Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Meta-analysis Related Abstracts

41 The Documentary Analysis of Meta-Analysis Research in Violence of Media

Authors: Proud Arunrangsiwed


The part of “future direction” in the findings of meta-analysis could provide the great direction to conduct the future studies. This study, “The Documentary Analysis of Meta-Analysis Research in Violence of Media” would conclude “future directions” out of 10 meta-analysis papers. The purposes of this research are to find an appropriate research design or an appropriate methodology for the future research related to the topic, “violence of media”. Further research needs to explore by longitudinal and experimental design, and also needs to have a careful consideration about age effects, time spent effects, enjoyment effects, and ordinary lifestyle of each media consumer.

Keywords: Media, Violence, Meta-analysis, aggressive, future direction

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40 Family History of Obesity and Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Martina Kanciruk, Tyrone Donnon, Jac J. W. Andrews


The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of history of obesity for the development of childhood overweight and/or obesity. Accordingly, a systematic literature review of English-language studies published from 1980 to 2012 using the following data bases: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Dissertation Abstracts International was conducted. The following terms were used in the search: pregnancy, overweight, obesity, family history, parents, childhood, risk factors. Eleven studies of family history and obesity conducted in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of these studies indicated that family history of obesity is a significant risk factor of overweight and /or obesity in offspring; risk for offspring overweight and/or obesity associated with family history varies depending of the family members included in the analysis; and when family history of obesity is present, the offspring are at greater risk for developing obesity or overweight. In addition, the results from moderator analyses suggest that part of the heterogeneity discovered between the studies can be explained by the region of world that the study occurred in and the age of the child at the time of weight assessment.

Keywords: Overweight, Childhood Obesity, Meta-analysis, Risk Factors, family history

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39 On Pooling Different Levels of Data in Estimating Parameters of Continuous Meta-Analysis

Authors: N. R. N. Idris, S. Baharom


A meta-analysis may be performed using aggregate data (AD) or an individual patient data (IPD). In practice, studies may be available at both IPD and AD level. In this situation, both the IPD and AD should be utilised in order to maximize the available information. Statistical advantages of combining the studies from different level have not been fully explored. This study aims to quantify the statistical benefits of including available IPD when conducting a conventional summary-level meta-analysis. Simulated meta-analysis were used to assess the influence of the levels of data on overall meta-analysis estimates based on IPD-only, AD-only and the combination of IPD and AD (mixed data, MD), under different study scenario. The percentage relative bias (PRB), root mean-square-error (RMSE) and coverage probability were used to assess the efficiency of the overall estimates. The results demonstrate that available IPD should always be included in a conventional meta-analysis using summary level data as they would significantly increased the accuracy of the estimates. On the other hand, if more than 80% of the available data are at IPD level, including the AD does not provide significant differences in terms of accuracy of the estimates. Additionally, combining the IPD and AD has moderating effects on the biasness of the estimates of the treatment effects as the IPD tends to overestimate the treatment effects, while the AD has the tendency to produce underestimated effect estimates. These results may provide some guide in deciding if significant benefit is gained by pooling the two levels of data when conducting meta-analysis.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, aggregate data, combined-level data, individual patient data

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38 A Meta Analysis of the Recent Work-Related Research of BEC-Teachers in the Graduate Programs of the Selected HEIs in Region I and CAR

Authors: Sherelle Lou Sumera Icutan, Sheila P. Cayabyab, Mary Jane Laruan, Paulo V. Cenas, Agustina R. Tactay


This study critically analyzed the recent theses and dissertations of the Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) teachers who finished their graduate programs in selected higher educational institutions in Region I and CAR to be able to come up with a unified result from the varied results of the analyzed research works. All theses and dissertations completed by the educators/teachers/school personnel in the secondary and elementary public and private schools in Region 1 and CAR from AY 2003–2004 to AY 2007–2008 were classified first–as to work or non-work related; second–as to the different aspects of the curriculum: implementation, content, instructional materials, assessment instruments, learning, teaching, and others; third–as to being eligible for meta-analysis or not. Only studies found eligible for meta-analysis were subjected to the procedure. Aside from documentary analysis, the statistical treatments used in meta-analysis include the standardized effect size, Pearson’s correlation (r), the chi-square test of homogeneity and the inverse of the Fisher transformation. This study found out that the BEC-teachers usually probe on work-related researchers with topics that are focused on the learning performances of the students and on factors related to teaching. The development of instructional materials and assessment of implemented programs are also equally explored. However, there are only few researches on content and assessment instrument. Research findings on the areas of learning and teaching are the only aspects that are meta-analyzable. The research findings across studies in Region I and CAR of BEC teachers that focused on similar variables correlated to teaching do not vary significantly. On the contrary, research findings across studies in Region I and CAR that focused on variables correlated to learning performance significantly vary. Within each region, variations on the findings of research works related to learning performance that considered similar variables still exist. The combined finding on the effect size or relationship of the variables that are correlated to learning performance are low which means that effect is small but definite while the combined findings on the relationship of the variables correlated to teaching are slight or almost negligible.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, BEC teachers, work-related research

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37 A Sequential Approach for Random-Effects Meta-Analysis

