Glucose Tolerance in Sprague-Dawley Rats

Authors: Emielex M. Aguilar, Kristen Angela G. Cruz, Czarina Joie L. Rivera, Francis Dave C. Tan, Gavino Ivan N. Tanodra, Dianne Katrina G. Usana, Mary Grace T. Valentin, Nico Albert S. Vasquez, Edwin Monico C. Wee


The risk of diabetes mellitus is increasing in the Philippines, with Metformin and Insulin as drugs commonly used for its management. The use of herbal medicines has grown increasingly, especially among the elderly population. Moringa oleifera or malunggay is one of the most common plants in the country, and several studies have shown the plant to exhibit a hypoglycemic property with its flavonoid content. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of concomitant use of Metformin and powdered M. oleifera leaves (PMOL) on blood glucose levels. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally distributed into four groups. Fasting blood glucose levels of the rats were measured prior to experimentation. The following treatments were administered to the four groups, respectively: glucose only 2 g/kg; glucose 2 g/kg + Metformin 100 mg/kg; glucose 2 g/kg + PMOL 200 mg/kg; and glucose 2 g/kg + PMOL 200 mg/kg and Metformin 100 mg/kg. Blood glucose levels were determined on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th hour post-treatment and compared between groups. Statistical analysis showed that the type of intervention did not show significance in the reduction of blood glucose levels when compared with the other groups (p=0.378), while the effect of time exhibited significance (p=0.000). The interaction between the type of intervention and time of blood glucose measurement was shown to be significant (p=0.024). Within each group, the control and PMOL-treated groups showed significant reduction in blood glucose levels over time with p-values of 0.000 and 0.000, respectively, while the Metformin-treated and the combination groups had p-values of 0.062 and 0.093, respectively, which are not significant. The descriptive data also showed that the mean total reduction of blood glucose levels of the Metformin and PMOL combination treatment group was lower than the PMOL-treated group alone, while the mean total reduction of blood glucose levels of the combination group was higher than the Metformin-treated group alone. Based on the results obtained, the combination of Metformin and PMOL did not significantly lower the blood glucose levels of the rats as compared to the other groups. However, the concomitant use of Metformin and PMOL may affect each other’s blood glucose lowering activity. Additionally, prolonged time of exposure and delay in the first blood glucose measurement after treatment could exhibit a significant effect in the blood glucose levels. Further studies are recommended regarding the effects of the concomitant use of the two agents on blood glucose levels.

Keywords: metformin, Moringa oleifera, blood glucose levels, concomitant use

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11 Study on Metabolic and Mineral Balance, Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Different Therapy

Authors: E. Nemes-Nagy, E. Fogarasi, M. Croitoru, A. Nyárádi, K. Komlódi, S. Pál, A. Kovács, O. Kopácsy, R. Tripon, Z. Fazakas, C. Uzun, Z. Simon-Szabó, V. Balogh-Sămărghițan, E. Ernő Nagy, M. Szabó, M. Tilinca


Intense oxidative stress, increased glycated hemoglobin and mineral imbalance represent risk factors for complications in diabetic patients. Cardiovascular complications are most common in these patients, including nephropathy. This study was conducted in 2015 at the Procardia Laboratory in Tîrgu Mureș, Romania on 40 type 2 diabetic adults. Routine biochemical tests were performed on the Konleab 20XTi analyzer (serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, urea). We also measured serum uric acid, magnesium and calcium concentration by photometric procedures, potassium, sodium and chloride by ion selective electrode, and chromium by atomic absorption spectrometry in a group of patients. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) dosage was made by reflectometry. Urine analysis was performed using the HandUReader equipment. The level of oxidative stress was measured by serum malondialdehyde dosage using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) formula was applied for calculation of creatinine-derived glomerular filtration rate. GraphPad InStat software was used for statistical analysis of the data. The diabetic subject included in the study presented high MDA concentrations, showing intense oxidative stress. Calcium was deficient in 5% of the patients, chromium deficiency was present in 28%. The atherogenic cholesterol fraction was elevated in 13% of the patients. Positive correlation was found between creatinine and MDRD-creatinine values (p<0.0001), 68% of the patients presented increased creatinine values. The majority of the diabetic patients had good control of their diabetes, having optimal HbA1c values, 35% of them presented fasting serum glucose over 120 mg/dl and 18% had glucosuria. Intense oxidative stress and mineral deficiencies can increase the risk of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients in spite of their good metabolic balance. More than two third of the patients present biochemical signs of nephropathy, cystatin C dosage and microalbuminuria could reveal better the kidney disorder, but glomerular filtration rate calculation formulas are also useful for evaluation of renal function.

