Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

mesenchymal stem cells Related Abstracts

26 Effect of Nicorandil, Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Combination in Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure in Rats

Authors: Sarah Elsayed Mohammed, Lamiaa Ahmed Ahmed, Mahmoud Mohammed Khattab


Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether combined nicorandil and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSC) treatment could offer an additional benefit in ameliorating isoproterenol (ISO)-induced heart failure in rats. Methods: ISO (85 and 170 mg/kg/day) was injected subcutaneously for 2 successive days, respectively. By day 3, electrocardiographic changes were recorded and serum was separated for determination of CK-MB level for confirmation of myocardial damage. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day) was then given orally with or without a single i.v. BMDMSC administration. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were recorded 2 weeks after beginning of treatment. Rats were then sacrificed and ventricles were isolated for estimation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) contents, caspase-3 activity as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and connexin-43 protein expressions. Moreover, histological analysis of myocardial fibrosis was performed and cryosections were done for estimation of homing of BMDMSC. Results: ISO induced a significant increase in ventricles/body weight ratio, left ventricular end diastolic (LVEDD) and systolic dimensions (LVESD), ST segment and QRS duration. Moreover, myocardial fibrosis as well as VEGF, TNF-α and TGF-β contents were significantly increased. On the other hand, connexin-43 protein expression was significantly decreased, while caspase-3 and iNOS protein expressions were significantly increased. Combined therapy provided additional improvement compared to cell treatment alone towards reducing cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation. Furthermore, combined therapy induced significant increase in angiogenesis and BMDMSC homing and prevented ISO induced changes in iNOS, connexin-43 and caspase-3 protein expressions. Conclusion: Combined nicorandil/BMDMSC treatment was superior to BMDMSC alone towards preventing ISO-induced heart failure in rats.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, Fibrosis, isoproterenol, nicorandil

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25 A Prospective Study on the Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

Authors: A. Sivakumar, Manoj Deepak, Prabhu Thangaraju


Removal of inter vertebral disc along with spinal fusion has many disadvantages such as causing stress fractures. If it is possible regenerate the spine it would be possible avoid the complications of the surgery and achieve better results. Our study involves the use of mesenchymal stem cells in regenerating the discs. Our study involved 10 patients who presented with degenerative disc disease between 2008-2011 in our hospital. After adequate pre-operative check prepared mesenchymal stem cells were injected into the disc spaces. These patients were subjected to conservative therapy for a minimum of six weeks before they were accepted into the study. They were followed up regularly for a minimum of 2years with serial radiographs and MRI. 8 out of the 10 patients had completed reduction in the pain. The T2 weighted MRI images in 9 out of the 10 patients showed a bright signal compared the previous Images which indicated that there was improvement in the hydration levels. From the case study of 10 patients who were subjected to mesenchymal cell therapy in our hospital, we can conclude that the use of mesenchymal cells in treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration in a safe and effective option.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, Disc Degeneration, intervertebral disc, the spine

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24 Angiogenic, Cytoprotective, and Immunosuppressive Properties of Human Amnion and Chorion-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Kenichi Yamahara, Makiko Ohshima, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Hidetoshi Tsuda, Akihiko Taguchi, Toshihiro Soma, Hiroyasu Ogawa, Jun Yoshimatsu, Tomoaki Ikeda