Authors: Samson Henry Dogo, Allan Clark, Elena Kulinskaya


The objective in meta-analysis is to combine results from several independent studies in order to create generalization and provide evidence based for decision making. But recent studies show that the magnitude of effect size estimates reported in many areas of research finding changed with year publication and this can impair the results and conclusions of meta-analysis. A number of sequential methods have been proposed for monitoring the effect size estimates in meta-analysis. However they are based on statistical theory applicable to fixed effect model (FEM). For random-effects model (REM), the analysis incorporates the heterogeneity variance, tau-squared and its estimation create complications. In this paper proposed the use of Gombay and Serbian (2005) truncated CUSUM-type test with asymptotically valid critical values for sequential monitoring of REM. Simulation results show that the test does not control the Type I error well, and is not recommended. Further work required to derive an appropriate test in this important area of application.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, random-effects model, sequential test, temporal changes in effect sizes

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36 The Effect of Mobile Technology Use in Education: A Meta-Analysis Study

Authors: Ismail Sahin, Sirin Kucuk, Ayşe Kök


Mobile devices are very popular and useful tools for assisting people in daily life. With the advancement of mobile technologies, the issue of mobile learning has been widely investigated in education. Many researches consider that it is important to integrate pedagogical and technical strengths of mobile technology into learning environments. For this reason, the purpose of this research is to examine the effect of mobile technology use in education with meta-analysis method. Meta-analysis is a statistical technique which combines the findings of independent studies in a specific subject. In this respect, the articles will be examined by searching the databases for researches which are conducted between 2005 and 2014. It is expected that the results of this research will contribute to future research related to mobile technology use in education.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, Education, Mobile Technology, Meta-analysis

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35 Non-Signaling Chemokine Receptor CCRL1 and Its Active Counterpart CCR7 in Prostate Cancer

Authors: Yiding Qu, Svetlana V. Komarova


Chemokines acting through their cognate chemokine receptors guide the directional migration of the cell along the chemokine gradient. Several chemokine receptors were recently identified as non-signaling (decoy), based on their ability to bind the chemokine but produce no measurable signal in the cell. The function of these decoy receptors is not well understood. We examined the expression of a decoy receptor CCRL1 and a signaling receptor that binds to the same ligands, CCR7, in prostate cancer using publically available microarray data ( The expression of both CCRL1 and CCR7 increased in an approximately half of prostate carcinoma samples and the majority of metastatic cancer samples compared to normal prostate. Moreover, the expression of CCRL1 positively correlated with the expression of CCR7. These data suggest that CCR7 and CCRL1 can be used as clinical markers for the early detection of transformation from carcinoma to metastatic cancer. In addition, these data support our hypothesis that the non-signaling chemokine receptors actively stimulate cell migration.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Prostate Cancer, Meta-analysis, Cell migration, decoy receptor

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34 Is Hormone Replacement Therapy Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Hongxin Zhao, Shibing Yang, Bingming Yi, Yi Ning


Background: A few studies have found evidence that exposure to endogenous or postmenopausal exogenous estrogens may be associated with a lower prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but dispute over this association is ongoing due to inconsistent results reported by different studies. Objectives: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use and AMD. Methods: Relevant studies that assessed the association between HRT and AMD were searched through four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted by three independent reviewers. The fixed-effect meta-analyses were performed to estimate the association between HRT ever-use and AMD by pooling risk ratio (RR) or odds ratio (OR) across studies. Results: The review identified 2 prospective and 7 cross-sectional studies with 93992 female participants that reported an estimate of the association between HRT ever-use and presence of early AMD or late AMD. Meta-analyses showed that there were no statistically significant associations between HRT ever-use and early AMD (pooled RR for cohort studies was 1.04, 95% CI 0.86 - 1.24; pooled OR for cross-sectional studies was 0.91, 95% CI 0.82 - 1.01). The pooled results from cross-sectional studies also showed no statistically significant association between HRT ever-use and late AMD (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.89 - 1.15). Conclusions: The pooled effects from observational studies published to date indicate that HRT use is associated with neither early nor late AMD. Exposure to HRT may not protect women from developing AMD.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, systematic review, hormone replacement therapy, age-related macular degeneration

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33 Compliance of Systematic Reviews in Plastic Surgery with the PRISMA Statement: A Systematic Review

Authors: Seon-Young Lee, Harkiran Sagoo, Katherine Whitehurst, Georgina Wellstead, Alexander Fowler, Riaz Agha, Dennis Orgill


Introduction: Systematic reviews attempt to answer research questions by synthesising the data within primary papers. They are an increasingly important tool within evidence-based medicine, guiding clinical practice, future research and healthcare policy. We sought to determine the reporting quality of recent systematic reviews in plastic surgery. Methods: This systematic review was conducted in line with the Cochrane handbook, reported in line with the PRISMA statement and registered at the ResearchRegistry (UIN: reviewregistry18). MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched in 2013 and 2014 for systematic reviews by five major plastic surgery journals. Screening, identification and data extraction was performed independently by two teams. Results: From an initial set of 163 articles, 79 met the inclusion criteria. The median PRISMA score was 16 out of 27 items (59.3%; range 6-26, 95% CI 14-17). Compliance between individual PRISMA items showed high variability. It was poorest for items related to the use of review protocol (item 5; 5%) and presentation of data on risk of bias of each study (item 19; 18%), while being the highest for description of rationale (item 3; 99%) and sources of funding and other support (item 27; 95%), and for structured summary in the abstract (item 2; 95%). Conclusion: The reporting quality of systematic reviews in plastic surgery requires improvement. ‘Hard-wiring’ of compliance through journal submission systems, as well as improved education, awareness and a cohesive strategy among all stakeholders is called for.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, plastic surgery, reporting quality, systematic review, PRISMA