Keywords: Minerals, Type 2 diabetes, homocysteine, metformin, malondialdehyde, cardiovascular risk, vitamin B12

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10 Metformin Protects Cardiac Muscle against the Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Hyperglycaemia, Elevated Fatty Acid and Nicotine

Authors: Christopher R. Triggle, Hong Ding, Khaled Machaca, Gnanapragasam Arunachalam


The antidiabetic drug, metformin, has been in clinical use for over 50 years and remains the first choice drug for the treatment of type two diabetes. In addition to its effectiveness as an oral anti-hyperglycaemic drug metformin also possesses vasculoprotective effects that are assumed to be secondary to its ability to reduce insulin resistance and control glycated hemoglobin levels; however, recent data from our laboratory indicate that metformin also has direct vasoprotective effects that are mediated, at least in part, via the anti-ageing gene, SIRT1. Diabetes is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and it is also well established that tobacco use further enhances the risk of CVD; however, it is not known whether treatment with metformin can offset the negative effects of diabetes and tobacco use on cardiac function. The current study was therefore designed to investigate 1: the effects of hyperglycaemia (HG) either alone or in the presence of elevated fatty acids (palmitate) and nicotine on the protein expression levels of the deacetylase sirtuin 1 (the protein product of SIRT1), anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, pro-apoptotic BIM and the pro-apoptotic, tumour suppressor protein, acetylated p53 in cardiomyocytes. 2: the ability of metformin to prevent the detrimental effects of HG, palmitate and nicotine on cardiomyocyte survival. Cell culture protocols were designed using a rat cardiomyocyte cell line, H9c2, either under normal glycaemic (NG) conditions of 5.5mM glucose, or hyperglycaemic conditions (HG) of 25mM glucose with, or without, added palmitate (250μM) or nicotine (1.0mM) for 24h. Immuno-blotting was used to detect the expression of sirtuin 1, Bcl-2, BIM, acetylated (Ac)-p53, p53 with β-actin used as the reference protein. Exposure to HG, palmitate, or nicotine alone significantly reduced expression of sirtuin1, Bcl-2 and raised the expression levels of acetylated p53 and BIM; however, the combination of HG, palmitate and nicotine had a synergistic effect to significantly suppress the expression levels of sirtuin 1 and Bcl-2, but further enhanced the expression of Ac-p53, and BIM. The inclusion of 1000μM, but not 50μM, metformin in the H9c2 cell culture protocol prevented the effects of HG, palmitate and nicotine on the pro-apoptotic pathways. Collectively these data indicate that metformin, in addition to its anti-hyperglycaemic and vasculoprotective properties, also has direct cardioprotective actions that offset the negative effects of hyerglycaemia, elevated free fatty acids and nicotine on cardiac cell survival. These data are of particular significance for the treatment of patients with diabetes who are also smokers as the inclusion of metformin in their therapeutic treatment plan should help reduce cardiac-related morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: Diabetes, apoptosis, metformin, nicotine, cardiac muscle

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9 Effects of Cellular Insulin Receptor Stimulators with Alkaline Water on Performance, some Blood Parameters and Hatchability in Breeding Japanese Quail