We have previously reported the therapeutic potential of rat fetal membrane(FM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using various rat models including hindlimb ischemia, autoimmune myocarditis, glomerulonephritis, renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, and myocardial infarction. In this study, 1) we isolated and characterized MSCs from human amnion and chorion; 2) we examined their differences in the expression profile of growth factors and cytokines; and 3) we investigated the therapeutic potential and difference of these MSCs using murine hindlimb ischemia and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) models. Isolated MSCs from both amnion and chorion layers of FM showed similar morphological appearance, multipotency, and cell-surface antigen expression. Conditioned media obtained from amnion- and chorion-derived MSCs inhibited cell death caused by serum starvation or hypoxia in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Amnion and chorion MSCs secreted significant amounts of angiogenic factors including HGF, IGF-1, VEGF, and bFGF, although differences in the cellular expression profile of these soluble factors were observed. Transplantation of human amnion or chorion MSCs significantly increased blood flow and capillary density in a murine hindlimb ischemia model. In addition, compared to human chorion MSCs, human amnion MSCs markedly reduced T-lymphocyte proliferation with the enhanced secretion of PGE2, and improved the pathological situation of a mouse model of GVHD disease. Our results highlight that human amnionand chorion-derived MSCs, which showed differences in their soluble factor secretion and angiogenic/immuno-suppressive function, could be ideal cell sources for regenerative medicine.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, amnion, chorion, fetal membrane

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23 Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase and Regulatory T Cells in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Authors: Iman M. Mansour, Rania A. Zayed, Fadwa S. Abdel-Azim, Lamyaa H. Abdel-Latif


Background and Objectives: The microenvironment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is suppressive for immune cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been recognized to play a role in helping leukemic cells to evade immunesurveillance. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are essential contributors in immunomodulation of the microenvironment as they can promote differentiation of Tregs via the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) pathway. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the expression of IDO in bone marrow derived MSCs and to study its correlation to percentage of Tregs. Methods: 37 adult bone marrow samples were cultured in appropriate culture medium to isolate MSCs. Successful harvest of MSCs was determined by plastic adherence, morphology and positive expression of CD271 and CD105; negative expression of CD34 and CD45 using flowcytometry. MSCs were examined for IDO expression by immunocytochemistry using anti-IDO monoclonal antibody. CD4+ CD25+ cells (Tregs) were measured in bone marrow samples by flowcytometry. Results: MSCs were successfully isolated from 20 of the 37 bone marrow samples cultured. MSCs showed higher expression of IDO and Tregs percentage was higher in AML patients compared to control subjects (p=0.002 and p<0.001 respectively). A positive correlation was found between IDO expression and Tregs percentage (p value=0.012, r=0.5). Conclusion: In this study, we revealed an association between high IDO expression in MSCs and elevated levels of Tregs which has an important role in the pathogenesis of AML, providing immunosuppressive microenvironment.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, acute myeloid leukemia, indoleamine 2, T regulatory cells

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22 Comparative Stem Cells Therapy for Regeneration of Liver Fibrosis

Authors: H. M. Imam, H. M. Rezk, A. F. Tohamy


Background: Human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) is considered as a unique source for stem cells. HUCB contain different types of progenitor cells which could differentiate into hepatocytes. Aims: To investigate the potential of rat's liver damage repair using human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs). We investigated the feasibility for hUCMSCs in recovery from liver damage. Moreover, investigating fibrotic liver repair and using the CCl4-induced model for liver damage in the rat. Methods: Rats were injected with 0.5 ml/kg CCl4 to induce liver damage and progressive liver fibrosis. hUCMSCs were injected into the rats through the tail vein; Stem cells were transplanted at a dose of 1×106 cells/rat after 72 hours of CCl4 injection without receiving any immunosuppressant. After (6 and 8 weeks) of transplantation, blood samples were collected to assess liver functions (ALT, AST, GGT and ALB) and level of Procollagen III as a liver fibrosis marker. In addition, hepatic tissue regeneration was assessed histopathologically and immunohistochemically using antihuman monoclonal antibodies against CD34, CK19 and albumin. Results: Biochemical and histopathological analysis showed significantly increased recovery from liver damage in the transplanted group. In addition, HUCB stem cells transdifferentiated into functional hepatocytes in rats with hepatic injury which results in improving liver structure and function. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that transplantation of hUCMSCs may be a novel therapeutic approach for treating liver fibrosis. Therefore, hUCMSCs are a potential option for treatment of liver cirrhosis.

