Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Metabolites Related Abstracts

10 Nematicidal Activity of the Cell Extract from Penicillium Sp EU0013 and Its Metabolite Profile Using High Performance Liquid Chromatograpy

Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Sana Irshad Khan

Abstract:

Organic extract from newly isolated plant growth promoting fungus (PGPF) Penicillium sp EU0013 was subjected to bioassays including anti fungal (disc diffusion) cytotoxicity (brine shrimp lethality), herbicidal (Lemna minor) and nematicidal activities. Metabolite profile of the extract was also assessed using HPLC analysis with the aim to identify bioactive natural products in the extract as new drug candidate(s). The extract showed anti fungal potential against tested fungal pathogens. Growth of the Wilt pathogen Fusarium oxyosproum was inhibited up to 63% when compared to negative reference. Activity against brine shrimps was weak and mortality up to 10% was observed at concentration of 200 µg. mL-1. The extract exhibited no toxicity against Lemna minor frond at 200 µg. mL-1. Nematicidal activity was observed very potent against root knot nematode and LC50 value was calculated as 52.5 ug. mL-1 using probit analysis. Methodically assessment of metabolites profile by HPLC showed the presence of kojic acid (Rt 1.4 min) and aflatoxin B1 (Rt 5.9 min) in the mycellial extract as compared with standards. The major unidentified metabolite was eluted at Rt 8.6 along with other minor peaks. The observed high toxicity against root knot nematode was attributed to the unidentified compounds that make fungal extract worthy of further exploration for isolation and structural characterization studies for development of future commercial nematicidal compound(s).

Keywords: HPLC, Metabolites, Penicillium, nematicidal activity

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9 Simultaneous Determination of p-Phenylenediamine, N-Acetyl-p-phenylenediamine and N,N-Diacetyl-p-phenylenediamine in Human Urine by LC-MS/MS

Authors: Khaled M. Mohamed

Abstract:

Background: P-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is used in the manufacture of hair dyes and skin decoration. In some developing countries, suicidal, homicidal and accidental cases by PPD were recorded. In this work, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of PPD and its metabolites N-acetyl-p-phenylenediamine (MAPPD) and N,N-diacetyl-p-phenylenediamine (DAPPD) in human urine has been developed and validated. Methods: PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD were extracted from urine by methylene chloride at alkaline pH. Acetanilide was used as internal standard (IS). The analytes and IS were separated on an Eclipse XDB- C18 column (150 X 4.6 mm, 5 µm) using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-1% formic acid in gradient elution. Detection was performed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray positive ionization under multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The transition ions m/z 109 → 92, m/z 151 → 92, m/z 193 → 92, and m/z 136 → 77 were selected for the quantification of PPD, MAPPD, DAPPD, and IS, respectively. Results: Calibration curves were linear in the range 10–2000 ng/mL for all analytes. The mean recoveries for PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD were 57.62, 74.19 and 50.99%, respectively. Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecisions were within 1.58–9.52% and 5.43–9.45% respectively for PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD. Inter-assay accuracies were within -7.43 and 7.36 for all compounds. PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD were stable in urine at –20 degrees for 24 hours. Conclusions: The method was successfully applied to the analysis of PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD in urine samples collected from suicidal cases.

Keywords: Validation, Metabolites, LC-MS/MS, urine, p-Phenylenediamine

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8 Levansucrase from Zymomonas Mobilis KIBGE-IB14: Production Optimization and Characterization for High Enzyme Yield

Authors: Shah Ali Ul Qader, Sidra Shaheen, Nadir Naveed Siddiqui

Abstract:

In recent years, significant progress has been made in discovering and developing new bacterial polysaccharides producing organisms possessing extremely functional properties. Levan is a natural biopolymer of fructose which is produced by transfructosylation reaction in the presence of levansucrase. It is one of the industrially promising enzymes that offer a variety of industrial applications in the field of cosmetics, foods and pharmaceuticals. Although levan has significant applications but the yield of levan produced is not equal to other biopolymers due to the inefficiency of producer microorganism. Among wide range of levansucrase producing microorganisms, Zymomonas mobilis is considered as a potential candidate for large scale production of this natural polysaccharide. The present investigation is concerned with the isolation of levansucrase producing natural isolate having maximum enzyme production. Furthermore, production parameters were optimized to get higher enzyme yield. Levansucrase was partially purified and characterized to study its applicability on industrial scale. The results of this study revealed that the bacterial strain Z. mobilis KIBGE-IB14 was the best producer of levansucrase. Bacterial growth and enzyme production was greatly influenced by physical and chemical parameters. Maximum levansucrase production was achieved after 24 hours of fermentation at 30°C using modified medium of pH-6.5. Contrary to other levansucrases, the one presented in the current study is able to produce high amount of products in relatively short period of time with optimum temperature at 35°C. Due to these advantages, this enzyme can be used on large scale for commercial production of levan and other important metabolites.

Keywords: Metabolites, Polysaccharides, levansucrase, transfructosylation

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7 Simultaneous Determination of Bisphenol a, Phtalates and Its Metabolites in Human Urine, by Tandem SPE Coupled to GC-MS

Authors: V. F. Domingues, C. Delerue-matos, L. Correia-Sá, S. Norberto, Conceição Calhau

Abstract:

Endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) are synthetic compounds that even though being initially designed for a specific function are now being linked with a wide range of side effects. The list of possible EDCs is growing and includes phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA). Phthalates are one of the most widely used plasticizers to improve the extensibility, elasticity and workability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinyl acetates, etc. Considered non-toxic and harmless additives for polymers, they were used unrestrainedly all over the world for several decades. However, recent studies have indicated that some phthalates and their metabolic products are reproductive and developmental toxicants in animals and suspected endocrine disruptors in humans. BPA (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane) is a high production volume chemical mainly used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Although BPA was initially considered to be a weak environmental estrogen, nowadays it is known that this compound can stimulate several cellular responses at very low levels of concentrations. The aim of this study was to develop a method based on tandem SPE to evaluate the presence of phthalates, metabolites and BPA in human urine samples. The analyzed compounds included: dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), BPA, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and. mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) (MEOHP). Two SPE cartridges were applied both from Phenomenex, the strata X polymeric reversed phase and the strata X A (Strong anion). Chromatographic analyses were carried out in a Thermo GC ULTRA GC-MS/MS. Good recoveries and linear calibration curves were obtained. After validation, the methodology was applied to human urine samples for phthalates, metabolites and BPA evaluation.

Keywords: Metabolites, Gas Chromatography, Bisphenol A (BPA), phtalates, SPE, tandem mode

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6 Detection of Heroin and Its Metabolites in Urine Samples: A Chemiluminescence Approach

Authors: Sonu Gandhi, Prince Sharma, Neena Capalash, C. Raman Suri

Abstract:

A sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA) for heroin and its major metabolites is reported. The method is based on the competitive reaction of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-MAM antibody and free drug in spiked urine samples. A hapten-protein conjugate was synthesized by using acidic derivative of monoacetyl morphine (MAM) coupled to carrier protein BSA and was used as an immunogen for the generation of anti-MAM (monoacetyl morphine) antibody. A high titer of antibody (1:64,0000) was obtained and the relative affinity constant (Kaff) of antibody was 3.1×107 l/mol. Under the optimal conditions, linear range and reactivity for heroin, mono acetyl morphine (MAM), morphine and codeine were 0.08, 0.09, 0.095 and 0.092 ng/mL respectively. The developed chemiluminescence inhibition assay could detect heroin and its metabolites in standard and urine samples up to 0.01 ng/ml.