Authors: Rabia Göçmen, Gülşah Kanbur, Sinan Sefa Parlat


In this study, in the breeding Japanese quails (coturnix coturnix japonica), it was aimed to study the effects of cellular insulin receptor stimulation on the performance, some blood parameters, and hatchability features. In the study, a total of 84 breeding quails were used, which are in 6 weeks age, and whose 24 are male and 60 female. In the trial, rations which contain 2900 kcal/kg metabolic energy; crude protein of 20%, and water whose pH is calibrated to 7.45 were administered as ad-libitum, to the animals, as metformin source, metformin-HCl was used and as chrome resource, Chromium Picolinate. Trial groups were formed as control group (basal ration), metformin group (basal ration, added metformin at the level of fodder of 20 mg/kg), and chromium picolinate group (basal ration, added fodder of 1500 ppb Cr. When regarded to the results of performance at the end of trial, it is seen that live weight gain, fodder consumption, egg weight, fodder evaluation coefficient, and egg production were affected at the significant level (p < 0.05). When the results are evaluated in terms of incubation features at the end of trial, it was identified that incubation yield and hatchability are not affected by the treatments but in the groups, in which metformin and chromium picolinate are added to ration, that fertility rose at the significant level compared to control group (p < 0,05). According to the results of blood parameters and hormone at the end of the trial, while the level of plasma glucose level was not affected by treatments (p > 0.05), with the addition of metformin and chromium picolinate to ration, plasma, total control, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels were significantly affected from insulin receptor stimulators added to ration (p<0,05). Hormone level of Plasma T3 and T4 were also affected at the significant level from insulin receptor stimulators added to ration (p < 0,05).

Keywords: Performance, Hormone, cholesterol, metformin, quail, chromium picolinate

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8 Effects of Cellular Insulin Receptor Stimulators with Alkaline Water on Performance, Plasma Cholesterol, Glucose, Triglyceride Levels and Hatchability in Breeding Japanese Quail

Authors: Rabia Göçmen, Gülşah Kanbur, Sinan Sefa Parlat


Aim of this study is to determine the effects of cellular insulin receptor stimulators on performance, plasma glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, triglyceride, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) hormone levels, and incubation features in the breeding Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). In the study, a total of 84 breeding quails was used, 6 weeks’ age, 24 are male and 60, female. Rations used in experiment are 2900 kcal/kg metabolic energy and 20% crude protein. Water pH is calibrated to 7.45. Ration and water were administered ad-libitum to the animals. As metformin source, metformin-HCl was used and as chrome resource, chromium picolinate was used. Trial groups were formed as control group (basal ration), metformin group (basal ration, added metformin at the level of feed of 20 mg/kg), and chromium picolinate (basal ration, added feed of 1500 ppb Cr) group. When regarded to the results of performance at the end of experiment, it is seen that live weight gain, feed consumption, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (Feed consumption/ egg weight), and egg production were affected at the significant level (p < 0.05). When the results are evaluated in terms of incubation features, hatchability and hatchability of fertile egg ratio were not affected from the treatments. Fertility ratio was significantly affected by metformin and chromium picolinate treatments and fertility rose at the significant level compared to control group (p < 0.05). According to results of experiment, plasma glucose level was not affected by metformin and chromium picolinate treatments. Plasma, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels were significantly affected from insulin receptor stimulators added to ration (p < 0.05). Hormone level of Plasma T3 and T4 were also affected at the significant level from insulin receptor stimulators added to ration (p < 0.05).

Keywords: Hormone, cholesterol, metformin, quail, chromium picolinate

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7 [Keynote Talk]: Treatment Satisfaction and Safety of Sitagliptin versus Pioglitazone in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Inadequately Controlled on Metformin Monotherapy

Authors: Shahnaz Haque, Anand Shukla, Sunita Singh, Anil Kem


Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease affecting millions worldwide. Metformin is the most commonly prescribed first line oral hypoglycemic drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, but due to progressive worsening of blood glucose control during the natural history of type 2 diabetes, combination therapy usually becomes necessary. Objective: This study was designed to assess the treatment satisfaction between Sitagliptin versus Pioglitazone added to Metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: We conducted a prospective, open label, randomized, parallel group study in SIMS, Hapur, U.P. Eligible patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were randomized into two groups having 25 patients in each group using tab Sitagliptin 100mg, tab Pioglitazone 30mg added to ongoing tab Metformin (500mg) therapy for 16 weeks. The follow-up visits were on weeks 4,12 and 16. Result: 16 weeks later, addition of Sitagliptin 100mg compared to that of Pioglitazone 30 mg to ongoing Metformin therapy provided similar glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) lowering efficacy in patients with T2DM with inadequate glycemic control on metformin monotherapy. Change in HbA1c in group1 was -0.656±0.21%(p<0.0001) whereas in group2 was -0.748±0.35%(p<0.0001). Hence decrease in HbA1c from baseline was more in group2. Both treatments were well tolerated with negligible risk of hypoglycaemia. Weight loss was observed with Sitagliptin in contrast to weight gain seen in Pioglitazone. Conclusion: In this study, Sitagliptin 100 mg along with metformin therapy in comparison to pioglitazone 30 mg plus metformin therapy was both effective, well-tolerated and improved glycemic control in both the groups. Addition of pioglitazone had cause oedema and weight gain to the patients whereas sitagliptin caused weight loss in its patients.