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32 The Effect of Remifentanil on Emergence Agitation after Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Children: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Jong Yeop Kim, Jong Bum Choi, Sook Young Lee, Sung Young Park, Dae Hee Kim, Han Bum Joe, Ji Young Yoo


Emergence agitation (EA) is commonly reported adverse events after sevoflurane anesthesia in pediatric patients. The efficacy of prophylactic remifentanil, one of mu opioid agonist, in preventing EA is controversial. This meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of remifentanil to decrease the incidence of EA from sevoflurane anesthesia in children. We searched for randomized controlled trials comparing sevoflurane alone anesthesia with sevoflurane and remifentanil anesthesia to prevent EA in the Cochrane Library, Embase, Pubmed, and KoreaMed, and included 6 studies with 361 patients. The number of patients of reporting EA was summarized using risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), with point estimates and 95CIs derived from a random effects Mantel-Haenszel method. Overall incidence of EA was about 41%. Compared with sevoflurane alone anesthesia, intravenous infusion of remifentanil with sevoflurane significantly reduced the incidence of EA (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.39-0.73, P < 0.0001), (heterogeneity, I2 = 0, P = 0.42). This meta-analysis suggested that continuous infusion of remifentanil could be effective in decreasing the EA of about 47% after sevoflurane anesthesia. However, considering limitations of the included studies, more randomized controlled studies are required to verify our results.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Meta-analysis, remifentanil, emergence agitation

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31 Expectation-Confirmation Model of Information System Continuance: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Hui-Min Lai, Chin-Pin Chen, Yung-Fu Chang


The expectation-confirmation model (ECM) is one of the most widely used models for evaluating information system continuance, and this model has been extended to other study backgrounds, or expanded with other theoretical perspectives. However, combining ECM with other theories or investigating the background problem may produce some disparities, thus generating inaccurate conclusions. Habit is considered to be an important factor that influences the user’s continuance behavior. This paper thus critically examines seven pairs of relationships from the original ECM and the habit variable. A meta-analysis was used to tackle the development of ECM research over the last 10 years from a range of journals and conference papers published in 2005–2014. Forty-six journal articles and 19 conference papers were selected for analysis. The results confirm our prediction that a high effect size for the seven pairs of relationships was obtained (ranging from r=0.386 to r=0.588). Furthermore, a meta-analytic structural equation modeling was performed to simultaneously test all relationships. The results show that habit had a significant positive effect on continuance intention at p<=0.05 and that the six other pairs of relationships were significant at p<0.10. Based on the findings, we refined our original research model and an alternative model was proposed for understanding and predicting information system continuance. Some theoretical implications are also discussed.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, Expectation-confirmation theory, Expectation-confirmation model, meta-analytic structural equation modeling

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30 Meta-Analysis of Particulate Matter Production in Developing and Developed Countries

Authors: Hafiz Mehtab Gull Nasir


Industrial development and urbanization have significant impacts on air emissions, and their relationship diverges at different stages of economic progress. The revolution further propelled these activities as principal paths to economic and social transformation; nevertheless, the paths also promoted environmental degradation. Resultantly, both developed and developing countries undergone through fast-paced development; in which developed countries implemented legislation towards environmental pollution control however developing countries took the advantage of technology without caring about the environment. In this study, meta-analysis is performed on production of particulate matter (i.e., PM10 and PM2.5) from urbanized cities of first, second and third world countries to assess the air quality. The cities were selected based on ranked set principles. In case of PM10, third world countries showed highest PM level (~95% confidence interval of 0.74-1.86) followed by second world countries but with managed situation. Besides, first, world countries indicated the lowest pollution (~95% confidence interval of 0.12-0.2). Similarly, highest level of PM2.5 was produced by third world countries followed by the second and first world countries. Hereby, level of PM2.5 was not significantly different for both second and third world countries; however, first world countries showed minimum PM load. Finally, the study revealed different that levels of pollution status exist among different countries; whereas developed countries also devised better strategies towards pollution control while developing countries are least caring about their environmental resources. It is suggested that although industrialization and urbanization are directly involved with interference in natural elements, however, production of nature appears to be more societal rather hermetical.

Keywords: developing countries, Particulate Matter, Meta-analysis, Urbanization

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29 The Effects of Supportive Care Interventions with Psychotherapeutic and Exercise Approaches on Depressive Symptoms Among Patients with Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Chia-Chen Hsieh, Fei-Hsiu Hsiao


Objective: To examine the effects of supportive care interventions on depressive symptoms in patients with lung cancer. Methods: The databases of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid EMBASE, PubMed, and Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS) were searched from their inception until September 2015. We included the studies with randomized controlled trial design that compared standard care with supportive care interventions using psychotherapeutic or exercises approach. The standardized mean differences (SMD) (Cohen’s d) were calculated to estimate the treatment effects. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used for quality assessment and subgroup analysis was conducted to identify possible sources of heterogeneity. Results: A total of 1472 patients with lung cancer were identified. Compared with standard care, the overall effects of all supportive care interventions significantly reduced depressive symptoms (SMD = -0.74 with 95% CI = -1.07 to -0.41), and the effect was maintained at the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks of follow-up. Either psychotherapy combined with psychoeducation or exercise alone produced significant improvements in depressive symptoms, while psychoeducation alone did not. The greater improvements in depressive symptoms occurred in lung cancer patients with severe depressive symptoms at baseline, total duration of interventions of less than ten weeks, and intervention provided through face-to-face delivery. Conclusions: Psychotherapy combined with psychoeducation can help patients manage the causes of depressive symptoms, including both symptom distress and psychological trauma due to lung cancer. Exercise can target the impaired respiratory function that is a cause of depressive symptoms in lung cancer patients.

