Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

metacognition Related Abstracts

14 Comics as an Intermediary for Media Literacy Education

Authors: Ryan C. Zlomek


The value of using comics in the literacy classroom has been explored since the 1930s. At that point in time researchers had begun to implement comics into daily lesson plans and, in some instances, had started the development process for comics-supported curriculum. In the mid-1950s, this type of research was cut short due to the work of psychiatrist Frederic Wertham whose research seemingly discovered a correlation between comic readership and juvenile delinquency. Since Wertham’s allegations the comics medium has had a hard time finding its way back to education. Now, over fifty years later, the definition of literacy is in mid-transition as the world has become more visually-oriented and students require the ability to interpret images as often as words. Through this transition, comics has found a place in the field of literacy education research as the shift focuses from traditional print to multimodal and media literacies. Comics are now believed to be an effective resource in bridging the gap between these different types of literacies. This paper seeks to better understand what students learn from the process of reading comics and how those skills line up with the core principles of media literacy education in the United States. In the first section, comics are defined to determine the exact medium that is being examined. The different conventions that the medium utilizes are also discussed. In the second section, the comics reading process is explored through a dissection of the ways a reader interacts with the page, panel, gutter, and different comic conventions found within a traditional graphic narrative. The concepts of intersubjective acts and visualization are attributed to the comics reading process as readers draw in real world knowledge to decode meaning. In the next section, the learning processes that comics encourage are explored parallel to the core principles of media literacy education. Each principle is explained and the extent to which comics can act as an intermediary for this type of education is theorized. In the final section, the author examines comics use in his computer science and technology classroom. He lays out different theories he utilizes from Scott McCloud’s text Understanding Comics and how he uses them to break down media literacy strategies with his students. The article concludes with examples of how comics has positively impacted classrooms around the United States. It is stated that integrating comics into the classroom will not solve all issues related to literacy education but, rather, that comics can be a powerful multimodal resource for educators looking for new mediums to explore with their students.

Keywords: Mass Communication, Media literacy, metacognition, Comics, graphics novels

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13 Learners’ Reactions to Writing Activities in an Elementary Algebra Classroom

Authors: Early Sol A. Gadong, Lourdes C. Zamora, Jonny B. Pornel, Aurora Fe C. Bautista


Various research has shown that writing allows students to engage in metacognition and provides them with a venue to communicate their disposition towards what they are learning. However, few studies have explored students’ feelings about the incorporation of such writing activities in their mathematics classes. Through reflection sheets, group discussions, and interviews, this mixed-methods study explored students’ perceptions and insights on supplementary writing activities in their Elementary Algebra class. Findings revealed that while students generally have a positive regard for writing activities, they have conflicting views about how writing activities can help them in their learning. A big majority contend that writing activities can enhance the learning of mathematical content and attitudes towards mathematics if they allow students to explore and synthesize what they have learned and reflected on their emotional disposition towards mathematics. Also, gender does not appear to play a significant role in students’ reactions to writing activities.

Keywords: metacognition, writing in math, affective factors in learning, elementary algebra classroom

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12 Metacognition Skill on Collaborative Study with Self Evaluation

Authors: Suratno


Metacognition thinking skills should be developed early on in learning. The aim of research builds metacognition thinking skills through collaborative learning with self-evaluation. Approach to action research study involving 32 middle school students in Jember Indonesia. Indicators metacognition skills consist of planning, information management strategies, comprehension monitoring, and debugging strategies. Data were analyzed by t test and analysis of instructional videos. Results of the study here were significant differences in metacognition skills before and after the implementation of collaborative learning with self-evaluation. Analysis instructional video showing the difference artifacts of student learning activities to learning before and after implementation of collaborative learning with self-evaluation. Self-evaluation makes students familiar practice thinking skills metacognition.