Keywords: metformin, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pioglitazone, sitagliptin

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6 Comparison of Physical and Chemical Effects on Senescent Cells

Authors: Svetlana Guryeva, Inna Kornienko, Andrey Usanov, Dmitry Usanov, Elena Petersen


Every day cells in our organism are exposed to various factors: chemical agents, reactive oxygen species, ionizing radiation, and others. These factors can cause damage to DNA, cellular membrane, intracellular compartments, and proteins. The fate of cells depends on the exposure intensity and duration. The prolonged and intense exposure causes the irreversible damage accumulation, which triggers the permanent cell cycle arrest (cellular senescence) or cell death programs. In the case of low dose of impacts, it can lead to cell renovation and to cell functional state improvement. Therefore, it is a pivotal question to investigate the factors and doses that result in described positive effects. In order to estimate the influence of different agents, the proliferation index and levels of cell death markers (annexin V/propidium iodide), senescence-associated β-galactosidase, and lipofuscin were measured. The experiments were conducted on primary human fibroblasts of the 8th passage. According to the levels of mentioned markers, these cells were defined as senescent cells. The effect of low-frequency magnetic field was investigated. Different modes of magnetic field exposure were tested. The physical agents were compared with chemical agents: metformin (10 mM) and taurine (0.8 mM and 1.6 mM). Cells were incubating with chemicals for 5 days. The highest decrease in the level of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (21%) and lipofuscin (17%) was observed in the primary senescent fibroblasts after 5 days after double treatments with 48 h intervals with low-frequency magnetic field. There were no significant changes in the proliferation index after magnetic field application. The cytotoxic effect of magnetic field was not observed. The chemical agent taurine (1.6 mM) decreased the level of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (23%) and lipofuscin (22%). Metformin improved the activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase on 15% and the level of lipofuscin on 19% in this experiment. According to these results, the effect of double treatment with 48 h interval with low-frequency magnetic field and the effect of taurine (1.6 mM) were comparable to the effect of metformin, for which anti-aging properties are proved. In conclusion, this study can become the first step towards creation of the standardized system for the investigation of different effects on senescent cells.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Magnetic Field, metformin, senescence, primary fibroblasts, taurine

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5 An Observational Study of Vitamin B12 Levels and Peripheral Neuropathy Profile in Patients of Diabetes Mellitus on Metformin Therapy

Authors: Kamesh Gupta, Nitin Jain, Anurag Rohatgi


Objective: To study Vitamin B12 levels and presence of peripheral neuropathy among diabetes mellitus patients on metformin therapy. Method: The observational study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2015. Patients were selected from the Lady Hardinge Medical College, Delhi, India. Exhaustive history regarding dietary habits and metformin usage was taken. Lab tests including HbA1c levels and Vit B12 assays were done, on the basis of which patients were classified into subgroups. Peripheral neuropathy was detected by both clinical scoring and electrophysiological studies. Appropriate Statistical analysis for observational studies was done to evaluate the data. Results: The average duration of metformin usage was higher in patients with definite B12 deficiency (9.4y) than patients with normal B12 levels (5.6 y). Patients in the definite B12 deficiency group had much higher incidence of neuropathy (89%) than patients with no deficiency (27%). The incidence of neuropathy was higher in cases with longer metformin usage (100% with 18-22y of use and 83% with 14-17y of use) than shorter periods (29% with 2-5y of use and 75% with 6-9y of use). Conclusion: Thus patients on long-term metformin therapy are at a high risk for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Definite and possible Vitamin B12 deficiency on metformin had an earlier onset of neuropathy than the subgroup with normal Vitamin B12 levels.