Keywords: Lung cancer, Meta-analysis, supportive care intervention, depressive symptoms

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28 Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACS) Adherence and Bleeding Events in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Akshaya Srikanth Bahagavathula, Abdulla Shehab Sheab, Asim Hassen


Objectives: Non-adherence and discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy lead to increased ischemic stroke risk and contributes to suboptimal outcomes of the anticoagulant treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed to investigate the adherence to NOACs and adverse events in patients with AF. Methods: Original research articles conducted on patients with AF and using any NOACs (dabigatran, rivoraxaban and apixaban) reporting adherence for at least 35 days were included. Scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched using MeSH keywords to obtaining literature researched between 2008 to till June, 2016. Study characteristics, patient’s sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication adherence levels and bleeding events reported were recorded. Results: The overall sample size of the six studies is 1,640,157, with CHADS2 scores < 2 in 551 patients, CHADS2-VASc ≥ 2 in 62,232 AF patients. Three-forth [75.6% (95%CI= 66.5-84.8), p < 0.001] are adherent to NOACs. However, a higher rate [72.7% (62.5-82.9), p < 0.001] of adherence was observed with Dabigatran than Apixaban [59.9% (3.2-123.1), p=0.063] and Rivaroxaban [59.3% (38.7-80.0), p<0.001]. Sub-group analysis revealed that nearly 57% of the AF patients on NOACs have CHADS2 scores < 2 and 20% of these patients were non-adherent to NOACs. Overall bleeding events rate associated with NOACs non-adherent AF patients was found to be 7.5% (0.2-14.8), p=0.045. However, nearly 11.2% of AF patients experienced bleeding events were non-adherent to NOAC medications. A higher proportion of bleeding events were noticed with Dabigatran (14.7%). Conclusions: Adherence rates, while uniformly suboptimal, nevertheless varied considerably, lowest at 59.3% for rivaroxaban and 59.9% for apixaban, followed by dabigatran (75.6%). Overall bleeding events associated with NOACs rates were 7.5%. However, lower adherence to NOACs was associated with worse outcomes among patients with greater stroke risk.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, Atrial Fibrillation, bleeding events, novel oral anticoagulants

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27 A Meta-Analysis towards an Integrated Framework for Sustainable Urban Transportation within the Concept of Sustainable Cities

Authors: Hande Aladağ, Gökçe Aydın


The world’s population is increasing continuously and rapidly. Moreover, there are other problems such as the decline of natural energy resources, global warming, and environmental pollution. These facts have made sustainability an important and primary topic from future planning perspective. From this perspective, constituting sustainable cities and communities can be considered as one of the key issues in terms of sustainable development goals. The concept of sustainable cities can be evaluated under three headings such as green/sustainable buildings, self – contained cities and sustainable transportation. This study only concentrates on how to form and support a sustainable urban transportation system to contribute to the sustainable urbanization. Urban transportation system inevitably requires many engineering projects with various sizes. Engineering projects generally have four phases, in the following order: Planning, design, construction, operation. The order is valid but there are feedbacks from every phase to every phase in its upstream. In this regard, engineering projects are iterative processes. Sustainability is an integrated and comprehensive concept thus it should be among the primary concerns in every phase of transportation projects. In the study, a meta-analysis will be performed on the related studies in the literature. It is targeted and planned that, as a result of the findings of this meta-analysis, a framework for the list of principles and actions for sustainable transport will be formed. The meta-analysis will be performed to point out and clarify sustainability approaches in every phase of the related engineering projects, with also paying attention to the iterative nature of the process and relative contribution of the action for the outcomes of the sustainable transportation system. However, the analysis will not be limited to the engineering projects, non-engineering solutions will also be included in the meta-analysis. The most important contribution of this study is a determination of the outcomes of a sustainable urban transportation system in terms of energy efficiency, resource preservation and related social, environmental and economic factors. The study is also important because it will give light to the engineering and management approaches to achieve these outcomes.

Keywords: Sustainability, Urban Transportation, Sustainable Cities, Meta-analysis, Sustainable Urban Transportation

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26 The Effect of per Pupil Expenditure on Student Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis of Correlation Research

Authors: Ting Shen


Whether resource matters to school has been a topic of intense debate since 1960s. Educational researchers and policy makers have been particularly interested in knowing the return or payoff of Per-Pupil Expenditure (PPE) on improving students’ achievement. However, the evidence on the effect of PPE has been mixed and the size of the effect is also unknown. With regard to the methods, it is well-known that meta-analysis study is superior to individual study and it is also preferred to vote counting method in terms of scientifically weighting the evidence by the sample size. This meta-analysis study aims to provide a synthesized evidence on the correlation between PPE and student academic achievement using recent study data from 1990s to 2010s. Meta-analytical approach of fixed- and random-effects models will be utilized in addition to a meta regression with predictors of year, location, region and school type. A preliminary result indicates that by and large there is no statistically significant relationship between per pupil expenditure and student achievement, but location seems to have a mediating effect.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, per pupil expenditure, student academic achievement, multilevel model

