Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

metabolic syndrome Related Abstracts

46 The Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Women with Impaired Reproductive Function According to Astana, Kazakhstan

Authors: A. T. Nakysh, A. S. Idrisov, S. A. Baidurin

Abstract:

This work presents the results of a study the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in women with impaired reproductive function (IRF) according to the data of Astana, Kazakhstan. The anthropometric, biochemical and instrumental studies were conducted among 515 women, of which 53 patients with MetS according to IDF criteria, 2006, were selected. The frequency of occurrence of the IRF, due to MetS – 10.3% of cases according to the data of Astana. In women of childbearing age with IRF and the MetS, blood pressure (BP), indicators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were significantly higher and the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) significantly lower compared to the same in women with the IRF without MetS. The hyperandrogenism, the hyperestrogenemia, the hyperprolactinemia and the hypoprogesteronemia were found in the patients with MetS and IRF, indicating the impact of MetS on the development of the polycystic ovary syndrome in 28% of cases and hyperplastic processes of the myometrium in 20% of cases.

Keywords: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, reproductive disorders

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45 The Modulatory Effect of Some Antioxidants on Animal Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High Fructose Fed Diet

Authors: Hala M. Abdelkarem, Abeer H. Gafeer

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The metabolic syndrome (Mts) is a constellation of risk factors. The main objective of this study is to compare the ameliorating effect of metformin, lipitor, orilstate, lipoic acid and carnitin on insulin, lipid profile, leptin, adenonectin levels in metabolic syndrom (high fructose fed rats HF). Seventy male albino rats were divided into seven groups. G1: normal control. G2: G7 rats fed HF for 8wks. After four wk HF feeding, G3, G4, G5, G6, and G7 were orally administered (200 mg/kg daily) metformin, lipitor, orilstate, lipoic acid and carnitin respectively. All drugs were adminiseterd once daily. After 8 weeks of feeding, a significant increase in blood glucose level was observed in HF fed rats compared to normal rats, but this increase was significantly decreased after administration of metformin and lipitor. The raised of serum insulin level in HF fed rats was significantly decreased after administration of lipoic, carnitin, metformin. Significant higher concentrations of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol & low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL- C) were observed in HF fed rats and these increases were significantly lowered after the administration of all the previous drugs. There was a significant decrease in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in HF group administration of all drugs alleviates this reduction. The increased of serum leptin level in HF group was decreased significantly in met and orilstate groups. Whereas the reduction of serum adiponectin level in HF fed rats was increased in Lipitor, carnitin, orilstate groups. These data suggested that benefial effect of metformin, lipitor, orilstate, lipoic acid carnitin in reducing risk for people with decreased insulin sensitivity, increased oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia such as those with the metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Diabetes, metabolic syndrome, Antioxidants, proinflammation

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44 Association of Genetic Variants of Apolipoprotein A5 Gene with the Metabolic Syndrome in the Pakistani Population

Authors: Muhammad Fiaz, Muhammad Saqlain, Bernard M. Y. Cheung, S. M. Saqlan Naqvi, Ghazala Kaukab Raja

Abstract:

Background: Association of C allele of rs662799 SNP of APOA5 gene with metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been reported in different populations around the world. A case control study was conducted to explore the relationship of rs662799 variants (T/C) with the MetS and the associated risk phenotypes in a population of Pakistani origin. Methods: MetS was defined according to the IDF criteria. Blood samples were collected from the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan for biochemical profiling and DNA extraction. Genotyping of rs662799 was performed using mass ARRAY, iPEX Gold technology. A total of 712 unrelated case and control subjects were genotyped. Data were analyzed using Plink software and SPSS 16.0. Results: The risk allele C of rs662799 showed highly significant association with MetS (OR=1.5, Ρ=0.002). Among risk phenotypes, dyslipidemia, and obesity showed strong association with SNP (OR=1.49, p=0.03; OR =1.46, p=0.01) respectively in models adjusted for age and gender. Conclusion: The rs662799C allele is a significant risk marker for MetS in the local Pakistani population studied. The effect of the SNP is more on dyslipidemia than the other components of the MetS.

Keywords: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, Dyslipidemia, APOA5, rs662799

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43 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome According to Different Criteria in Population over 20 Years Old in Ahvaz

Authors: Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Hajieh Shahbazian, Leila Yazdanpanah

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Objective: Metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X is a collection of abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance and lipid abnormalities (elevated triglycerides, elevated LDL, and decrease the amount of HDL). That increases the incidence of diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in people over 20 years of Ahvaz according to IDF, ATPIII, Harmonized I and Harmonized II. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study with a random cluster sampling in six health centers in Ahvaz was done. After obtaining informed consent, questionnaire for each person filled up including demographic data and examinations, including blood pressure in sitting position, weight, height, waist circumference, and waist circumference measurement. Results: From all participating 912 people, (434 (2/47%) male and 478 (2/52%) female) were evaluated. Mean age was 42/27± 14years (44/2±14/26 for male and 40/5±13/5 for female). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22/8%, 28/4%, 30/9% and 16/9% according to ATPIII, IDF, Harmonized I and Harmonized II criteria respectively and increased with age in both sexes. IDF and Harmonized I had most kappa coordination (0/94). Conclusion: The results show a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Ahvaz. So, identification of the risk factors should be attempted to prevent metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Prevalence, IDF, ATP III

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42 Comparing of Hypogonadism Frequency between Metabolic Syndrome Men with Normal Men

Authors: Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Homeira Rashidi, Seyed Bahman Ghaderian, Mahmoud Mapar

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Background and Objective The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is considered the most important public health threat of the 21st century. This syndrome is characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including increased central abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein, high blood pressure, increased fasting glucose, and hyperinsulinemia. MetS has been associated with hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction (ED), and MetS may be considered a risk factor for ED. The aim of this study was finding an association between metabolic syndrome and hypogonadism in Khouzestan, Iran. Subjects and Methods: In this study, 60 patients divided into two groups consisted of 30 cases (with metabolic syndrome) and 30 controls. Total and free Serum Testosterone and FBS in all of them were measured. Data was analyzed with SPSS20 program. Results: There was a significant difference between two groups about free Testosterone (P=0.01), FBS (P=0.002) and LH (P=0.03). Conclusion: According to this finding, it is thought the prevalence of hypogonadism in men with metabolic syndrome is more than the general population.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, testosterone, fasting blood sugar, hypogonadism

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41 Is Presence of Psychotic Features Themselves Carry a Risk for Metabolic Syndrome?