Keywords: Liver Fibrosis, mesenchymal stem cells, rat, carbon tetra chloride

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21 Isolation, Characterization and Myogenic Differentiation of Synovial Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Fatma Y. Meligy


Objectives: The objectives of this study aimed to isolate and characterize mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from synovial membrane. Then to assess the potentiality of myogenic differentiation of these isolated MSCs. Methods: The MSCs were isolated from synovial membrane by digestion method. Three adult rats were used. The 5 -azacytidine was added to the cultured cells for one day. The isolated cells and treated cells are assessed using immunoflouresence, flowcytometry, PCR and real time PCR. Results: The isolated stem cells showed morphological aspect of stem cells they showed strong positivity to CD44 and CD90 in immunoflouresence while in CD34 and CD45 showed negative reaction. The treated cells with 5-azacytidine was shown to have positive reaction for desmin. Flowcytometric analysis showed that synovial MSCs had strong positive percentage for CD44(%98)and CD90 (%97) and low percentage for CD34 & CD45 while the treated cells showed positive percentage for myogenic marker myogenin (85%). As regard the PCR and Real time PCR, the treated cells showed positive reaction to the desmin primer. Conclusion: The adult MSCs were isolated successfully from synovial membrane and characterized with stem cell markers. The isolated cells could be differentiated in vitro into myogenic cells. These differentiated cells could be used in auto-replacement of diseased or traumatized muscle cells as a regenerative therapy for muscle disorders and trauma.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, synovial membrane, myogenic differentiation

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20 Synergistic Effect of Chondroinductive Growth Factors and Synovium-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Regeneration of Cartilage Defects in Rabbits

Authors: M. Karzhauov, А. Mukhambetova, M. Sarsenova, E. Raimagambetov, V. Ogay


Regeneration of injured articular cartilage remains one of the most difficult and unsolved problems in traumatology and orthopedics. Currently, for the treatment of cartilage defects surgical techniques for stimulation of the regeneration of cartilage in damaged joints such as multiple microperforation, mosaic chondroplasty, abrasion and microfractures is used. However, as shown by clinical practice, they can not provide a full and sustainable recovery of articular hyaline cartilage. In this regard, the current high hopes in the regeneration of cartilage defects reasonably are associated with the use of tissue engineering approaches to restore the structural and functional characteristics of damaged joints using stem cells, growth factors and biopolymers or scaffolds. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of chondroinductive growth factors and synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SD-MSCs) on the regeneration of cartilage defects in rabbits. SD-MSCs were isolated from the synovium membrane of Flemish giant rabbits, and expanded in complete culture medium α-MEM. Rabbit SD-MSCs were characterized by CFU-assay and by their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. The effects of growth factors (TGF-β1, BMP-2, BMP-4 and IGF-I) on MSC chondrogenesis were examined in micromass pellet cultures using histological and biochemical analysis. Articular cartilage defect (4mm in diameter) in the intercondylar groove of the patellofemoral joint was performed with a kit for the mosaic chondroplasty. The defect was made until subchondral bone plate. Delivery of SD-MSCs and growth factors was conducted in combination with hyaloronic acid (HA). SD-MSCs, growth factors and control groups were compared macroscopically and histologically at 10, 30, 60 and 90 days aftrer intra-articular injection. Our in vitro comparative study revealed that TGF-β1 and BMP-4 are key chondroinductive factors for both the growth and chondrogenesis of SD-MSCs. The highest effect on MSC chondrogenesis was observed with the synergistic interaction of TGF-β1 and BMP-4. In addition, biochemical analysis of the chondrogenic micromass pellets also revealed that the levels of glycosaminoglycans and DNA after combined treatment with TGF-β1 and BMP-4 was significantly higher in comparison to individual application of these factors. In vivo study showed that for complete regeneration of cartilage defects with intra-articular injection of SD-MSCs with HA takes time 90 days. However, single injection of SD-MSCs in combiantion with TGF-β1, BMP-4 and HA significantly promoted regeneration rate of the cartilage defects in rabbits. In this case, complete regeneration of cartilage defects was observed in 30 days after intra-articular injection. Thus, our in vitro and in vivo study demonstrated that combined application of rabbit SD-MSC with chondroinductive growth factors and HA results in strong synergistic effect on the chondrogenesis significantly enhancing regeneration of the damaged cartilage.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, IGF-I, synovium, chondroinductive factors, TGF-β1, BMP-2, BMP-4