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25 Compliance of Systematic Reviews in Ophthalmology with the PRISMA Statement

Authors: Seon-Young Lee, Katharine Whitehurst, Harkiran Sagoo, Riaz Agha, Reem Farwana, Alex Fowler


Background/Aims: Systematic reviews and meta-analysis are becoming increasingly important way of summarizing research evidence. Researches in ophthalmology may represent further challenges, due to their potential complexity in study design. The aim of our study was to determine the reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analysis in ophthalmology with the PRISMA statement, by assessing the articles published between 2010 and 2015 from five major journals with the highest impact factor. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were used to search systematic reviews published between January 2010 and December 2015, in 5 major ophthalmology journals: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Ophthalmology, Archives of Ophthalmology, American Journal of Ophthalmology, Journal of the American Optometric Association. Screening, identification, and scoring of articles were performed independently by two teams, followed by statistical analysis including the median, range, and 95% CIs. Results: 115 articles were involved. The median PRISMA score was 15 of 27 items (56%), with a range of 5-26 (19-96%) and 95% CI 13.9-16.1 (51-60%). Compliance was highest in items related to the description of rationale (item 3,100%) and inclusion of a structured summary in the abstract (item 2, 90%), while poorest in indication of review protocol and registration (item 5, 9%), specification of risk of bias affecting the cumulative evidence (item 15, 24%) and description of clear objectives in introduction (item 4, 26%). Conclusion: The reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analysis in ophthalmology need significant improvement. While the use of PRISMA criteria as a guideline before journal submission is recommended, additional research identifying potential barriers may be required to improve the compliance to the PRISMA guidelines.

Keywords: Ophthalmology, Meta-analysis, Research Methodology, Systematic Reviews, reporting quality, PRISMA

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24 Relationship among the Air Pollution and Atopic Dermatitis Using Meta-Analysis

Authors: Chaebong Kim, Yongmin Cho, Minkyung Han, Mooyoung Kim, KooSang Kim


Background: Air pollution from global warming has a considerable influence on respiratory disease and atopic dermatitis (AD). Present studies base on a hypothesis about correlation between air pollutant and AD, and the results are analyzed from various points of view. Objectives: This study aimed to integrate the relevant researches for air pollutant and AD, and to perform the systematic literature review and meta-analysis to provide the basis of air pollutant control. Methods: Research materials were collected from original articles published in English academic journals including medicine, nursing and health science from August 1 to 31, 2016. We collected the materials from Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central database with Prisma (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) based on the Cochrane Systematic Review Manual, and performed the evaluation and analysis for selected materials. We got the research results for risk of bias using Rev-Man ver. 5.2, and meta analyses using STATA. Results: The prevalence of infantile atopic dermatitis were 1.05 times higher than other groups who were exposed to air pollution, and exposure to NO2 (1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.14), O3 (1.09, 95% CI: 1.04 – 1.15), SO2 (1.07, 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.12) in subgroup air pollutant was considerably associated with infantile atopic dermatitis. The prevalence of infantile atopic dermatitis was 1.03 times higher than other groups who were exposed to PM2.5, but the results were not statistically similar. Conclusion: Health effect from environmental pollution risen people’s interest in environmental diseases. Air pollutant was associated with AD in this study, but selected literature was based on non-RCT (Randomized Controlled Trial) study. Therefore, there was a limit in study method including control, matching, and correction of confounding variables. For clear conclusion, it is necessary to develop the appropriate tool for object of study and clear standard to measure of air pollutant.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Atopic dermatitis, Children, Meta-analysis

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23 Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employees Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Tenure

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek


This research examines the effects of positive psychological capital (or PsyCap) on employee’s outcomes (satisfaction, commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, innovation behavior and individual creativity). This study conducted a meta-analysis of articles published in the Republic of Korea. As a result, positive psychological capital has a positive effect on the behavior of employees. Heterogeneity was identified among the studies included in the analysis and the context factors were analyzed; the study proposes contextual factors such as team tenure. The moderating effect of team tenure was not statistically significant. The implications were discussed based on the analysis results.

Keywords: Creativity, Meta-analysis, satisfaction, commitment, OCB, positive psychological capital

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22 Endothelial Dysfunction in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: An Updated Meta-Analysis

Authors: Anit S. Malhotra, Ajay Duseja, Neelam Chadha


Endothelial dysfunction is a precursor to atherosclerosis, and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in the brachial artery is the commonest method to evaluate endothelial function in humans. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver disorders encountered in clinical practice. An earlier meta-analysis had quantitatively assessed the degree of endothelial dysfunction using FMD. However, the largest study investigating the relation of FMD with NAFLD was published after that meta-analysis. In addition, that meta-analysis did not include some studies, including one from our centre. Therefore, an updating the previous meta-analysis was considered important. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, SCI, Google Scholar, conference proceedings, and references of included studies till June 2017 to identify observational studies evaluating endothelial function using FMD in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Data was analyzed using MedCalc. Fourteen studies were found eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Patients with NAFLD had lower brachial artery FMD as compared to controls, standardized mean difference (random effects model) being –1.279%; 95% confidence interval (CI), –1.478 to –0.914. The effect size became smaller after addition of the recent study with the largest sample size was included compared with the earlier meta-analysis. In conclusion, patients with NAFLD had low FMD values indicating that they are at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease although our results suggest the effect size is not as large as reported previously.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, endothelial dysfunction, flow-mediated dilatation