Authors: Rady A., Elsheshai A., Elsawy M., Nagui R.

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Background and Aim: Metabolic syndrome affect around 20% of general population , authors have incriminated antipsychotics as serious risk factor that may provoke such derangement. The aim of our study is to assess metabolic syndrome in patients presenting psychotic features (delusions and hallucinations) whether schizophrenia or mood disorder and compare results in terms of drug naïf, on medication and healthy control. Subjects and Methods: The study recruited 40 schizophrenic patients, half of them drug naïf and the other half on antipsychotics, 40 patients with mood disorder with psychotic features, half of them drug naïf and the other half on medication, 20 healthy control. Exclusion criteria were put in order to exclude patients having already endocrine or metabolic disorders that my interfere with results obtain to minimize confusion bias. Metabolic syndrome assessed by measuring parameters including weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglyceride level, HDL, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance Results: No difference was found when comparing drug naïf to those on medication in both schizophrenic and psychotic mood disorder arms, schizophrenic patients whether on medication or drug naïf should difference with control group for fasting glucose, schizophrenic patients on medication also showed difference in insulin resistance compared to control group. On the other hand, patients with psychotic mood disorder whether drug naïf or on medication showed difference from control group for fasting insulin level. Those on medication also differed from control for insulin resistance Conclusion: Our study didn’t reveal difference in metabolic syndrome among patients with psychotic features whether on medication or drug naïf. Only patients with Psychotic features on medication showed insulin resistance. Schizophrenic patients drug naïf or on medication tend to show higher fasting glucose while psychotic mood disorder whether drug naïf or on medication tend to show higher fasting insulin. This study suggest that presence of psychotic features themselves regardless being on medication or not carries a risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Limitation: This study is limited by number of participants and larger numbers in future studies should be included in order to extrapolate results. Cohort longitudinal studies are needed in order to evaluate such hypothesis.

Keywords: Resistance, Schizophrenia, metabolic syndrome, psychosis, insulin

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40 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Adult Obese Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Mehwish Azam, Humaira Jabeen, Sumreen Begum, Rashida Qasim

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Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors including obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Metabolic syndrome in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Globally, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome ranges from 10%-50% and in Pakistan ranges from 18%-46%. The objective of the present study is to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese type 2 diabetic subjects by using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) definitions. Methods: Obese type 2 diabetic subjects and normal healthy subjects of both genders were selected from diabetic clinics and hospitals of various localities of Karachi, Pakistan. The frequency of metabolic syndrome was estimated by the proposed definitions of IDF and NCEP-ATP III. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition in obese type 2 diabetic subjects was 85.7%. It is significantly higher (p<0.05) in females (47.1%) as compared to males (38.6%). While, using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) definition the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese type 2 diabetic subjects was 75.7%, the prevalence is significantly higher (p<0.05) in females (45.7%) than males (30.0%). Conclusion: It is concluded that, the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing significantly in obese type 2 diabetic subjects by using IDF and NCEP–ATP III definitions. Therefore, it is need to initiate the preventive measures by arranging public awareness programmes to highlight the significance of a healthy lifestyle and emphasis should be given to reduce weight, increase physical activity, and increase intake of healthy low-glycemic-index foods.

Keywords: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, IDF, NCEP-ATP III

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39 Metabolic Syndrome among Some Originates of Mbo Ethnic Group Living in Yaounde-Cameroon

Authors: Mandob Enyegue Damaris, Oko Ndjollo Viviane

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The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome is increasing throughout the world. The etiology of the metabolic syndrome is dependent on different factors such as ethnic group. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic syndrome among Mbo ethnic group people leaving in Yaounde, Cameroon. The study conducted on the hundred and thirty two people 40 men and 92 women aged between 18-60 years who were referred to the Andre Fouda Medical Fundation in Yaounde. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel-III (A.T.P-III) 2001 guidelines. The mean of age, high fasting blood glucose, triglycerides levels and total cholesterol levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in women with metabolic syndrome. High blood pressure level (56.80%), high fasting glucose (20.45%) and high waist circumference (10.60%) were respectively the most frequent characteristics in comparison to others metabolic components. The overall prevalence of MetS was (4.55%) and higher in women (3.03%) than in men (1.52%). The prevalence of MetS is low in originates of Mbo ethnic group of Yaounde. High blood pressure is the most common abnormality.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, individual components, Mbo ethnic group, Yaounde-Cameroon

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38 Higher Consumption of White Rice Increase the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Adults with Abdominal Obesity

Authors: Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi

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Background: Higher consumption of white rice has been suggested as a risk factor for development of metabolic abnormalities. In this study we investigated the association between consumption of white rice and the 3-year occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults with and without abdominal obesity. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study on 1476 adults, aged 19-70 years. Dietary intakes were measured, using a 168-food items validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were evaluated at both baseline (2006-2008) and after 3-year follow-up (2009-2011). MetS and its components were defined according to the diagnostic criteria proposed by NCEP ATP III, and the new cutoff points of waist circumference for Iranian adults. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the occurrence of the MetS in each quartile of white rice consumption. Results: The mean age of participants was 37.8±12.3 y, and mean BMI was 26.0±4.5 kg/m2 at baseline. The prevalence of MetS in subjects with abdominal obesity was significantly higher (40.9 vs. 16.2%, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in white rice consumption between the two groups. Mean daily intake of white rice was 93±59, 209±58, 262±60 and 432±224 g/d, in the first to fourth quartiles of white rice, respectively. Stratified analysis by categories of waist circumference showed that higher consumption of white rice was more strongly related to the risk of metabolic syndrome in participants who had abdominal obesity (OR: 2.34, 95% CI:1.14-4.41 vs. OR:0.99, 95% CI:0.60-1.65) Conclusion: We demonstrated that higher consumption of white rice may be a risk for development of metabolic syndrome in adults with abdominal obesity.