Keywords: Heroin, Metabolites, chemiluminescence immunoassay, horse radish peroxidase

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5 Metabolomics Profile Recognition for Cancer Diagnostics

Authors: Valentina L. Kouznetsova, Jonathan W. Wang, Igor F. Tsigelny

Abstract:

Metabolomics has become a rising field of research for various diseases, particularly cancer. Increases or decreases in metabolite concentrations in the human body are indicative of various cancers. Further elucidation of metabolic pathways and their significance in cancer research may greatly spur medicinal discovery. We analyzed the metabolomics profiles of lung cancer. Thirty-three metabolites were selected as significant. These metabolites are involved in 37 metabolic pathways delivered by MetaboAnalyst software. The top pathways are glyoxylate and dicarboxylate pathway (its hubs are formic acid and glyoxylic acid) along with Citrate cycle pathway followed by Taurine and hypotaurine pathway (the hubs in the latter are taurine and sulfoacetaldehyde) and Glycine, serine, and threonine pathway (the hubs are glycine and L-serine). We studied interactions of the metabolites with the proteins involved in cancer-related signaling networks, and developed an approach to metabolomics biomarker use in cancer diagnostics. Our analysis showed that a significant part of lung-cancer-related metabolites interacts with main cancer-related signaling pathways present in this network: PI3K–mTOR–AKT pathway, RAS–RAF–ERK1/2 pathway, and NFKB pathway. These results can be employed for use of metabolomics profiles in elucidation of the related cancer proteins signaling networks.

Keywords: Cancer, Metabolites, Metabolic Pathway, signaling pathway

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4 Gut Metabolite Profiling of the Ethnic Groups from Assam, India

Authors: Madhusmita Dehingia, Supriyo Sen, Bhuwan Bhaskar, Tulsi Joishy, Mojibur R. Khan

Abstract:

Human gut microbes and their metabolites are important for maintaining homeostasis in the gut and are responsible for many metabolic and immune mediated diseases. In the present study, we determined the profiles of the gut metabolites of five different ethnic groups (Bodo, Tai-Phake, Karbi, Tea tribe and Tai-Aiton) of Assam. Fecal metabolite profiling of the 39 individuals belonging to the ethnic groups was carried out using Gas chromatography – Mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and comparison was performed among the tribes for common and unique metabolites produced within their gut. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of the metabolites suggested that the individuals grouped according to their ethnicity. Among the 66 abundant metabolites, 12 metabolites were found to be common among the five ethnic groups. Additionally, ethnicity wise some unique metabolites were also detected. For example, the tea tribe of Assam contained the tea components, Aniline and Benzoate more in their gut in comparison to others. Metabolites of microbial origin were also correlated with the already published metagenomic data of the same ethnic group and functional analysis were carried out based on human metabolome database.

Keywords: Ethnicity, Gut Microbiota, Metabolites, GC-MS

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3 Characterization of Defense-Related Genes and Metabolite Profiling in Oil Palm Elaeis guineensis during Interaction with Ganoderma boninense

Authors: Mohammad Nazri Abdul Bahari, Nurshafika Mohd Sakeh, Siti Nor Akmar Abdullah

Abstract:

Basal stem rot (BSR) is the most devastating disease in oil palm. Among the oil palm pathogenic fungi, the most prevalent and virulent species associated with BSR is Ganoderma boninense. Early detection of G. boninense attack in oil palm wherein physical symptoms has not yet appeared can offer opportunities to prevent the spread of the necrotrophic fungus. However, poor understanding of molecular defense responses and roles of antifungal metabolites in oil palm against G. boninense has complicated the resolving measures. Hence, characterization of defense-related molecular responses and production of antifungal compounds during early interaction with G. boninense is of utmost important. Four month-old oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) seedlings were artificially infected with G. boninense-inoculated rubber wood block via sitting technique. RNA of samples were extracted from roots and leaves tissues at 0, 3, 7 and 11 days post inoculation (d.p.i) followed with sequencing using RNA-Seq method. Differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) of oil palm-G. boninense interaction were identified, while changes in metabolite profile will be scrutinized related to the DEGs. The RNA-Seq data generated a total of 113,829,376 and 313,293,229 paired-end clean reads from untreated (0 d.p.i) and treated (3, 7, 11 d.p.i) samples respectively, each with two biological replicates. The paired-end reads were mapped to Elaeis guineensis reference genome to screen out non-oil palm genes and subsequently generated 74,794 coding sequences. DEG analysis of phytohormone biosynthetic genes in oil palm roots revealed that at p-value ≤ 0.01, ethylene and jasmonic acid may act in antagonistic manner with salicylic acid to coordinate defense response at early interaction with G. boninense. Findings on metabolite profiling of G. boninense-infected oil palm roots and leaves are hoped to explain the defense-related compounds elicited by Elaeis guineensis in response to G. boninense colonization. The study aims to shed light on molecular defense response of oil palm at early interaction with G. boninense and promote prevention measures against Ganoderma infection.