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21 Efficacy and Safety of Probiotic Treatment in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Neelam Chadha, Samir Malhotra, Rajan K. Khandotra, Rakesh K. Dhiman


There is paucity of data about safety and efficacy of probiotic treatment on patient outcomes in cirrhosis. Specifically, it is important to know whether probiotics can improve mortality, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), number of hospitalizations, ammonia levels, quality of life, and adverse events. Probiotics may improve outcomes in patients with acute or chronic HE. However, it is also important to know whether probiotics can prevent development of HE, even in situations where patients do not have acute HE at the time of administration. It is also important to know if probiotics are useful as primary prophylaxis of HE. We aimed to conduct an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of probiotics in patients with cirrhosis. We searched PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, Scopus, SCI, Google Scholar, conference proceedings, and references of included studies till June 2017 to identify randomised clinical trials comparing probiotics with other treatments in cirrhotics. Data was analyzed using MedCalc. Probiotics had no effect on mortality but significantly reduced HE (14 trials, 1073 patients, OR 0.371; 95% CI 0.282 to 0.489). There was not enough data to conduct a meta-analysis on outcomes like hospitalizations and quality of life. The effect on plasma ammonia levels was not significant (SMD -0.429; 95%CI -1.034 – 0.177). There was no difference in adverse events. To conclude, although the included studies had a high risk of bias, the available evidence does suggest a beneficial effect on HE. Larger studies with longer periods of follow-up are needed to determine if probiotics can reduce all-cause mortality.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, Cirrhosis, Hepatic Encephalopathy, probiotic

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20 Comparing Perceived Restorativeness in Natural and Urban Environment: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Elisa Menardo, Margherita Pasini, Margherita Brondino


A growing body of empirical research from different areas of inquiry suggests that brief contact with natural environment restore mental resources. The Attention Restoration Theory (ART) is the widespread used and empirical founded theory developed to explain why exposure to nature helps people to recovery cognitive resources. It assumes that contact with nature allows people to free (and then recovery) voluntary attention resources and thus allows them to recover from a cognitive fatigue situation. However, it was suggested that some people could have more cognitive benefit after exposure to urban environment. The objective of this study is to report the results of a meta-analysis on studies (peer-reviewed articles) comparing the restorativeness (the quality to be restorative) perceived in natural environments than those perceived in urban environments. This meta-analysis intended to estimate how much nature environments (forests, parks, boulevards) are perceived to be more restorativeness than urban ones (i.e., the magnitude of the perceived restorativeness’ difference). Moreover, given the methodological difference between study, it studied the potential role of moderator variables as participants (student or other), instrument used (Perceived Restorativeness Scale or other), and procedure (in laboratory or in situ). PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Scopus, SpringerLINK, Web of Science online database were used to identify all peer-review articles on restorativeness published to date (k = 167). Reference sections of obtained papers were examined for additional studies. Only 22 independent studies (with a total of 1371 participants) met inclusion criteria (direct exposure to environment, comparison between one outdoor environment with natural element and one without natural element, and restorativeness measured by self-report scale) and were included in meta-analysis. To estimate the average effect size, a random effect model (Restricted Maximum-likelihood estimator) was used because the studies included in the meta-analysis were conducted independently and using different methods in different populations, so no common effect-size was expected. The presence of publication bias was checked using trim and fill approach. Univariate moderator analysis (mixed effect model) were run to determine whether the variable coded moderated the perceived restorativeness difference. Results show that natural environments are perceived to be more restorativeness than urban environments, confirming from an empirical point of view what is now considered a knowledge gained in environmental psychology. The relevant information emerging from this study is the magnitude of the estimated average effect size, which is particularly high (d = 1.99) compared to those that are commonly observed in psychology. Significant heterogeneity between study was found (Q(19) = 503.16, p < 0.001;) and studies’ variability was very high (I2[C.I.] = 96.97% [94.61 - 98.62]). Subsequent univariate moderator analyses were not significant. Methodological difference (participants, instrument, and procedure) did not explain variability between study. Other methodological difference (e.g., research design, environment’s characteristics, light’s condition) could explain this variability between study. In the mine while, studies’ variability could be not due to methodological difference but to individual difference (age, gender, education level) and characteristics (connection to nature, environmental attitude). Furthers moderator analysis are working in progress.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, Urban Environments, Natural Environments, perceived restorativeness

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19 Aquatic Therapy Improving Balance Function of Individuals with Stroke: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