Keywords: Food Science, metabolic syndrome, triglycerides, abdominal obesity, white rice

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37 Reversal of Testicular Damage and Subfertility by Resveratrol

Authors: Samy S. Eleawa, Mahmoud A. Alkhateeb, Fahaid H. Alhashem, Ismaeel bin-Jaliah, Hussein F. Sakr, Hesham M. Elrefaey, Abbas O. Elkarib, Mohammad A. Haidara, Abdullah S. Shatoor, Mohammad A. Khalil

Abstract:

This effect of Resveratrol (RES) against CdCl2- induced toxicity in the rat testes was investigated. Seven experimental groups of adult male rats were formulated as follows: A) Controls + NS, B) Control+ vehicle (saline solution of hydroxypropyl cyclodextrin), C) RES treated, D) CdCl2 +NS, E) CdCl2+ vehicle, F) RES followed by CdCl2 and M) CdCl2 followed by RES. At the end of the protocol, serum levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone were measured in all groups. Testicular levels of TBARS and Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) activity were also measured. Epidydidimal semen analysis was performed and testicular expression of Bcl-2, p53 and Bax were assessed by RT-PCR. Also, histopathological changes of testes were examined microscopically and described. Pre and Post administration of RES in cadmium chloride-intoxicated rats improved semen parameters including count, motility, daily sperm production and morphology, increased serum concentrations of gonadotropins and testosterone, decreased testicular lipid peroxidation and increased SOD activity. Not only RES attenuated cadmium chloride induced testicular histopathology but was also able to protect against the onset of cadmium chloride testicular toxicity. Cadmium chloride downregulated the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 and upregulated the expression of both pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. Resveratrol protected from and partially reversed cadmium chloride testicular via upregulation of Bcl2 and down regulation of p53 and Bax gene expression. Antioxidant activity of RES protects against cadmium chloride testicular toxicity and partially reverses its effect via upregulation of BCl2 and downregulation of p53 and Bax expression. These findings have far reaching implications on subfertility and impotency frequently seen in hypertensive as well as metabolic syndrome patients.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, infertility, Resveratrol, cadmium, testis, sperm

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36 Gender Difference in the Association between Different Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Vitamin D Levels in Saudi Patients

Authors: Amal Baalash, Shazia Mukaddam, M. Adel El-Sayed

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Background: Several studies have suggested non-skeletal effects of vitamin D and linked its deficiency with features of many chronic conditions. In this study, We aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin D levels and different components of the metabolic syndrome in male and female Saudi patients. Methods: the study population consisted of 111 patients with metabolic syndrome (71 females and 40 males) aged 37-63 years enrolled from patients attending the internal medicine outpatient clinics of King Fahad Medical City. The parameters for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) were measured, which included waist circumference, TG, HDL-C, Blood pressure and fasting blood glucose (FBS). The association between each parameter and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) was studied in both male and female patients separately. Results: in male patients, 25(OH) D levels were inversely associated with FBS and TG and positively associated with HDL-C and diastolic blood pressure, With highest association with the HDL-C levels. On the other hand 25(OH) D, Showed no significant association with any of the measured metabolic syndrome parameters in female patients. Conclusion: in Saudi patients with metabolic syndrome, the association between the parameters of metabolic syndrome and the levels of 25 (OH) D is more pronounced in males rather than females.

Keywords: Gender, metabolic syndrome, vitamin D, Saudi patients

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35 Lean Mass and Fat Mass Distribution in Ukrainian Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Овesity and Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: V. V. Povoroznyuk, Lar. P. Martynyuk, N. I. Dzerovych, Lil. P. Martyntyuk

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Objective: Menopause-related changes in female body are associated with the greater risk of metabolic syndrome (MS), which includes obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension. The aim of our study was to reveal peculiarities of fat and lean mass distribution between postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity and with MS. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 43 postmenopausal 60 – 69 years old women (age: mean = 64,8; S.D. = 0,4); duration of menopause: mean = 14,5; S.D.= 0,9). The diagnosis of MS was considered according to IDF (2005 yr) criteria. Lean and fat mass distrubution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absortiometry, and were compared for the cohorts with and without MS. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package 6.0 (Statsoft). Results: Findings revealed that 24 (55,8 %) of postmenopausal women had MS. In patients with and without MS compared, fat mass was higher in the former group (41248,25±2263,89 and 29817,68±2397,78 respectively; F=11,9; p=0,001) and at different body regions also: gynoid fat (6563,72±348,19 and 5115,21±392,43 respectively; F=7,6; p=0,008), android fat (3815,45±200,8128 and 2798,15±282,79 respectively; F=9,06; p=0,004. Lean mass comparing didn’t show significant differences in female with and without MS (42548,0±1239,18 and 40667,53±1223,78 respectively; F=1,1; p=0,29) and at different body regions also. Conclusion: These findings suggest that in postmenopausal women with MS there is prevalence of fat mass without increasing of lean mass quantity in compare to female with abdominal obesity without MS.

Keywords: Women, metabolic syndrome, lean mass, fat mass, овesity, postmenopausal period

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34 Multiple Strategies in Prevention of Metabolic Syndrome Result from Vitamin D Deficiency in Children

Authors: Maryam Ghavam Sadri, Maryam Shahrooz

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Background: Nowadays the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (Mets) has taken on a growing trend. Studies have shown the relationship between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) status and Mets in children. Also studies have recorded that exerting strategies for vitamin D status improvement can help prevent Mets in children. This study investigated multiple strategies of prevention of Mets resulting from VDD in children. Methods: This review study has been done by using keywords related to the topic and 54 articles were found (2000-2015) that 25 were selected according to the indicators of Mets, supplementation and fortification of foods with vitamin D and attention to children environment and life style. Results: Studies have suggested the correlation between serum levels of vitamin D with waist circumference (p < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (p=0.01), HOMA-IR (p=0.001) and HDL cholesterol (p < 0.0001). An inverse correlation between serum 25 (OH) D and HOMA-IR (p = 0.006) and insulin (P = 0.002) has been proved in overweight group. Higher HOMASDS and triglycerides found in vitamin D deficient obese children compared to control group without VDD (p=0.04). After supplementation with vitamin D, serum TG concentration decreases significantly (p=0.04), and improves insulin resistance (p=0.02). The prevalence of VDD is associated with time of watching TV (P < 0.01), hours of physical activity per week (P = 0.01), skipping breakfast (P < 0.001) soda intake (P < 0.001), and milk intake per day (P < 0.01). Conclusion: According to the beneficial role of vitamin D in prevention of Mets and proven relationship between serum levels of vitamin D and Mets indicators, we can prevent childhood Mets through the application of appropriate strategies such as supplementation and food fortification with vitamin D and positive changes in children life style with especial attention to physical activity in exposure of sunlight and their environment condition.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Children, vitamin D, prevention strategies

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33 A Secreted Protein Can Attenuate High Fat Diet Induced Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Mice

