Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

metal nanoparticles Related Abstracts

7 Quest for an Efficient Green Multifunctional Agent for the Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles with Highly Specified Structural Properties

Authors: Niharul Alam

Abstract:

The development of energy efficient, economic and eco-friendly synthetic protocols for metal nanoparticles (NPs) with tailor-made structural properties and biocompatibility is a highly cherished goal for researchers working in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this context, green chemistry is highly relevant and the 12 principles of Green Chemistry can be explored to develop such synthetic protocols which are practically implementable. One of the most promising green chemical synthetic methods which can serve the purpose is biogenic synthetic protocol, which utilizes non-toxic multifunctional reactants derived from natural, biological sources ranging from unicellular organisms to higher plants that are often characterized as “medicinal plants”. Over the past few years, a plethora of medicinal plants have been explored as the source of this kind of multifunctional green chemical agents. In this presentation, we focus on the syntheses of stable monometallic Au and Ag NPs and also bimetallic Au/Ag alloy NPs with highly efficient catalytic property using aqueous extract of leaves of Indian Curry leaf plat (Murraya koenigii Spreng.; Fam. Rutaceae) as green multifunctional agents which is extensively used in Indian traditional medicine and cuisine. We have also studied the interaction between the synthesized metal NPs and surface-adsorbed fluorescent moieties, quercetin and quercetin glycoside which are its chemical constituents. This helped us to understand the surface property of the metal NPs synthesized by this plant based biogenic route and to predict a plausible mechanistic pathway which may help in fine-tuning green chemical methods for the controlled synthesis of various metal NPs in future. We observed that simple experimental parameters e.g. pH and temperature of the reaction medium, concentration of multifunctional agent and precursor metal ions play important role in the biogenic synthesis of Au NPs with finely tuned structures.

Keywords: green multifunctional agent, metal nanoparticles, biogenic synthesis

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6 Novel Routes to the Synthesis and Functionalization of Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Film and Nanoparticles

Authors: Hanan. Al Chaghouri, Mohammad Azad Malik, P. John Thomas, Paul O’Brien

Abstract:

The process of assembling metal nanoparticles at the interface of two liquids has received a great deal of attention over the past few years due to a wide range of important applications and their unusual properties as compared to bulk materials. We present a low cost, simple and cheap synthesis of metal nanoparticles, core/shell structures and semiconductors followed by assembly of these particles between immiscible liquids. The aim of this talk is divided to three parts: Firstly, to describe the achievement of a closed loop recycling for producing cadmium sulfide as powders and/or nanostructured thin films for solar cells or other optoelectronic devices applications by using a different chain length of commercially available secondary amines of dithiocarbamato complexes. The approach can be extended to other metal sulfides such as those of Zn, Pb, Cu, or Fe and many transition metals and oxides. Secondly, to synthesis significantly cheaper magnetic particles suited for the mass market. Ni/NiO nanoparticles with ferromagnetic properties at room temperature were among the smallest and strongest magnets (5 nm) were made in solution. The applications of this work can be to produce viable storage devices and the other possibility is to disperse these nanocrystals in solution and use it to make ferrofluids which have a number of mature applications. The third part is about preparing and assembling of submicron silver, cobalt and nickel particles by using polyol methods and liquid/liquid interface, respectively. Coinage metals like gold, copper and silver are suitable for plasmonic thin film solar cells because of their low resistivity and strong interactions with visible light waves. Silver is the best choice for solar cell application since it has low absorption losses and high radiative efficiency compared to gold and copper. Assembled cobalt and nickel as films are promising for spintronic, magnetic and magneto-electronic and biomedics.

Keywords: metal nanoparticles, core/shell structures and semiconductors, ferromagnetic properties, closed loop recycling, liquid/liquid interface

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5 Antibacterial Wound Dressing Based on Metal Nanoparticles Containing Cellulose Nanofibers

Authors: Mohamed Gouda

Abstract:

Antibacterial wound dressings based on cellulose nanofibers containing different metal nanoparticles (CMC-MNPs) were synthesized using an electrospinning technique. First, the composite of carboxymethyl cellulose containing different metal nanoparticles (CMC/MNPs), such as copper nanoparticles (CuNPs), iron nanoparticles (FeNPs), zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs), cadmium nanoparticles (CdNPs) and cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) were synthesized, and finally, these composites were transferred to the electrospinning process. Synthesized CMC-MNPs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with high-energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and UV-visible spectroscopy used to confirm nanoparticle formation. The SEM images clearly showed regular flat shapes with semi-porous surfaces. All MNPs were well distributed inside the backbone of the cellulose without aggregation. The average particle diameters were 29-39 nm for ZnNPs, 29-33 nm for CdNPs, 25-33 nm for CoNPs, 23-27 nm for CuNPs and 22-26 nm for FeNPs. Surface morphology, water uptake and release of MNPs from the nanofibers in water and antimicrobial efficacy were studied. SEM images revealed that electrospun CMC-MNPs nanofibers are smooth and uniformly distributed without bead formation with average fiber diameters in the range of 300 to 450 nm. Fiber diameters were not affected by the presence of MNPs. TEM images showed that MNPs are present in/on the electrospun CMC-MNPs nanofibers. The diameter of the electrospun nanofibers containing MNPs was in the range of 300–450 nm. The MNPs were observed to be spherical in shape. The CMC-MNPs nanofibers showed good hydrophilic properties and had excellent antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords: Wound Dressing, metal nanoparticles, electrospinning technique, cellulosic nanofibers

