Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

metabolic profile Related Abstracts

3 In vitro Callus Production from Lantana Camara: A Step towards Biotransformation Studies

Authors: Maged El-Sayed Mohamed

Abstract:

Plant tissue culture practices are presented nowadays as the most promising substitute to a whole plant in the terms of secondary metabolites production. They offer the advantages of high production, tunability and they have less effect on plant ecosystems. Lantana camara is a weed, which is common all over the world as an ornamental plant. Weeds can adapt to any type of soil and climate due to their rich cellular machinery for secondary metabolites’ production. This characteristic is found in Lantana camara as a plant of very rich diversity of secondary metabolites with no dominant class of compounds. Aim: This trait has encouraged the author to develop tissue culture experiments for Lantana camara to be a platform for production and manipulation of secondary metabolites through biotransformation. Methodology: The plant was collected in its flowering stage in September 2014, from which explants were prepared from shoot tip, auxiliary bud and leaf. Different types of culture media were tried as well as four phytohormones and their combinations; NAA, 2,4-D, BAP and kinetin. Explants were grown in dark or in 12 hours dark and light cycles at 25°C. A metabolic profile for the produced callus was made and then compared to the whole plant profile. The metabolic profile was made using GC-MS for volatile constituents (extracted by n-hexane) and by HPLC-MS and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) for non-volatile constituents (extracted by ethanol and water). Results: The best conditions for the callus induction was achieved using MS media supplied with 30 gm sucrose and NAA/BAP (1:0.2 mg/L). Initiation of callus was favoured by incubation in dark for 20 day. The callus produced under these conditions showed yellow colour, which changed to brownish after 30 days. The rate of callus growth was high, expressed in the callus diameter, which reached to 1.15±0.2 cm in 30 days; however, the induction of callus delayed for 15 days. The metabolic profile for both volatile and non-volatile constituents of callus showed more simple background metabolites than the whole plant with two new (unresolved) peaks in the callus’ nonvolatile constituents’ chromatogram. Conclusion: Lantana camara callus production can be itself a source of new secondary metabolites and could be used for biotransformation studies due to its simple metabolic background, which allow easy identification of newly formed metabolites. The callus production gathered the simple metabolic background with the rich cellular secondary metabolite machinery of the plant, which could be elicited to produce valuable medicinally active products.

Keywords: Plant Tissue Culture, Gas Chromatography, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, metabolic profile

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2 Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Cardiometabolic Profile in Inactive Obese Postmenopausal Women: A MONET Study

Authors: Ahmed Ghachem, Johann Colomba, Denis Prud'homme, Martin Brochu

Abstract:

Background: Inactive obese postmenopausal women, are at greater risk for metabolic complications. On the other hand, high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with a lower risk of metabolic complications. Objective: To compare inactive obese postmenopausal women displaying ‘lower’ vs ‘higher’ levels of CRF for body composition, metabolic profile, inflammatory profile and measures of energy expenditure. Methods: 132 women (age: 57.6 ± 4.8 yrs; BMI: 32.3 ± 4.6 kg/m2; Peak VO2: 17.81 ± 3.02 ml O2•kg-1•min-1) were studied. They were first divided into tertiles based on their CRF. Then, women in the first (< 16.51 ml O2•min-1•kg-1) and second tertiles (16.51 to 19.22 ml O2•min-1•kg-1) were combined (N= 88), and compared with those in the third tertile (> 19.22 ml O2•min-1•kg-1) (N= 44). Variables of interest were: Peak VO2 (stationary bike), body composition (DXA), body fat distribution (CT scan), glucose homeostasis (fasting state and euglycemic/ hyperinsulinemic clamp), fasting lipids, resting blood pressure, inflammatory profile and energy expenditure (DLW). Results: Both CRF groups (lower= 16.0 ± 2.0 ml O2•kg-1•min-1 vs higher= 21.2 ± 1.7 ml O2•kg-1•min-1; p < 0.001) were similar for age. Significant differences were observed between groups for body composition; with lower values for body weight, BMI, fat mass and visceral fat in women with higher CRF (p between 0.001 and 0.005). Also, women with higher CRF had lower values for fasting insulin (13.4 ± 4.5 vs 15.6 ± 6.6 μU/ml; p = 0.03) and CRP levels (2.31 ± 1.97 vs 3.83 ± 3.24 mg/liter; p = 0.001); and higher values for glucose disposal (6.71 ± 1.78 vs 5.92 ± 1.67 mg/kg/min; p = 0.01). However, these differences were no longer significant after controlling for visceral adipose tissue accumulations. Finally, no significant difference was observed between groups for the other variables of interest. Conclusion: Our results suggest that, among inactive overweight/obese postmenopausal women, those with higher CRF levels have a better metabolic profile; which is caused by lower visceral fat accumulations.

Keywords: Obesity, Menopause, metabolic profile, cardiorespiratory fitness

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1 Effect of Exercise Training on Body Composition and Metabolic Profile in Older Adults during Cancer Treatment

Authors: Adeline Fontvieille, Hugo Parent-Roberge, Marie-France Langlois, Tamas Fulop, Michel Pavic, Eleonor Riesco

Abstract:

Introduction: Total lean body mass is reduced during cancer treatment. This loss is called cancer cachexia and is accompanied by a progressive loss of fat mass. In older adults, these body composition changes can have a larger impact on metabolic health, physical autonomy, and cancer survival. Although currently untreatable, exercise training could reduce these effects. Hence, the objective of this pilot study is to investigate if 12 weeks of exercise training during cancer treatment can mitigate the loss of muscle mass and fat mass in older adults. Methods: A total of 40 older adults (65-80 years) with an ongoing treatment for a curable cancer are currently recruited and randomised in two groups: 1) Combined training (EX, n=20) and 2) Control group (CON, n=20). All variables are measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention: Anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index), body composition (total fat mass, visceral adipose tissue, total and appendicular muscle mass; DXA), metabolic profile (HDL-C and LDL-C, triglycerides, glucose and insulin levels). Results: Preliminary analyses revealed no impact of exercise training on appendicular muscle mass (p=0,31) and fat mass (p=0,31). Furthermore, total body weight, waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, glucose and insulin levels remained unchanged (all p ≥ 0.79) after 12 weeks of training. However, statistical analyses revealed that triglyceride levels slightly increased (p=0.03), irrespective of the group. Conclusion: Preliminary analyses did not reveal any impact of aerobic and resistance exercise training on body composition in oncogeriatric patients. Furthermore, exercise training seems not efficient to prevent the cancer treatment-related triglyceride levels increase.

Keywords: Cancer, Aging, fat mass, metabolic profile, muscle mass, combined training

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