Authors: Abdul Soofi, Katherine Wolf, Egon Ranghini, Gregory Dressler

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Obesity and its associated complications, such as insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are reaching epidemic proportions. In mice, the TGF-β superfamily is implicated in the regulation of white and brown adipose tissues differentiation. The Kielin/Chordin-like Protein (KCP) is a secreted regulator of the TGF-β superfamily pathways that can inhibit both TGF-β and Activin signals while enhancing the Bone Morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. However, the effects of KCP on metabolism and obesity have not been studied in animal models. Thus, we examined the effects of KCP loss or gain of function in mice that were maintained on either a regular or a high fat diet. Loss of KCP sensitized mice to obesity and associated complications such as hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance. In contrast, transgenic mice that expressed KCP in the kidney, liver and adipose tissues were resistant to developing high fat diet induced obesity and had significantly reduced white adipose tissue. KCP over-expression was able to shift the pattern of Smad signaling in vivo, to increase the levels of P-Smad1 and decrease P-Smad3, resulting in resistance to high fat diet induced hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance. In aging mice, loss of KCP promoted liver pathology even when mice were fed a normal diet. The data demonstrate that shifting the TGF-β superfamily signaling with a secreted inhibitor or enhancer can alter the physiology of adipose tissue to reduce obesity and can inhibit the initiation and progression of hepatic steatosis to significantly reduce the effects of high fat diet induced metabolic disease.

Keywords: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, TGF-β, adipose tissue, KCP, BMP, hepatic steatosis

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32 Development of an Experimental Model of Diabetes Co-Existing with Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

Authors: Rajesh Kumar Suman, Ipseeta Ray Mohanty, Manjusha K. Borde, Ujjawala maheswari, Y. A. Deshmukh

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Background: Metabolic syndrome encompasses cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease which includes abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The incidence of metabolic syndrome is on the rise globally. Objective: The present study was designed to develop a unique animal model that will mimic the pathological features seen in a large pool of individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome; suitable for pharmacological screening of drugs beneficial in this condition. Material and Methods: A combination of high fat diet (HFD) and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) at 30, 35 and 40 mg/kg was used to induce metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Results: The 40 mg/kg STZ produced sustained hyperglycemia and the dose was thus selected for our study to induce diabetes mellitus. Rat fed HFD (HF-DC) group showed significant (p < 0.001) increase in body weight on 4th and 7th week as compared with NC (Normal Control) group rats. However, the increase in body weight of HF-DC group rats was not sustained at the end of 10th weeks. Various components of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia {(Increased Triglyceride, total Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol and decreased HDL Cholesterol)}, diabetes mellitus (Blood Glucose, HbA1c, Serum Insulin, C-peptide), hypertension {Systolic Blood pressure (p < 0.001)} were mimicked in the developed model of metabolic syndrome co existing with diabetes mellitus. In addition significant cardiac injury as indicated by CPK-MB levels, artherogenic index, hs-CRP. The decline in hepatic function {(p < 0.01) increase in the level of SGPT (U/L)} and renal function {(increase in creatinine levels (p < 0.01)} when compared to NC group rats. The histopathological assessment confirmed presence of edema, necrosis and inflammation in Heart, Pancreas, Liver and Kidney of HFD-DC group as compared to NC. Conclusion: The present study has developed a unique rodent model of metabolic syndrome; with diabetes as an essential component.

Keywords: Diabetes, metabolic syndrome, rats, streptozotocin, high fat diet

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31 Predictive Analytics for Theory Building

Authors: Hyung-Jin Kim, Donghun Lee, Ho-Won Jung

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Predictive analytics (data analysis) uses a subset of measurements (the features, predictor, or independent variable) to predict another measurement (the outcome, target, or dependent variable) on a single person or unit. It applies empirical methods in statistics, operations research, and machine learning to predict the future, or otherwise unknown events or outcome on a single or person or unit, based on patterns in data. Most analyses of metabolic syndrome are not predictive analytics but statistical explanatory studies that build a proposed model (theory building) and then validate metabolic syndrome predictors hypothesized (theory testing). A proposed theoretical model forms with causal hypotheses that specify how and why certain empirical phenomena occur. Predictive analytics and explanatory modeling have their own territories in analysis. However, predictive analytics can perform vital roles in explanatory studies, i.e., scientific activities such as theory building, theory testing, and relevance assessment. In the context, this study is to demonstrate how to use our predictive analytics to support theory building (i.e., hypothesis generation). For the purpose, this study utilized a big data predictive analytics platform TM based on a co-occurrence graph. The co-occurrence graph is depicted with nodes (e.g., items in a basket) and arcs (direct connections between two nodes), where items in a basket are fully connected. A cluster is a collection of fully connected items, where the specific group of items has co-occurred in several rows in a data set. Clusters can be ranked using importance metrics, such as node size (number of items), frequency, surprise (observed frequency vs. expected), among others. The size of a graph can be represented by the numbers of nodes and arcs. Since the size of a co-occurrence graph does not depend directly on the number of observations (transactions), huge amounts of transactions can be represented and processed efficiently. For a demonstration, a total of 13,254 metabolic syndrome training data is plugged into the analytics platform to generate rules (potential hypotheses). Each observation includes 31 predictors, for example, associated with sociodemographic, habits, and activities. Some are intentionally included to get predictive analytics insights on variable selection such as cancer examination, house type, and vaccination. The platform automatically generates plausible hypotheses (rules) without statistical modeling. Then the rules are validated with an external testing dataset including 4,090 observations. Results as a kind of inductive reasoning show potential hypotheses extracted as a set of association rules. Most statistical models generate just one estimated equation. On the other hand, a set of rules (many estimated equations from a statistical perspective) in this study may imply heterogeneity in a population (i.e., different subpopulations with unique features are aggregated). Next step of theory development, i.e., theory testing, statistically tests whether a proposed theoretical model is a plausible explanation of a phenomenon interested in. If hypotheses generated are tested statistically with several thousand observations, most of the variables will become significant as the p-values approach zero. Thus, theory validation needs statistical methods utilizing a part of observations such as bootstrap resampling with an appropriate sample size.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Predictive analytics, explanatory modeling, theory building

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30 Screening of Some Saudi Plants for Their Alleviating Effect on the Exaggerated Vasoconstriction in Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Hossam M. Abdallah, Ali M. El-Halawany, Gamal A. Mohamed, Khalid Z. Alshali, Zainy M. Banjar, Hany A. El-Bassossy

Abstract:

Hypertension and vascular dysfunction are major components and complications of many diseases like metabolic syndrome. In addition, vascular dysfunction is considered the initial step in diabetic atherosclerosis, the main etiology for mortality and a great percent of morbidity in diabetic patients. In spite of the significant developments in antidiabetic therapy, diabetic complications, particularly seen in long-term diabetes, continue to be seriously deleterious. Herbal drugs are prescribed widely in treatment of different aliment because of their effectiveness, fewer side effects and relatively low cost. Nine plants belong to five different families grown in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were evaluated for their effect on exaggerated vasoconstriction and impaired relaxation in aortae isolated from metabolic syndrome rats. The aerial parts of Onopordum ambiguum Fresen. (OA), Astragalus abyssinicus Steud. (AA), Pulicaria Arabica Cass. (PA), Echinops sheilae Kit Tan (ES), Aizoon canariense L. (AC), Cleome viscosa L. (CV), Chrozophora oblongifolia (Delile) A.Juss. ex Spreng (CO), Centaurea pseudosinaica Mouterde (CP) and Tephrosia nubica Baker (TN) were dried and extracted with methanol. The effect of thirty minute incubation with the total extracts (10-330 µg/ml) or their fractions on the exaggerated vasoconstriction response to phenylephrine (10nM to 10microM) and impaired vasodilation to acetylcholine (10-330 µg /ml) of aortae isolated from metabolic syndrome animals was studied. Incubating aortae isolated from metabolic syndrome animals with total methanol extract of OA, AA, PA, AC, CV, and TN at concentrations (10-330 microgram/ml) in the organ bath led to concentration dependent alleviation of exaggerated vasoconstriction response to phenylephrine without having beneficial effect on impaired vasodilation to acetylcholine. In conclusion, addition of OA, AA, PA, AC, CV and TN to the standard therapies may provide superior means to alleviate the associated vascular complications.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, vascular dysfunction, exaggerated vasoconstriction, Saudi plants

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29 The Comparison between Resistance and Aerobic Exercise Training on Metabolic Syndrome Components in Overweight Sedentary Female

Authors: Mohsen Salesi, Marzieh Sayyad

Abstract:

Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a collection of cardiometabolic risk factors, is linked to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. The prevalence of MetS is on the rise with more women affected than men. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of resistance and aerobic exercise training on metabolic syndrome components in non-athlete, middle-aged woman. 51 non-athlete overweight female participated voluntarily in this study. Participants were divided randomly into three groups including resistance, aerobic and control group (number of each group 17). 24 hours before the beginning of training program, the blood sample was taken in fasting state. The two training groups participated in sport activities for eight weeks, three times a week duration 60-90 minutes. Two days following the end of the 8th week, all the measurements were performed similar to the pretest phase. The data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that aerobic exercise training significantly decreased weight (p=.05), triglyceride (p<0.01) and systolic blood pressure (p<0.02) and HDL-c (p<0.01) was significantly increased. Also in resistance exercise training group TG decreased significantly (p<0.01) and HDL-c (p<0.05) was significantly increased. This study demonstrated that a regular physical activity program improved several metabolic and physiological parameters in healthy, previously sedentary subjects with the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, it seems that this type of training can be efficient, safe and inexpensive way in order to reduce and prevent metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Aerobic Exercise, resistance exercise, overweight sedentary female

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28 Soluble CD36 and Cardiovascular Risk in Middle-Aged Subjects

Authors: Mohammad Alkhatatbeh, Nehad Ayoub, Nizar Mhaidat, Nesreen Saadeh, Lisa Lincz

Abstract:

CD36 is involved in the development of atherosclerosis by enhancing macrophage endocytosis of oxidized-low density lipoproteins and foam cell formation. Soluble CD36 (sCD36) was found to be elevated in type 2 diabetic patients and was supposed to act as a marker of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In young subjects, sCD36 was associated with cardiovascular risk factors including obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. This study was conducted to further investigate the relationship between plasma sCD36 and cardiovascular risk factors among middle-aged patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and healthy controls. SCD36 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for 41 patients with MetS and 36 healthy controls. Data for other variables were obtained from patients' medical records. SCD36 concentrations were relatively low compared to most other studies and were not significantly different between the MetS group and controls (P-value=0.17). SCD36 was also not correlated with age, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, serum electrolytes and blood counts. SCD36 was not significantly different between subjects with obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension or cardiovascular disease and those without these abnormalities (P-value > 0.05). The inconsistency between results reported in this study and other studies may be unique to the study population or be a result of the lack of a reliable standardized method for determining absolute sCD36 concentrations. However, further investigations are required to assess CD36 tissue expression in the study population and to assess the accuracy of various commercially available sCD36 ELISA kits. Thus, the availability of a standardized simple sCD36 ELISA that could be performed in any basic laboratory would be more favorable to the specialized flow cytometry methods that detect CD36+ microparticles if it was to be used as a biomarker.

Keywords: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, CD36

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27 Effect of a Nutritional Supplement Containing Euterpe oleracea Mart., Inulin, Phaseolus vulgaris and Caralluma fimbriata in Persons with Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Eduardo Cabrera-Rode, Janet Rodriguez, Aimee Alvarez, Ragmila Echevarria, Antonio D. Reyes, Ileana Cubas-Duenas, Silvia E. Turcios, Oscar Diaz-Diaz

Abstract:

Obex is a nutritional supplement to help weight loss naturally. In addition, this supplement has a satiating effect that helps control the craving to eat between meals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Obex in the metabolic syndrome (MS). This was an open label pilot study conducted in 30 patients with MS and ages between 29 and 60 years old. Participants received Obex, at a dose of one sachet before (30 to 45 minutes) the two main meals (lunch and dinner) daily (mean two sachets per day) for 3 months. The content of the sachets was dissolved in a glass of water or fruit juice. Obex ingredients: Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry, inulin, Phaseolus vulgaris, Caralluma fimbriata, inositol, choline, arginine, ornitine, zinc sulfate, carnitine fumarate, methionine, calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine and folic acid. In addition to anthropometric measures and blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol and insulin were determined. Insulin resistance was assessed by HOMA-IR index. Three indirect indexes were used to calculate insulin sensitivity [QUICKI index (Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index), Bennett index and Raynaud index]. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. The JIS criteria require at least three of the following components: (1) abdominal obesity (waist circumference major or equal major or equal 94 cm for men or 80 cm for women), (2) triglycerides major or equal 1.7 mmol/L, (3) HDL cholesterol minor 1.03 mmol/L for men or minor 1.30 mmol/L for women, (4) systolic/diastolic blood pressure major or equal 130/85mmHg or use antihypertensive drugs, and (5) fasting plasma glucose major or equal 5.6 mmol/L or known treatment for diabetes. This study was approved by the Ethical and Research Committee of the National Institute of Endocrinology, Cuba and conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki. Obex is registered as a food supplement in the National Institute of Nutrition and Food, Havana, Cuba. Written consent was obtained from all patients before the study. The clinical trial had been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. After three months of treatment, 43.3% (13/30) of participants decreased the frequency of MS. Compared to baseline, Obex significantly reduced body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio and improved HDL-c (p<0.0001) and in addition to lowering blood pressure (p<0.05). After Obex intake, subjects also have shown a reduction in fasting plasma glucose (p<0.0001) and insulin sensitivity was enhanced (p=0.001). No adverse effects were seen in any of the participants during the study. In this pilot study, consumption of Obex decreased the prevalence of MS due to the improved selected components of the metabolic syndrome, indicating that further studies are warranted. Obex emerges as an effective and well tolerated treatment for preventing or delaying MS and therefore potential reduction of cardiovascular risk.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, weight loss, insulin resistance, nutritional supplement