Keywords: Collaborative, Evaluation, metacognition, thinking skills

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11 The Role of Psychosis Proneness in the Association of Metacognition with Psychological Distress in Non-Clinical Population

Authors: Usha Barahmand, Ruhollah Heydari Sheikh Ahmad


Distress refers to an unpleasant metal state or emotional suffering marked by negative affect such as depression (e.g., lost interest; sadness; hopelessness), anxiety (e.g., restlessness; feeling tense). These negative affect have been mostly suggested to be concomitant of metal disorders such as positive psychosis symptoms and also of proneness to psychotic features in non-clinical population. Psychotic features proneness including hallucination, delusion and schizotypal traits, have been found to be associated with metacognitive beliefs. Metacognition has been conceptualized as ‘thinking about thoughts, monitoring and controlling of cognitive processes’. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of psychosis proneness in the association of metacognitions and distress. We predicted psychosis proneness would mediate the association of metacognitive beliefs and the distress. A sample of 420 university students was randomly recruited to endorse questionnaires of the study that consisted of DASS-21questionnaire for assessing levels of distress, Cartwright–Hatton & Wells, Meta-cognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30) for assessing metacognitive beliefs, Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale-revised (LSHS-R), Peters et al. Delusions Inventory, Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief. Conducting a bootstrapping approach in order to investigate our hypothesis, the result showed that there was no a direct association between metacognitive dimensions and psychological distress and psychosis proneness significantly mediated the association. Finding suggested that individuals with dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs experience high levels of distress if they are prone to psychosis symptoms. In other words, psychosis proneness is a path through which individuals with dysfunctional metacognitions experience high levels of psychological distress.

Keywords: metacognition, Psychological distress, non-clinical population, psychosis proneness

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10 A Rational Intelligent Agent to Promote Metacognition a Situation of Text Comprehension

Authors: Anass Hsissi, Hakim Allali, Abdelmajid Hajami


This article presents the results of a doctoral research which aims to integrate metacognitive dimension in the design of human learning computing environments (ILE). We conducted a detailed study on the relationship between metacognitive processes and learning, specifically their positive impact on the performance of learners in the area of reading comprehension. Our contribution is to implement methods, using an intelligent agent based on BDI paradigm to ensure intelligent and reliable support for low readers, in order to encourage regulation and a conscious and rational use of their metacognitive abilities.

Keywords: metacognition, text comprehension EIAH, autoregulation, BDI agent

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9 The Impact of Metacognitive Knowledge and Experience on Top Management Team Diversity and Small to Medium Enterprises Performance

Authors: Jo Rhodes, Peter Lok, Zahra Sadeghinejad


The aim of this study is to determine the impact of metacognition on top management team members and firm performance based on full team integration. A survey of 1500 small to medium enterprises (SMEs) was initiated and 140 firms were obtained in this study (with response rate of 9%). The result showed that different metacognitive abilities of managers [knowledge and experience] could enhance team decision-making and problem solving, resulting in greater firm performance. This is a significant finding for SMEs because these organisations have small teams with owner leadership and entrepreneurial orientation.

Keywords: Performance, metacognition, behavioural integration, top management team (TMT)

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8 The Effects of Affections and of Personality on Metacognition

Authors: Patricia Silva, Iolanda Costa Galinha, Cristina Costa-Lobo


The present research aims to evaluate, in the context of formal learning, the influence of affections, through subjective well-being, as well as the influence of personality, in the metacognition levels. There are few studies that analyze the influence of affection and personality on metacognition. The sample of this study consists of 300 Portuguese adolescents, male and female, aged between 15 and 17 years. The main variables of this study are affections, personality, ascertained through neuroticism and extraversion, and metacognition, namely the knowledge of cognition and the regulation of cognition. Initially, the sociodemographic questionnaire was constructed and administered to characterize the sample in its variables. To evaluate the affective experience in adolescents was administered PANAS-N, that is a measure of self-assessment of positive and negative affectivity in children and adolescents. To evaluate the personality, in its variables extroversion and neuroticism, the NEO-FFI was applied. The Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, MAI, was used to assess knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. The data analysis was performed using the statistical software IBM SPSS 22.0. After analyzing and discussing the results, a set of theoretical interdisciplinary reflection, between the sciences of education and psychology, is concretized, contributing to the reflection on psychoeducational intervention, opening the way for future studies.