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4 Light-Scattering Characteristics of Ordered Arrays Nobel Metal Nanoparticles

Authors: Yassine Ait-El-Aoud, Michael Okomoto, Andrew M. Luce, Alkim Akyurtlu, Richard M. Osgood III

Abstract:

Light scattering of metal nanoparticles (NPs) has a unique, and technologically important effect on enhancing light absorption in substrates because most of the light scatters into the substrate near the localized plasmon resonance of the NPs. The optical response, such as the resonant frequency and forward- and backward-scattering, can be tuned to trap light over a certain spectral region by adjusting the nanoparticle material size, shape, aggregation state, Metallic vs. insulating state, as well as local environmental conditions. In this work, we examined the light scattering characteristics of ordered arrays of metal nanoparticles and the light trapping, in order to enhance absorption, by measuring the forward- and backward-scattering using a UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. Samples were fabricated using the popular self-assembly process method: dip coating, combined with nanosphere lithography.

Keywords: metal nanoparticles, dip coating, light-scattering, nanosphere lithography

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3 Ag and Au Nanoparticles Fabrication in Cross-Linked Polymer Microgels for Their Comparative Catalytic Study

Authors: Luqman Ali Shah, Murtaza Sayed, Mohammad Siddiq

Abstract:

Three-dimensional cross-linked polymer microgels with temperature responsive N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) and pH-sensitive methacrylic acid (MAA) were successfully synthesized by free radical emulsion polymerization with different amount of MAA. Silver and gold nanoparticles with size of 6.5 and 3.5 nm (±0.5 nm) respectively were homogeneously reduced inside these materials by chemical reduction method at pH 2.78 and 8.36 for the preparation of hybrid materials. The samples were characterized by FTIR, DLS and TEM techniques. The catalytic activity of the hybrid materials was investigated for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4- NP) using NaBH4 as reducing agent by UV-visible spectroscopy. The hybrid polymer network synthesized at pH 8.36 shows enhanced catalytic efficiency compared to catalysts synthesized at pH 2.78. In this study, it has been explored that catalyst activity strongly depends on amount of MAA, synthesis pH and type of metal nanoparticles entrapped.

Keywords: comparative study, metal nanoparticles, Catalytic activity, cross-linked polymer microgels, free radical polymerization

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2 Nanopriming Potential of Metal Nanoparticles against Internally Seed Borne Pathogen Ustilago triciti

Authors: Anjali Sidhu, Anju Bala, Amit Kumar

Abstract:

Metal nanoparticles have the potential to revolutionize the agriculture owing to sizzling interdisciplinary nano-technological application domain. Numerous patents and products incorporating engineered nanoparticles (NPs) entered into agro-applications with the collective goal to promote proficiency as well as sustainability with lower input and generating meager waste than conventional products and approaches. Loose smut of wheat caused by Ustilago segetum tritici is an internally seed-borne pathogen. It is dormant in the seed unless the seed germinates and its symptoms are expressed at the reproductive stage of the plant only. Various seed treatment agents are recommended for this disease but due to the inappropriate methods of seed treatments used by farmers, each and every seed may not get treated, and the infected seeds escape the fungicidal action. The antimicrobial potential and small size of nanoparticles made them the material of choice as they could enter each seed and restrict the pathogen inside the seed due to the availability of more number of nanoparticles per unit volume of the nanoformulations. Nanoparticles of diverse nature known for their in vitro antimicrobial activity viz. ZnO, MgO, CuS and AgNPs were synthesized, surface modified and characterized by traditional methods. They were applied on infected wheat seeds which were then grown in pot conditions, and their mycelium was tracked in the shoot and leaf region of the seedlings by microscopic staining techniques. Mixed responses of inhibition of this internal mycelium were observed. The time and method of application concluded to be critical for application, which was optimised in the present work. The results implicated that there should be field trails to get final fate of these pot trails up to commercial level. The success of their field trials could be interpreted as a revolution to replace high dose organic fungicides of high residue behaviour.

Keywords: metal nanoparticles, nanopriming, seed borne pathogen, Ustilago segetum tritici

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1 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles, Their Toxicity and Biomedical Applications

Authors: Kiran Shehzadi, Yasmeen Akhtar, Mujahid Ameen, Tabinda Ijaz, Shoukat Siddique

Abstract:

Nanoparticles, due to their different sizes and morphologies, are employed in various fields such as the medical field, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, textile industry as well as in paints, adhesives, and electronics. Metal nanoparticles exhibit excellent antimicrobial activity, dye degradation and can be used as anti-cancerous drug loading agents. In this study, sZilver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized employing doxycycline (antibiotic) as a reducing and capping agent (biological/green synthesis). Produced Ag-NPS were characterized using UV/VIS spectrophotometry, XRD, SEM, and FTIR. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of silver nanoparticles was observed at 411nm with 90nm size with homogenized spherical shape. These particles revealed good inhibition zones for Fungi such as Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. In this study, toxic properties of Ag-NPs were monitored by allowing them to penetrate in the cell, causing an abrupt increase in oxidative stress, which resulted ultimately in cell death. Histopathological analysis of mice organs was performed by administering definite concentrations of silver nanoparticles orally to mice for 14 days. Toxic properties were determined, and it was revealed that the toxicity of silver nanoparticles mainly depends on the size. Silver nanoparticles of this work presented mild toxicity for different organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and stomach) of mice.

Keywords: Toxicity, Candida albicans, metal nanoparticles, green/biological methods, Candida tropicalis

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