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26 Eosinophils and Platelets: Players of the Game in Morbid Obese Boys with Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma

Abstract:

Childhood obesity, which may lead to increased risk for heart diseases in children as well as adults, is one of the most important health problems throughout the world. Prevalences of morbid obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are being increased during childhood age group. MetS is a cluster of metabolic and vascular abnormalities including hypercoagulability and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). There are also some relations between some components of MetS and leukocytes. The aim of this study is to investigate complete blood cell count parameters that differ between morbidly obese boys and girls with MetS diagnosis. A total of 117 morbid obese children with MetS consulted to Department of Pediatrics in Faculty of Medicine Hospital at Namik Kemal University were included into the scope of the study. The study population was classified based upon their genders (60 girls and 57 boys). Their heights and weights were measured and body mass index (BMI) values were calculated. WHO BMI-for age and sex percentiles were used. The values above 99 percentile were defined as morbid obesity. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Waist-to-hip and head-to-neck ratios as well as homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Components of MetS (central obesity, glucose intolerance, high blood pressure, high triacylglycerol levels, low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol) were determined. Hematological variables were measured. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. The degree for statistical significance was p ≤ 0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between the ages (11.2±2.6 years vs 11.2±3.0 years) and BMIs (28.6±5.2 kg/m2 vs 29.3±5.2 kg/m2) of boys and girls (p ≥ 0.05), respectively. Significantly increased waist-to-hip ratios were obtained for boys (0.94±0.08 vs 0.91±0.06; p=0.023). Significantly elevated values of hemoglobin (13.55±0.98 vs 13.06±0.82; p=0.004), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (33.79±0.91 vs 33.21±1.14; p=0.003), eosinophils (0.300±0.253 vs 0.196±0.197; p=0.014), and platelet (347.1±81.7 vs 319.0±65.9; p=0.042) were detected for boys. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios as well as HOMA-IR values (p ≥ 0.05). Statistically significant gender-based differences were found for hemoglobin as well as mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and hence, separate reference intervals for two genders should be considered for these parameters. Eosinophils may contribute to the development of thrombus in acute coronary syndrome. Eosinophils are also known to make an important contribution to mechanisms related to thrombosis pathogenesis in acute myocardial infarction. Increased platelet activity is observed in patients with MetS and these individuals are more susceptible to CVDs. In our study, elevated platelets described as dominant contributors to hypercoagulability and elevated eosinophil counts suggested to be related to the development of CVDs observed in boys may be the early indicators of the future cardiometabolic complications in this gender.

Keywords: Gender, metabolic syndrome, Children, complete blood count

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25 Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Related Risk Behaviors Among Thai Medical Students of Thammasat University

Authors: Patcharapa Thaweekul, Paskorn Sritipsukho

Abstract:

Background: During the training period of the 6-year medical curriculum, medical students seem to have many risk behaviors of developing obesity. This study aims to demonstrate the prevalence and risk behavior of obesity and related metabolic disorders among the final-year medical students of Thammasat University as well as the change in nutritional status during studying program. Methods: 123 participants were asked to complete the self-report questionnaires. Weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure were obtained. Blood samples were drawn for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and plasma glucose. Body weight and height of the medical students in the first year were obtained from the medical report at the entry. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity at the entry to medical school was 22.0% and increased to 30.1% in the final year. Two obese students (5.4%) was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome. During 6-year curriculum, the BMI gained in male medical students were more significant as compared to female students (1.76±1.74 and 0.43±1.82 kg/m2, respectively; p <.001). The current BMI is significantly correlated with the BMI at entry. Serum LDL-C in the overweight/obese students was significantly higher as compared to the normal weight and underweight group. Sleep deprivation was a significantly frequent behavior in the overweight/obese students. Conclusion: Medical students, as having high-risk behaviors, should be assessed for the nutritional status and metabolic parameters. Medical schools should promote the healthy behaviors to increase the healthy eating and exercise habits and reduced the risk behaviors among them.

Keywords: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, medical students, risk behaviors

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24 Effects of a 6-Month Caloric Restriction Induced-Weight Loss Program in Obese Postmenopausal Women with and without the Metabolic Syndrome: A MONET Study

Authors: Ahmed Ghachem, Denis Prud’homme, Rémi-Rabasa-Lhoret, M. Brochu

Abstract:

Objective: To compare the effects of a CR on body composition, lipid profile and glucose homeostasis in obese postmenopausal women with and without MetS. Methods: Secondary analyses were performed on seventy-three inactive obese postmenopausal women (age: 57.7 ± 4.8 yrs; body mass index: 32.4 ± 4.6 kg/m2) who participated in the 6-month caloric restriction arm of a study of the Montreal-Ottawa New Emerging Team. The harmonized MetS definition was used to categorized participants with MetS [n = 20, 27.39%] and without MetS [n = 53, 72.61%]. Variables of interest were: body composition (DXA), body fat distribution (CT scan), glucose homeostasis at the fasting state and during a euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp, fasting lipids and resting blood pressure. Results: By design, the MetS group had a worse cardiometabolic profile; while both groups were comparable for age. Fifty-five patients out of seventy-three displayed no change in MetS status after the intervention. Twelve participants out of twenty (or 60.0%) in the MetS group had no more MetS after weight loss (P= NS); while six participants out of fifty three (or 11.3%) in the other group developed the MetS after the intervention (P= NS). Overall, indices of body composition and body fat distribution improved significantly and similarly in both groups (P between 0.03 and 0.0001). Furthermore, with the exception of triglyceride levels and triglycerides/HDL-C ratio, which decrease significantly more in the MetS group (P ≤ 0.05), no difference was observed between groups for the other variables of the cardiometabolic profile. Conclusion: Despite no overall significant effects on MetS, heterogeneous results were obtained in response to weight loss in the present study; with some improving the MetS while other displaying deteriorations. Further studies are needed in order to identify factors and phenotypes associated with positive and negative cardiometabolic responses to CR intervention.