Keywords: Personality, metacognition, affections, psychoeducational intervention

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7 A Constructivist and Strategic Approach to School Learning: A Study in a Tunisian Primary School

Authors: Slah Eddine Ben Fadhel


Despite the development of new pedagogic methods, current teaching practices put more emphasis on the learning products than on the processes learners deploy. In school syllabi, for instance, very little time is devoted to both the explanation and analysis of strategies aimed at resolving problems by means of targeting students’ metacognitive procedures. Within a cognitive framework, teaching/learning contexts are conceived of in terms of cognitive, metacognitive and affective activities intended for the treatment of information. During these activities, learners come to develop an array of knowledge and strategies which can be subsumed within an active and constructive process. Through the investigation of strategies and metacognition concepts, the purpose is to reflect upon the modalities at the heart of the learning process and to demonstrate, similarly, the inherent significance of a cognitive approach to learning. The scope of this paper is predicated on a study where the population is a group of 76 primary school pupils who experienced difficulty with learning French. The population was divided into two groups: the first group was submitted during three months to a strategy-based training to learn French. All through this phase, the teachers centred class activities round making learners aware of the strategies the latter deployed and geared them towards appraising the steps these learners had themselves taken by means of a variety of tools, most prominent among which is the logbook. The second group was submitted to the usual learning context with no recourse whatsoever to any strategy-oriented tasks. The results of both groups point out the improvement of linguistic competences in the French language in the case of those pupils who were trained by means of strategic procedures. Furthermore, this improvement was noted in relation with the native language (Arabic), a fact that tends to highlight the importance of the interdisciplinary investigation of (meta-)cognitive strategies. These results show that strategic learning promotes in pupils the development of a better awareness of their own processes, which contributes to improving their general linguistic competences.

Keywords: Learning, metacognition, Cognitive Strategies, constructive approach

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6 Effect of Facilitation in a Problem-Based Environment on the Metacognition, Motivation and Self-Directed Learning in Nursing: A Quasi-Experimental Study among Nurse Students in Tanzania

Authors: Walter M. Millanzi, Stephen M. Kibusi


Background: Currently, there has been a progressive shortage not only to the number but also the quality of medical practitioners for the most of nursing. Despite that, those who are present exhibit unethical and illegal practices, under standard care and malpractices. The concern is raised in the ways they are prepared, or there might be something missing in nursing curricula or how it is delivered. There is a need for transforming or testing new teaching modalities to enhance competent health workforces. Objective: to investigate the Effect of Facilitation in a Problem-based Environment (FPBE) on metacognition, self-directed learning and learning motivation to undergraduate nurse student in Tanzanian higher learning institutions. Methods: quasi-experimental study (quantitative research approach). A purposive sampling technique was employed to select institutions and achieving a sample size of 401 participants (interventional = 134 and control = 267). Self-administered semi-structured questionnaire; was the main data collection methods and the Statistical Package for Service Solution (v. 20) software program was used for data entry, data analysis, and presentations. Results: The pre-post test results between groups indicated noticeably significant change on metacognition in an intervention (M = 1.52, SD = 0.501) against the control (M = 1.40, SD = 0.490), t (399) = 2.398, p < 0.05). SDL in an intervention (M = 1.52, SD = 0.501) against the control (M = 1.40, SD = 0.490), t (399) = 2.398, p < 0.05. Motivation to learn in an intervention (M = 62.67, SD = 14.14) and the control (n = 267, M = 57.75), t (399) = 2.907, p < 0.01). A FPBE teaching pedagogy, was observed to be effective on the metacognition (AOR = 1.603, p < 0.05), SDL (OR = 1.729, p < 0.05) and Intrinsic motivation in learning (AOR = 1.720, p < 0.05) against conventional teaching pedagogy. Needless, was less likely to enhance Extrinsic motivation (AOR = 0.676, p > 0.05) and Amotivation (AOR = 0.538, p > 0.05). Conclusion and recommendation: FPBE teaching pedagogy, can improve student’s metacognition, self-directed learning and intrinsic motivation to learn among nurse students. Nursing curricula developers should incorporate it to produce 21st century competent and qualified nurses.