Keywords: metformin, diabetic neuroptahy, cobalamine deficiency, nerve conduction studies

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4 Synergistic and Antagonistic Interactions between Garlic Extracts and Metformin in Diabetes Treatment

Authors: Ikram Elsiddig, Yacouba Djamila, Amna Hamad


Abstract—The worldwide increasing of using herbs in form of medicine with or without prescription medications potentiates the interactions between herbal products and conventional medicines; due to more research for herb-drug interactions are needed. for a long time hyperglycemia had been treated with several medicinal plants. A. sativum, belonging to the Liliaceae family is well known for its medicinal uses in African traditional medicine, it used for treating of many human diseases mainly diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to determine the interaction effect between A. sativum bulb extracts and metformin drug used in diabetes treatment. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation were conducted by glucose reuptake using isolated rats hemidiaphgrams tissue and by estimate glucose tolerance in glucose-loaded wistar albino rats. The results showed that, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were found to have activity of glucose uptake in isolated rats hemidiaphgrams of 24.11 mg/g, 19.07 mg/g and 15.66 mg/g compared to metformin drug of 17 mg/g. These activity were reducded to 17.8 mg/g, 13.59 mg/g and 14.46 mg/g after combination with metformin, metformin itself reduced to 13.59 mg/g, 14.46 mg/g and 12.71 mg/g in comination with chloroform and ethyl acetate. These decrease in activity could be due to herbal–drug interaction between the extracts of A. sativum bulb and metformin drug. The interaction between A. sativum extract and metformin was also shown by in vivo study on the induced hyperglycemic rats. The glucose level after administered of 200 mg/kg was found to be increase with 47.2 % and 17.7% at first and second hour compared to the increase of blood glucose in the control group of 82.6% and76.7%.. At fourth hour the glucose level was became less than normal with 3.4% compared to control which continue to increase with 68.2%. Dose of 400 mg/kg at first hour showed increase in blood glucose of 31.5 %, at second and fourth hours the glucose level was became less than normal with decrease of 3.2 % and 30.4%. After combination the activity was found to be less than that of extract at both high and low dose, whereas, at first and second hour, the glucose level was found to be increase with 50.4% and 21.2%, at fourth hour the glucose level was became less than normal with 14%. Therefore A. sativum could be a potential source for anti-diabetic when it used alone, and it is significant important to use the garlic extract alone instead of combined with Metformin drug in diabetes- treatment.

Keywords: metformin, garlic, synergistic, antagonistic

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3 Metformin and Its Combination with Sodium Hydrosulfide Influences Plasma Galectin-3 and CSE/H₂S System in Diabetic Rat's Heart

Authors: I. V. Palamarchuk, N. V. Zaichko


Background and Aims: Galectin-3 is a marker of subclinical cardiac injury and is elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus; while hydrogen sulfide (H₂S), metabolite of sulfur-containing amino acids, is considered having antifibrogenic effects. This study was designed to investigate whether metformin and its combination with NaHS can influence plasma galectin-3 and cystathionine-γ-lyase/hydrogen sulfide (CSE/H₂S) system in diabetic rat’s heart. Methods: 32 healthy male rats (180-250 g) were divided into 4 groups. To induct diabetes, rats (group 2-4) were injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg/i.p., 0.1 M citrate buffer (pH 4.5). Rats from 3d (STZ+Metf) and 4th (STZ+Metf+NaHS) groups were given metformin (500 mg/kg/day) orally, and rats from 4th (STZ+Metf+NaHS) group were injected sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, 3 mg/kg/i.p.) once per day starting from 3 to 28 day after streptozotocin injection. Rats of first group (control) were administered the equivalent volumes of 0.9% NaCl. Plasma galectin-3 was measured by ELISA. Rats’ hearts were sampled for determination of H2S by reaction with N,N-Dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine. Determination of CSE gene expression was performed in real time using PCR in the presence of SYBR Green I, using DT-Light detecting amplifier ('DNA-technology', Russia). Results: Induction of streptozotocin diabetes (STZ-diabetes, group 2) was followed by low myocardial H2S concentration and CSE expression (by 35%, p < 0.05 and 60.5%, p < 0.001 respectively, than that in controls), while plasma galectin-3 in this group was significantly higher than in controls (by 3.8 times, p < 0.05). Administration of metformin (group 3) resulted in significantly higher H₂S concentration (by 28.5%, p < 0.05), whereas CSE expression was only by 6% more than that in STZ-diabetes, as well as plasma galectin-3 was only by 14.8% lower in comparison with untreated diabetic rats. The inhibition of H₂S generation and CSE activity by diabetes was greatly attenuated in STZ+Metf+NaHS group. The combination of metformin with NaHS significantly stimulated H₂S production (by 48%, p < 0.05 and 15%, p < 0.05 more than STZ-diabetes and STZ+Metf respectively) and CSE gene expression (by 64.8%, p < 0.05 compared to STZ-diabetes and by 55.4%,p < 0.05 compared to STZ+Metf). Besides, plasma galectin-3 in rats receiving metformin and NaHS was significantly lower by 42%, p < 0.05 and 32.5%, p < 0.05 compared to STZ-diabetes and STZ+Metf groups respectively. Conclusions: To summarize, dysfunction of CSE/H2S system and galectin-3 stimulation was found in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Metformin and its combination with exogenous H2S effectively prevented the development of metabolic changes induced by diabetes. These findings suggest that CSE/H₂S system can be integrated into pathogenesis of diabetic complications through modulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic mediator galectin-3.