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19 Superiority of Bone Marrow Derived-Osteoblastic Cells (ALLOB®) over Bone Marrow Derived-Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Sandra Pietri, Helene Dubout, Sabrina Ena, Candice Hoste, Enrico Bastianelli


Bone Therapeutics is a bone cell therapy company addressing high unmet medical needs in the field of bone fracture repair, more specifically in non-union and delayed-union fractures where the bone repair process is impaired. The company has developed a unique allogeneic osteoblastic cell product (ALLOB®) derived from bone marrow which is currently tested in humans in the indication of delayed-union fractures. The purpose of our study was to directly compare ALLOB® vs. non-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for their in vitro osteogenic characteristics and their in vivo osteogenic potential in order to determine which cellular type would be the most adapted for bone fracture repair. Methods: Healthy volunteers’ bone marrow aspirates (n=6) were expended (i) into BM-MSCs using a complete MSC culture medium or (ii) into ALLOB® cells according to its manufacturing process. Cells were characterized in vitro by morphology, immunophenotype, gene expression and differentiation potential. Additionally, their osteogenic potential was assessed in vivo in the subperiosteal calvaria bone formation model in nude mice. Results: The in vitro side-by-side comparison studies showed that although ALLOB® and BM-MSC shared some common general characteristics such as the 3 minimal MSC criteria, ALLOB® expressed significantly higher levels of chondro/osteoblastic genes such as BMP2 (fold change (FC) > 100), ALPL (FC > 12), CBFA1 (FC > 3) and differentiated significantly earlier than BM-MSC toward the osteogenic lineage. Moreover the bone formation model in nude mice demonstrated that used at the same cellular concentration, ALLOB® was able to induce significantly more (160% vs.107% for control animals) bone formation than BM-MSC (118% vs. 107 % for control animals) two weeks after administration. Conclusion: Our side-by-side comparison studies demonstrated that in vitro and in vivo, ALLOB® displays superior osteogenic capacity to BM-MScs and is therefore a better candidate for the treatment of bone fractures.

Keywords: Gene expression, mesenchymal stem cells, histomorphometry, osteogenic differentiation potential, preclinical

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18 Properties of Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Long-Term Cryopreservation

Authors: Jienny Lee, In-Soo Cho, Sang-Ho Cha


Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated using preclinical approaches for tissue regeneration. Porcine MSCs (pMSCs) are capable of growing and attaching to plastic with a fibroblast-like morphology and then differentiating into bone, adipose, and cartilage tissues in vitro. This study was conducted to investigate the proliferating abilities, differentiation potentials, and multipotency of miniature pig adipose tissue-derived MSCs (mpAD-MSCs) with or without long-term cryopreservation, considering that cryostorage has the potential for use in clinical applications. After confirming the characteristics of the mpAD-MSCs, we examined the effect of long-term cryopreservation (> 2 years) on expression of cell surface markers (CD34, CD90 and CD105), proliferating abilities (cumulative population doubling level, doubling time, colony-forming unit, and MTT assay) and differentiation potentials into mesodermal cell lineages. As a result, the expression of cell surface markers is similar between thawed and fresh mpAD-MSCs. However, long-term cryopreservation significantly lowered the differentiation potentials (adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic) of mpAD-MSCs. When compared with fresh mpAD-MSCs, thawed mpAD-MSCs exhibited lower expression of mesodermal cell lineage-related genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g2, lipoprotein lipase, collagen Type II alpha 1, osteonectin, and osteocalcin. Interestingly, long-term cryostoraged mpAD-MSCs exhibited significantly higher cell viability than the fresh mpAD-MSCs. Long-term cryopreservation induced a 30% increase in the cell viability of mpAD-MSCs when compared with the fresh mpAD-MSCs at 5 days after thawing. However, long-term cryopreservation significantly lowered expression of stemness markers such as Oct3/4, Sox2, and Nanog. Furthermore, long-term cryopreservation negatively affected expression of senescence-associated genes such as telomerase reverse transcriptase and heat shock protein 90 of mpAD-MSCs when compared with the fresh mpAD-MSCs. The results from this study might be important for the successful application of MSCs in clinical trials after long-term cryopreservation.