Keywords: Motivation, metacognition, facilitation, self-directed

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5 The Impact of Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognition on Their Use of Inquiry Based Teaching Approaches

Authors: Irfan Ahmed Rind


Science education has recently become the top priority of government of Pakistan. Number of schemes has been initiated for the improvement of science teaching and learning at primary and secondary levels of education, most importantly training in-service science teachers on inquiry based teaching and learning to empower students and encourage creativity, critical thinking, and innovation among them. Therefore, this approach has been promoted in the recent continuous professional development trainings for the in-service teachers. However, the follow ups on trained science teachers and educators suggest that these teachers fail to implement the inquiry based teaching and learning in their classes. In addition, these trainings also fail to bring any significant change in students’ science content knowledge and understanding as per the annual national level surveys conducted by government and independent agencies. Research suggests that science has been taught using scientific positivism, which supports objectivity based on experiments and mathematics. In contrary, the inquiry based teaching and learning are based on constructivism, which conflicts with the positivist epistemology of science teachers. It was, therefore, assumed that science teachers struggle to implement the inquiry based teaching approach as it conflicts with their basic epistemological beliefs. With this assumption, this research aimed to (i) understand how science teachers conceptualize the nature of science, and how this influence their understanding of learning, learners, their own roles as teachers and their teaching strategies, (ii) identify the conflict of science teachers’ epistemological beliefs with the inquiry based teaching approach, and (iii) find the ways in which science teachers epistemological beliefs may be developed from positivism to constructivism, so that they may effectively use the inquiry based teaching approach in teaching science. Using qualitative case study approach, thirty six secondary and higher secondary science teachers (21 male and 15 female) were selected. Data was collected using interviewed, participatory observations (sixty lessons were observed), and twenty interviews from students for verifications of teachers’ responses. The findings suggest that most of the science teacher were positivist in defining the nature of science. Most of them limit themselves to one fix answer that is provided in the books and that there is only one 'right' way to teach science. There is no room for students’ or teachers’ own opinion or bias when it comes to scientific concepts. Inquiry based teaching seems 'no right' to them. They find it difficult to allow students to think out of the box. However, some interesting exercises were found to be very effective in bringing the change in teachers’ epistemological beliefs. These will be discussed in detail in the paper. The findings have major implications for the teachers, educators, and policymakers.

Keywords: Epistemology, metacognition, science teachers, inquiry based teaching

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4 Methodology for Developing an Intelligent Tutoring System Based on Marzano’s Taxonomy

Authors: Joaquin Navarro Perales, Ana Lidia Franzoni Velázquez, Francisco Cervantes Pérez


The Mexican educational system faces diverse challenges related with the quality and coverage of education. The development of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) may help to solve some of them by helping teachers to customize their classes according to the performance of the students in online courses. In this work, we propose the adaptation of a functional ITS based on Bloom’s taxonomy called Sistema de Apoyo Generalizado para la Enseñanza Individualizada (SAGE), to measure student’s metacognition and their emotional response based on Marzano’s taxonomy. The students and the system will share the control over the advance in the course, so they can improve their metacognitive skills. The system will not allow students to get access to subjects not mastered yet. The interaction between the system and the student will be implemented through Natural Language Processing techniques, thus avoiding the use of sensors to evaluate student’s response. The teacher will evaluate student’s knowledge utilization, which is equivalent to the last cognitive level in Marzano’s taxonomy.