Keywords: Metabolites, RNA-Seq, Phytohormones, Ganoderma boninense

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2 Characterization of a Broad Range Antimicrobial Substance from Pseudozyma aphidis

Authors: Raviv Harris, Maggie Levy

Abstract:

Natural product-based pesticides may serve as an alternative to the traditional synthetic pesticides, which have a potentially damaging effect, both to human health and for the environment. Along with plants, microorganisms are a prospective source of such biological pesticides. A unique and active strain of P. aphidis (designated isolate L12, Israel 2004), an epiphytic and non-pathogenic basidiomycete yeast, was isolated in our lab from strawberry leaves. P. aphidis L12 secretions were found to inhibit broad range of plant pathogens. This work demonstrates that metabolites isolated from the biocontrol agent P. aphidis (isolate L12) can inhibit varied fungal and bacterial phytopathogens. Biologically active metabolites were extracted from P. aphidis biomass, using the organic solvent ethyl acetate. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was demonstrated, both in vitro and in planta. Using disk diffusion assays, the following inhibition zones were obtained: 43cm² for Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, 28.5cm² for Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, 59cm² for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, 34cm² for Erwinia amylovora and 34cm² for Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Additionally, strong inhibitory activity of the extract against fungi mycelial growth was established, with IC₅₀ values of 606µg ml⁻¹ for Botrytis cinerea, 221µg ml⁻¹ for Pythium spp., 519µg ml⁻¹ for Rhizoctonia solani, 455µg ml⁻¹ for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, 2270µg ml⁻¹ for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and 2038µg ml⁻¹ for Alternaria alternata. The results of the in planta experiments demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in disease infection. Significant inhibition of B. cinerea lesions on tomato plants was obtained when a spore suspension of this pathogen was treated with extract concentrations higher than 4.2mg ml⁻¹. Concentration of 7mg ml⁻¹ caused a reduction of over 95% in the lesion size of B. cinerea on tomato plants. The strong antimicrobial activity demonstrated both in vitro and in planta against varied phytopathogens, may indicate that the extracted antimicrobial metabolites have potential to serve as natural pesticides in the field.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Natural Pesticides, Metabolites, B. cinerea, P. aphidis

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1 Plasmonic Nanoshells Based Metabolite Detection for in-vitro Metabolic Diagnostics and Therapeutic Evaluation

Authors: Deepanjali Gurav, Kun Qian

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In-vitro metabolic diagnosis relies on designed materials-based analytical platforms for detection of selected metabolites in biological samples, which has a key role in disease detection and therapeutic evaluation in clinics. However, the basic challenge deals with developing a simple approach for metabolic analysis in bio-samples with high sample complexity and low molecular abundance. In this work, we report a designer plasmonic nanoshells based platform for direct detection of small metabolites in clinical samples for in-vitro metabolic diagnostics. We first synthesized a series of plasmonic core-shell particles with tunable nanoshell structures. The optimized plasmonic nanoshells as new matrices allowed fast, multiplex, sensitive, and selective LDI MS (Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry) detection of small metabolites in 0.5 μL of bio-fluids without enrichment or purification. Furthermore, coupling with isotopic quantification of selected metabolites, we demonstrated the use of these plasmonic nanoshells for disease detection and therapeutic evaluation in clinics. For disease detection, we identified patients with postoperative brain infection through glucose quantitation and daily monitoring by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. For therapeutic evaluation, we investigated drug distribution in blood and CSF systems and validated the function and permeability of blood-brain/CSF-barriers, during therapeutic treatment of patients with cerebral edema for pharmacokinetic study. Our work sheds light on the design of materials for high-performance metabolic analysis and precision diagnostics in real cases.

Keywords: Mass Spectrometry, Fingerprinting, Metabolites, Plasmonic Nanoparticles, in-vitro diagnostics

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