Authors: Wei-Po Wu, Wen-Yu Liu, Wei−Ting Lin, Hen-Yu Lien


Introduction: Improving balance function for individuals after stroke is a crucial target in physiotherapy. Aquatic therapy which challenges individual’s postural control in an unstable fluid environment may be beneficial in enhancing balance functions. The purposes of the systematic review with meta-analyses were to validate the effects of aquatic therapy in improving balance functions for individuals with strokes in contrast to conventional physiotherapy. Method: Available studies were explored from three electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. During literature search, the published date of studies was not limited. The study design of the included studies should be randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the studies should contain at least one outcome measurement of balance function. The PEDro scale was adopted to assess the quality of included studies, while the 'Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence' was used to evaluate the level of evidence. After the data extraction, studies with same outcome measures were pooled together for meta-analysis. Result: Ten studies with 282 participants were included in analyses. The research qualities of the studies were ranged from fair to good (4 to 8 points). Levels of evidence of the included studies were graded as level 2 and 3. Finally, scores of Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Eye closed force plate center of pressure velocity (anterior-posterior, medial-lateral axis) and Timed up and Go test were pooled and analyzed separately. The pooled results shown improvement in balance function (BBS mean difference (MD): 1.39 points; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-2.29; p=0.002) (Eye closed force plate center of pressure velocity (anterior-posterior axis) MD: 1.39 mm/s; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-1.86; p<0.001) (Eye closed force plate center of pressure velocity (medial-lateral) MD: 1.48 mm/s; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15-2.82; p=0.03) and mobility (MD: 0.9 seconds; 95% CI: 0.07-1.73; p=0.03) of stroke individuals after aquatic therapy compared to conventional therapy. Although there were significant differences between two treatment groups, the differences in improvement were relatively small. Conclusion: The aquatic therapy improved general balance function and mobility in the individuals with stroke better than conventional physiotherapy.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, Stroke, systematic review, aquatic therapy, balance function

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18 Treating Voxels as Words: Word-to-Vector Methods for fMRI Meta-Analyses

Authors: Matthew Baucum


With the increasing popularity of fMRI as an experimental method, psychology and neuroscience can greatly benefit from advanced techniques for summarizing and synthesizing large amounts of data from brain imaging studies. One promising avenue is automated meta-analyses, in which natural language processing methods are used to identify the brain regions consistently associated with certain semantic concepts (e.g. “social”, “reward’) across large corpora of studies. This study builds on this approach by demonstrating how, in fMRI meta-analyses, individual voxels can be treated as vectors in a semantic space and evaluated for their “proximity” to terms of interest. In this technique, a low-dimensional semantic space is built from brain imaging study texts, allowing words in each text to be represented as vectors (where words that frequently appear together are near each other in the semantic space). Consequently, each voxel in a brain mask can be represented as a normalized vector sum of all of the words in the studies that showed activation in that voxel. The entire brain mask can then be visualized in terms of each voxel’s proximity to a given term of interest (e.g., “vision”, “decision making”) or collection of terms (e.g., “theory of mind”, “social”, “agent”), as measured by the cosine similarity between the voxel’s vector and the term vector (or the average of multiple term vectors). Analysis can also proceed in the opposite direction, allowing word cloud visualizations of the nearest semantic neighbors for a given brain region. This approach allows for continuous, fine-grained metrics of voxel-term associations, and relies on state-of-the-art “open vocabulary” methods that go beyond mere word-counts. An analysis of over 11,000 neuroimaging studies from an existing meta-analytic fMRI database demonstrates that this technique can be used to recover known neural bases for multiple psychological functions, suggesting this method’s utility for efficient, high-level meta-analyses of localized brain function. While automated text analytic methods are no replacement for deliberate, manual meta-analyses, they seem to show promise for the efficient aggregation of large bodies of scientific knowledge, at least on a relatively general level.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Meta-analysis, fmri, Text Analysis

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17 The Effect of Computer-Mediated vs. Face-to-Face Instruction on L2 Pragmatics: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Marziyeh Yousefi, Hossein Nassaji


This paper reports the results of a meta-analysis of studies on the effects of instruction mode on learning second language pragmatics during the last decade (from 2006 to 2016). After establishing related inclusion/ exclusion criteria, 39 published studies were retrieved and included in the present meta-analysis. Studies were later coded for face-to-face and computer-assisted mode of instruction. Statistical procedures were applied to obtain effect sizes. It was found that Computer-Assisted-Language-Learning studies generated larger effects than Face-to-Face instruction.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, Computer-assisted language learning, effect size, face-to-face, L2 pragmatics, comprehensive meta-analysis

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16 HLA-DPB1 Matching on the Outcome of Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Authors: Shan Zhou, Shi-xia Xu, Zai-wen Zhang, Ru-xue Chen, Xiang-feng Tang


Objective: The clinical influence of HLA-DPB1 mismatches on clinical outcome of HSCT is less clear. This is the first meta-analysis to study the HLA-DPB1 matching statues on clinical outcomes after unrelated donor HSCT. Methods: We searched the CIBMTR, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and related databases (1995.01–2017.06) for all relevant articles. Comparative studies were used to investigate the HLA-DPB1 loci mismatches on clinical outcomes after unrelated donor HSCT, such as the disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival, GVHD, relapse, and transplant-related mortality (TRM). We performed meta-analysis using Review Manager 5.2 software and funnel plot to assess the bias. Results: At first, 1246 articles were retrieved, and 18 studies totaling 26368 patients analyzed. Pooled comparisons of studies found that the HLA-DPB1 mismatched group had a lower rate of DFS than the DPB1-matched group, and lower OS in non-T cell depleted transplantation. The DPB1 mismatched group has a higher incidence of aGVHD and more severe ( ≥ III degree) aGvHD, lower rate of relapse and higher TRM. Moreover, compared with 1-antigen mismatch, 2-antigen mismatched led to a higher risk of TRM and lower relapse rate. Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicated HLA-DPB1 has important influence on survival and transplant-related complications during unrelated donor HSCT and HLA-DPB1 donor selection strategies have been proposed based on a personalized algorithm.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, outcome, transplant, human leukocyte antigen, DPB1

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15 Rumination in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Review