Keywords: natural language processing, metacognition, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Affective Computing, student modelling

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3 Incorporating Polya’s Problem Solving Process: A Polytechnic Mathematics Module Case Study

Authors: Pei Chin Lim


School of Mathematics and Science of Singapore Polytechnic offers a Basic Mathematics module to students who did not pass GCE O-Level Additional Mathematics. These students are weaker in Mathematics. In particular, they struggle with word problems and tend to leave them blank in tests and examinations. In order to improve students’ problem-solving skills, the school redesigned the Basic Mathematics module to incorporate Polya’s problem-solving methodology. During tutorial lessons, students have to work through learning activities designed to raise their metacognitive awareness by following Polya’s problem-solving process. To assess the effectiveness of the redesign, students’ working for a challenging word problem in the mid-semester test were analyzed. Sixty-five percent of students attempted to understand the problem by making sketches. Twenty-eight percent of students went on to devise a plan and implement it. Only five percent of the students still left the question blank. These preliminary results suggest that with regular exposure to an explicit and systematic problem-solving approach, weak students’ problem-solving skills can potentially be improved.

Keywords: Mathematics Education, problem solving, metacognition, weak students

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2 Analysing the Variables That Affect Digital Game-Based L2 Vocabulary Learning

Authors: Jose Ramon Calvo-Ferrer


Video games have been extensively employed in educational contexts to teach contents and skills, upon the premise that they engage students and provide instant feedback, which makes them adequate tools in the field of education and training. Term frequency, along with metacognition and implicit corrective feedback, has often been identified as powerful variables in the learning of vocabulary in a foreign language. This study analyses the learning of L2 mobile operating system terminology by a group of students and uses the data collected by the video game The Conference Interpreter to identify the predictive strength of term frequency (times a term is shown), positive metacognition (times a right answer is provided), and negative metacognition (times a term is shown as wrong) regarding L2 vocabulary learning and perceived learning outcomes. The regression analysis shows that the factor ‘positive metacognition’ is a positive predictor of both dependent variables, whereas the other factors seem to have no statistical effect on any of them.

Keywords: Feedback, metacognition, Video Games, Frequency, digital game-based learning

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1 Blended Learning Instructional Approach to Teach Pharmaceutical Calculations

Authors: Sini George


Active learning pedagogies are valued for their success in increasing 21st-century learners’ engagement, developing transferable skills like critical thinking or quantitative reasoning, and creating deeper and more lasting educational gains. 'Blended learning' is an active learning pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter. This project aimed to develop a blended learning instructional approach to teaching concepts around pharmaceutical calculations to year 1 pharmacy students. The wrong dose, strength or frequency of a medication accounts for almost a third of medication errors in the NHS therefore, progression to year 2 requires a 70% pass in this calculation test, in addition to the standard progression requirements. Many students were struggling to achieve this requirement in the past. It was also challenging to teach these concepts to students of a large class (> 130) with mixed mathematical abilities, especially within a traditional didactic lecture format. Therefore, short screencasts with voice-over of the lecturer were provided in advance of a total of four teaching sessions (two hours/session), incorporating core content of each session and talking through how they approached the calculations to model metacognition. Links to the screencasts were posted on the learning management. Viewership counts were used to determine that the students were indeed accessing and watching the screencasts on schedule. In the classroom, students had to apply the knowledge learned beforehand to a series of increasingly difficult set of questions. Students were then asked to create a question in group settings (two students/group) and to discuss the questions created by their peers in their groups to promote deep conceptual learning. Students were also given time for question-and-answer period to seek clarifications on the concepts covered. Student response to this instructional approach and their test grades were collected. After collecting and organizing the data, statistical analysis was carried out to calculate binomial statistics for the two data sets: the test grade for students who received blended learning instruction and the test grades for students who received instruction in a standard lecture format in class, to compare the effectiveness of each type of instruction. Student response and their performance data on the assessment indicate that the learning of content in the blended learning instructional approach led to higher levels of student engagement, satisfaction, and more substantial learning gains. The blended learning approach enabled each student to learn how to do calculations at their own pace freeing class time for interactive application of this knowledge. Although time-consuming for an instructor to implement, the findings of this research demonstrate that the blended learning instructional approach improves student academic outcomes and represents a valuable method to incorporate active learning methodologies while still maintaining broad content coverage. Satisfaction with this approach was high, and we are currently developing more pharmacy content for delivery in this format.

Keywords: Active Learning, Blended Learning, metacognition, instructional approach, deep conceptual learning, pharmaceutical calculations

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