Keywords: Obesity, Menopause, metabolic syndrome, weight loss, Physical Inactivity, caloric restriction

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23 Bone Mineral Density and Frequency of Low-Trauma Fractures in Ukrainian Women with Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Larysa Martynyuk, Iryna Syzonenko, Liliya Martynyuk

Abstract:

Osteoporosis is one of the important problems in postmenopausal women due to an increased risk of sudden and unexpected fractures. This study is aimed to determine the connection between bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone score (TBS) in Ukrainian women suffering from metabolic syndrome. Participating in the study, 566 menopausal women aged 50-79 year-old were examined and divided into two groups: Group A included 336 women with no obesity (BMI ≤ 29.9 kg/m2), and Group B – 230 women with metabolic syndrome (diagnosis according to IDF criteria, 2005). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for measuring of lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck, total body and forearm BMD and bone quality indexes (last according to Med-Imaps installation). Data were analyzed using Statistical Package 6.0. A significant increase of lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck, total body and ultradistal radius BMD was found in women with metabolic syndrome compared to those without obesity (p < 0.001) both in their totality and in groups of 50-59 years, 60-69 years, and 70-79 years. TBS was significantly higher in non-obese women compared to metabolic syndrome patients of 50-59 years and in the general sample (p < 0.05). Analysis showed significant positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and BMD at all levels. Significant negative correlation between BMI and TBS (L1-L4) was established. Despite the fact that BMD indexes were significantly higher in women with metabolic syndrome, the frequency of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures did not differ significantly in the groups of patients.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, fracture, bone mineral density, trabecular bone score

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22 Effect of Inulin-Substituted Ice Cream on Waist Circumference and Blood Pressure of Adolescents with Abdominal Obesity

Authors: Nur H. Ahmad, Silvia S. Inge, Vanessa A. Julliete, A. Veraditias, Laila F. Febinda

Abstract:

Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and mostly found in adolescents. Waist circumference is related to abdominal obesity which has a significant effect on the increase of blood pressure. Inulin is one of prebiotic, that has health benefits by offering the potential for lipid management, that can be useful to decrease the risk factor of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the research is to evaluate the effect of 10 gram inulin-substituted ice cream in waist circumference and blood pressure of abdominal obesity adolescents. Inulin had the ability to produce Short Chain Fatty Acid which can improve blood pressure and waist circumference. Systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in the treatment group (p=0.028) with the mean of reduction 7.35 ± 11.59 mmHg. However, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference showed no significant effect. Waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was decreased in control group. These results suggest that inulin-substituted ice cream used as therapeutics and prevention for the early onset of metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Blood Pressure, inulin, waist circumference

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21 Effect of Pioglitazone on Intracellular Na+ Homeostasis in Metabolic Syndrome-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Male Rats

Authors: Ayca Bilginoglu, Belma Turan

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Metabolic syndrome, is associated impaired blood glucose level, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia caused by abdominal obesity. Also, it is related with cardiovascular risk accumulation and cardiomyopathy. The hypothesis of this study was to examine the effect of thiazolidinediones such as pioglitazone which is widely used insulin-sensitizing agents that improve glycemic control, on intracellular Na+ homeostasis in metabolic syndrome-induced cardiomyopathy in male rats. Male Wistar-Albino rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely control (Con, n=7), metabolic syndrome (MetS, n=7) and pioglitazone treated metabolic syndrome group (MetS+PGZ, n=7). Metabolic syndrome was induced by providing drinking water that was 32% sucrose, for 18 weeks. All of the animals were exposed to a 12 h light – 12 h dark cycle. Abdominal obesity and glucose intolerance had measured as a marker of metabolic syndrome. Intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i) is an important modulator of excitation–contraction coupling in heart. [Na+]i at rest and [Na+]i during pacing with electrical field stimulation in 0.2 Hz, 0.8 Hz, 2.0 Hz stimulation frequency were recorded in cardiomyocytes. Also, Na+ channel current (INa) density and I-V curve were measured to understand [Na+]i homeostasis. In results, high sucrose intake, as well as the normal daily diet, significantly increased body mass and blood glucose level of the rats in the metabolic syndrome group as compared with the non-treated control group. In MetS+PZG group, the blood glucose level and body inclined to decrease to the Con group. There was a decrease in INa density and there was a shift both activation and inactivation curve of INa. Pioglitazone reversed the shift to the control side. Basal [Na+]i either MetS and Con group were not significantly different, but there was a significantly increase in [Na+]i in stimulated cardiomyocytes in MetS group. Furthermore, pioglitazone had not effect on basal [Na+]i but it reversed the increase in [Na+]i in stimulated cardiomyocytes to the that of Con group. Results of the present study suggest that pioglitazone has a significant effect on the Na+ homeostasis in the metabolic syndrome induced cardiomyopathy in rats. All animal procedures and experiments were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine (2015-2-37).

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, intracellular sodium, sodium current

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20 Risk of Androgen Deprivation Therapy-Induced Metabolic Syndrome-Related Complications for Prostate Cancer in Taiwan

Authors: Olivia Rachel Hwang, Yu-Hsuan Joni Shao

Abstract:

Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT) has been a primary treatment for patients with advanced prostate cancer. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects related to Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, heart diseases and ischemic strokes. However, complications associated with ADT for prostate cancer in Taiwan is not well documented. The purpose of this study is to utilize the data from NHIRD (National Health Insurance Research Database) to examine the trajectory changes of MetS-related complications in men receiving ADT. The risks of developing complications after the treatment were analyzed with multivariate Cox regression model. Covariates including in the model were the complications before the diagnosis of prostate cancer, the age, and the year at cancer diagnosis. A total number of 17268 patients from 1997-2013 were included in this study. The exclusion criteria were patients with any other types of cancer or with the existing MetS-related complications. Changes in MetS-related complications were observed among two treatment groups: 1) ADT (n=9042), and 2) non-ADT (n=8226). The ADT group appeared to have an increased risk in hypertension (hazard ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.13, P = 0.001) and hyperlipidemia (hazard ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.17, P = 0.02) when compared with non-ADT group in the multivariate Cox regression analyses. In the risk of diabetes, heart diseases, and ischemic strokes, ADT group appeared to have an increased but not significant hazard ratio. In conclusion, ADT was associated with an increased risk in hypertension and hyperlipidemia in prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. The risk of hypertension and hyperlipidemia should be considered while deciding on ADT, especially those with the known history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