Keywords: Hydrogen Sulfide, metformin, cystathionine-γ-lyase, diabetic heart, galectin-3, sodium hydrosulfide

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2 Comparison of Serum Levels of Secreted Frizzler Protein 5 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated and Not Treated with Metformin

Authors: Irma Gabriela Lopez-Moreno, Elva Perez-Luque, Herlinda Aguilar-Zavala


Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by combination of insulin resistance and deterioration of insulin secretion. Sfrp5 is a protein that antagonizes Wnt5a proteins by preventing it from reaching its receptor and activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, this pathway is one of the most important regulators of adipogenesis. Although metformin decreases glucose levels its mechanisms of action are not fully known but it has been implicated in the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Objective: The objective was evaluating the effects of metformin on serum levels of Sfrp5 in patients with T2DM treated and not treated with metformin. Methods: Two groups of patients were selected: one group of T2DM patients treated with metformin (n = 35) and another group of subjects with recent diagnosis of T2DM untreated (n = 35) with a mean age of 48 ± 9 years. In these subjects anthropometric measures were taken as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, were calculated the percentage of body fat, visceral fat and muscle mass. In addition, were measured glucose levels, lipid profile, adiponectin and Sfrp5. Results: Sfrp5 were higher in metformin-treated patients compared to the untreated group (19.9 vs 13.6 ng/mL p < 0.001), a negative correlation was found between Sfrp5 levels and total cholesterol levels (r= -0.25, p = 0.03) and percentage of visceral fat (r = -0.26, p = 0.03) and a positive correlation with HDL cholesterol levels (r = 0.31, p = 0.01) and adiponectin (r=0.65, p = < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings show that metformin consumption increased levels of Sfrp5, which may lead to a decrease in the activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway impacting on adipogenesis.

Keywords: Diabetes, metformin, adiponectin, Sfrp5

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1 Uncovering Anti-Hypertensive Obesity Targets and Mechanisms of Metformin, an Anti-Diabetic Medication

Authors: Lu Yang, Keng Po Lai


Metformin, a well-known clinical drug against diabetes, is found with potential anti-diabetic and anti-obese benefits, as reported in increasing evidences. However, the current clinical and experimental investigations are not to reveal the detailed mechanisms of metformin-anti-obesity/hypertension. We have used the bioinformatics strategy, including network pharmacology and molecular docking methodology, to uncover the key targets and pathways of bioactive compounds against clinical disorders, such as cancers, coronavirus disease. Thus, in this report, the in-silico approach was utilized to identify the hug targets, pharmacological function, and mechanism of metformin against obesity and hypertension. The networking analysis identified 154 differentially expressed genes of obesity and hypertension, 21 interaction genes, and 6 hug genes of metformin treating hypertensive obesity. As a result, the molecular docking findings indicated the potent binding capability of metformin with the key proteins, including interleukin 6 (IL-6) and chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2), in hypertensive obesity. The metformin-exerted anti-hypertensive obesity action involved in metabolic regulation, inflammatory reaction. And the anti-hypertensive obesity mechanisms of metformin were revealed, including regulation of inflammatory and immunological signaling pathways for metabolic homeostasis in tissue and microenvironmental melioration in blood pressure. In conclusion, our identified findings with bioinformatics analysis have demonstrated the detailed hug and pharmacological targets, biological functions, and signaling pathways of metformin treating hypertensive obesity.

Keywords: Obesity, Hypertension, metformin, bioinformatics findings

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