Authors: Mara J. Richman, Zsolt Unoka, Robert Dudas, Zsolt Demetrovics


Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by deficits in emotion regulation and effective liability. Of this domain, ruminative behaviors have been considered a core feature of emotion dysregulation difficulties. Taking this into consideration, a meta-analysis was performed to assess how BPD symptoms correlate with rumination, while also considering clinical moderator variables such as comorbidity, GAF score, and type of BPD symptom and demographic moderator variables such as age, gender, and education level. Analysis of correlation across rumination domains for the entire sample revealed a medium overall correlation. When assessing types of rumination, the largest correlation was among pain rumination followed by anger, depressive, and anxious rumination. Furthermore, affective instability had the strongest correlation with increased rumination, followed by unstable relationships, identity disturbance, and self-harm/ impulsivity, respectively. Demographic variables showed no significance. Clinical implications are considered and further therapeutic interventions are discussed in the context of rumination.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, symptoms, borderline personality disorder, rumination

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14 Efficacy of Celecoxib Adjunct Treatment on Bipolar Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Daniela V. Bavaresco, Tamy Colonetti, Antonio Jose Grande, Francesc Colom, Joao Quevedo, Samira S. Valvassori, Maria Ines da Rosa


Objective: Performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluated the potential effect of the cyclo-oxygenases (Cox)-2 inhibitor Celecoxib adjunct treatment in Bipolar Disorder (BD), through of randomized controlled trials. Method: A search of the electronic databases was proceeded, on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Biomed Central, Web of Science, IBECS, LILACS, PsycINFO (American Psychological Association), Congress Abstracts, and Grey literature (Google Scholar and the British Library) for studies published from January 1990 to February 2018. A search strategy was developed using the terms: 'Bipolar disorder' or 'Bipolar mania' or 'Bipolar depression' or 'Bipolar mixed' or 'Bipolar euthymic' and 'Celecoxib' or 'Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors' or 'Cox-2 inhibitors' as text words and Medical Subject Headings (i.e., MeSH and EMTREE) and searched. The therapeutic effects of adjunctive treatment with Celecoxib were analyzed, it was possible to carry out a meta-analysis of three studies included in the systematic review. The meta-analysis was performed including the final results of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) at the end of randomized controlled trials (RCT). Results: Three primary studies were included in the systematic review, with a total of 121 patients. The meta-analysis had significant effect in the YMRS scores from patients with BD who used Celecoxib adjuvant treatment in comparison to placebo. The weighted mean difference was 5.54 (95%CI=3.26-7.82); p < 0.001; I2 =0%). Conclusion: The systematic review suggests that adjuvant treatment with Celecoxib improves the response of major treatments in patients with BD when compared with adjuvant placebo treatment.

Keywords: Bipolar Disorder, Meta-analysis, celecoxib, systematic review, Cox-2 inhibitors

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13 Effect of Innovation and Its Determinants on the Performance of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Authors: Younes Boujelbene, Rihab Hentati


Nowadays we realize more and more than the value of a company is not only a function of its means of production but depends essentially on the managerial aptitude and orientation to implement the material and human means for generating profitability. Indeed, a productive R&D activity, a good strategy, and innovation are originally supplementary benefits that increase the value of the business. Is this ‘value-added’ closely linked to innovation? The purpose of our research is to Meta-analyze the results of 56 empirical studies in order to explain the overall effect of innovation on performance of small and medium-sized enterprises. In order to justify the differences in the results, we look for the moderating factors that may affect the innovation-performance relationship. We find a positive and significant relationship between innovation and performance in small and medium-sized enterprises. The results also note a positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation, research and development (R&D), and performance in SMEs. In addition, innovation has a strong impact on performance measured both with accounting and market index. The originality of the article is based on a rigorous synthesis, based on several statistical tools, of an important subject of research in finance.

Keywords: Innovation, Performance, Meta-analysis, entrepreneurial orientation, moderator variables

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12 The Therapeutic Effects of Acupuncture on Oral Dryness and Antibody Modification in Sjogren Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Tzu-Hao Li, Yen-Ying Kung, Chang-Youh Tsai


Oral dryness is a common chief complaint among patients with Sjőgren syndrome (SS), which is a disorder currently known as autoantibodies production; however, to author’s best knowledge, there has been no satisfying pharmacy to relieve the associated symptoms. Hence the effectiveness of other non-pharmacological interventions such as acupuncture should be accessed. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) which evaluated the effectiveness of xerostomia in SS. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Chongqing Weipu Database (CQVIP), China Academic Journals Full-text Database, AiritiLibrary, Chinese Electronic Periodicals Service (CEPS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database were searches through May 12, 2018 to select studies. Data for evaluation of subjective and objective xerostomia was extracted and was assessed with random-effects meta-analysis. After searching, a total of 541 references were yielded and five RCTs were included, covering 340 patients dry mouth resulted from SS, among whom 169 patients received acupuncture and 171 patients were control group. Acupuncture group was associated with higher subjective response rate (odds ratio 3.036, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.828 – 5.042, P < 0.001) and increased salivary flow rate (weighted mean difference [WMD] 3.066, 95% CI 2.969 – 3.164, P < 0.001), as an objective marker. In addition, two studies examined IgG levels, which were lower in the acupuncture group (WMD -166.857, 95% CI -233.138 - -100.576, P < 0.001). Therefore, in the present meta-analysis, acupuncture improves both subjective and objective markers of dry mouth with autoantibodies reduction in patients with SS and is considered as an option of non-pharmacological treatment for SS.

Keywords: Meta-analysis, Acupuncture, xerostomia, Sjogren syndrome

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