Keywords: Complications, metabolic syndrome, Prostate Cancer, METS, androgen deprivation therapy, ADT

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19 Association of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene (HindIII rs320) Polymorphisms with Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia Secondary to Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Antonio Brunetti, Meryem Abi-Ayad, Biagio Arcidiacono, Eusebio Chiefari, Daniela Foti, Mohamed Benyoucef

Abstract:

Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme for lipid metabolism; its genetic polymorphism can be a candidate for modulating lipids parameters in metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present study was to determine whether lipoproteins lipase polymorphisMetS (LPL-HindIII) could be associated with moderate hypertriglyceridemia (secondary to metabolism syndrome). The polymorphism Hind III (rs320) was assessed by PCR-RFLP in 51 MetS patients and 17 healthy controls from the hospital in Tlemcen. The logistic regression analyses showed no significant association with Hind III genotype and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1,5g/l or TG lower treatment) (P=0,455), metabolic syndrome (P=0,455), hypertension (P=0,802) and type 2 diabetes (P=0,144). In terms of plasma biomarkers, although not statistically significant, there was a difference in TG levels (P > 0,05), which was lowest among carriers of the homogenous mutant allele (H-). In this study, there was no association between the rare allele (H-) and disease protection, and between the frequent allele (H+) and disease prevalence (hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, type 2 diabetes).

Keywords: Lipids, metabolic syndrome, moderate secondary hypertriglyceridemia, polymorphism lipoprotein lipase, HindIII(rs320)

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18 Effects of Turmeric on Uterine Tissue in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High Fructose Diet

Authors: Nalan Kaya, Gonca Ozan, Enver Ozan, Mesih Kocamuftuoglu, Sema Temizer Ozan

Abstract:

Metabolic Syndrome, one of the common metabolic disorder, occurs with co-development of insulin resistance, obesity, dislipidemia and hypertension problems. Insulin resistance appears to play a pathogenic role in the metabolic syndrome. Also, there is a relationship between insulin resistance and infertility as known. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) a polyphenolic chemical is widely used for its coloring, flavoring, and medicinal properties, and exhibits a strong antioxidant activity. In this study, we assess the effects of turmeric on rat uterine tissue in metabolic syndrome model induced by high fructose diet. Thirty-two adult female Wistar rats weighing 220±20 g were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) as follows; control, fructose, turmeric, and fructose plus turmeric. Metabolic syndrome was induced by fructose solution 20% (w/v) in tap water, and turmeric (C.Longa) administered at the dose of 80 mg/kg body weight every other day by oral gavage. After the experimental period of 8 weeks, rats were decapitated, serum and uterine tissues were removed. Serum lipid profile, glucose, insülin levels were measured. Uterine tissues were fixed for histological analyzes. The uterine tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H & E) stain, then examined and photographed on a light microscope (Novel N-800Mx20). As a result, fructose consumption effected serum lipids, insulin levels, and insulin resistance significantly. Endometrium and myometrium layers were observed in normal structure in control group of uterine tissues. Perivascular edema, peri glandular fibrosis, and inflammatory cell increase were detected in fructose group. Sections of the fructose plus turmeric group showed a significant improvement in findings when compared to the fructose group. Turmeric group cell structures were observed similar with the control group. These results demonstrated that high-fructose consumption could change the structure of the uterine tissue. On the other hand, turmeric administration has beneficial effects on uterine tissue at that dose and duration when administered with fructose.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, uterus, rat, turmeric

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17 An Indispensable Parameter in Lipid Ratios to Discriminate between Morbid Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Children: High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma

Abstract:

Obesity is a low-grade inflammatory disease and may lead to health problems such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes. It is also associated with important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. This requires the detailed evaluation of obesity, particularly in children. The aim of this study is to enlighten the potential associations between lipid ratios and obesity indices and to introduce those with discriminating features among children with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 408 children (aged between six and eighteen years) participated in the scope of the study. Informed consent forms were taken from the participants and their parents. Ethical Committee approval was obtained. Anthropometric measurements such as weight, height as well as waist, hip, head, neck circumferences and body fat mass were taken. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were recorded. Body mass index (BMI), diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index-II (D2 index), waist-to-hip, head-to-neck ratios were calculated. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLChol), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLChol) analyses were performed in blood samples drawn from 110 children with normal body weight, 164 morbid obese (MO) children and 134 children with MetS. Age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentiles tabulated by World Health Organization were used to classify groups; normal body weight, MO and MetS. 15th-to-85th percentiles were used to define normal body weight children. Children, whose values were above the 99th percentile, were described as MO. MetS criteria were defined. Data were evaluated statistically by SPSS Version 20. The degree of statistical significance was accepted as p≤0.05. Mean±standard deviation values of BMI for normal body weight children, MO children and those with MetS were 15.7±1.1, 27.1±3.8 and 29.1±5.3 kg/m2, respectively. Corresponding values for the D2 index were calculated as 3.4±0.9, 14.3±4.9 and 16.4±6.7. Both BMI and D2 index were capable of discriminating the groups from one another (p≤0.01). As far as other obesity indices were considered, waist-to hip and head-to-neck ratios did not exhibit any statistically significant difference between MO and MetS groups (p≥0.05). Diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index-II was correlated with the triglycerides-to-HDL-C ratio in normal body weight and MO (r=0.413, p≤0.01 and r=0.261, (p≤0.05, respectively). Total cholesterol-to-HDL-C and LDL-C-to-HDL-C showed statistically significant differences between normal body weight and MO as well as MO and MetS (p≤0.05). The only group in which these two ratios were significantly correlated with waist-to-hip ratio was MetS group (r=0.332 and r=0.334, p≤0.01, respectively). Lack of correlation between the D2 index and the triglycerides-to-HDL-C ratio was another important finding in MetS group. In this study, parameters and ratios, whose associations were defined previously with increased cardiovascular risk or cardiac death have been evaluated along with obesity indices in children with morbid obesity and MetS. Their profiles during childhood have been investigated. Aside from the nature of the correlation between the D2 index and triglycerides-to-HDL-C ratio, total cholesterol-to-HDL-C as well as LDL-C-to- HDL-C ratios along with their correlations with waist-to-hip ratio showed that the combination of obesity-related parameters predicts better than one parameter and appears to be helpful for discriminating MO children from MetS group.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Children, lipid ratios, obesity indices

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