Keywords: Cryopreservation, mesenchymal stem cells, senescence, stemness

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17 Growth and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V and Novel Beta Titanium Alloy Ti36Nb6Ta

Authors: Eva Filová, Jana Daňková, Věra Sovková, Matej Daniel


Titanium alloys are biocompatible metals that are widely used in clinical practice as load bearing implants. The chemical modification may influence cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation as well as stiffness of the material. The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion, growth and differentiation of pig mesenchymal stem cells on the novel beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta compared to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. Discs of Ti36Nb6Ta and Ti6Al4V alloy were sterilized by ethanol, put in 48-well plates, and seeded by pig mesenchymal stem cells at the density of 60×103/cm2 and cultured in Minimum essential medium (Sigma) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and penicillin/streptomycin. Cell viability was evaluated using MTS assay (CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay;Promega), cell proliferation using Quant-iT™ ds DNA Assay Kit (Life Technologies). Cells were stained immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibody beta-actin, and secondary antibody conjugated with AlexaFluor®488 and subsequently the spread area of cells was measured. Cell differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase assay using p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) as a substrate; the reaction was stopped by NaOH, and the absorbance was measured at 405 nm. Osteocalcin, specific bone marker was stained immunohistochemically and subsequently visualized using confocal microscopy; the fluorescence intensity was analyzed and quantified. Moreover, gene expression of osteogenic markers osteocalcin and type I collagen was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). For statistical evaluation, One-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls Method was used. For qRT-PCR, the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis Test and Dunn's Multiple Comparison Test were used. The absorbance in MTS assay was significantly higher on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V compared to beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta on days 7 and 14. Mesenchymal stem cells were well spread on both alloys, but no difference in spread area was found. No differences in alkaline phosphatase assay, fluorescence intensity of osteocalcin as well as the expression of type I collagen, and osteocalcin genes were observed. Higher expression of type I collagen compared to osteocalcin was observed for cells on both alloys. Both beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V Ti36Nb6Ta supported mesenchymal stem cellsˈ adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Novel beta titanium alloys Ti36Nb6Ta is a promising material for bone implantation. The project was supported by the Czech Science Foundation: grant No. 16-14758S, the Grant Agency of the Charles University, grant No. 1246314 and by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports NPU I: LO1309.

Keywords: Cell growth, implant, mesenchymal stem cells, titanium alloy, beta titanium

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16 Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Fibrin Assemblies with Growth Factors

Authors: Roman Matejka, Lucie Bacakova, Elena Filova, Ondrej Kaplan, Marie Markova, Helena Dragounova, Eduard Brynda


Decellularized vessels have been evaluated as small-diameter vascular prostheses. Reseeding autologous cells onto decellularized tissue prior implantation should prolong prostheses function and make them living tissues. Suitable cell types for reseeding are both endothelial cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells, with a capacity for differentiation into smooth muscle cells upon mechanical loading. Endothelial cells assure antithrombogenicity of the vessels and MSCs produce growth factors and, after their differentiation into smooth muscle cells, they are contractile and produce extracellular matrix proteins as well. Fibrin is a natural scaffold, which allows direct cell adhesion based on integrin receptors. It can be prepared autologous. Fibrin can be modified with bound growth factors, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These modifications in turn make the scaffold more attractive for cells ingrowth into the biological scaffold. The aim of the study was to prepare thin surface-attached fibrin assemblies with bound FGF-2 and VEGF, and to evaluate growth and differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on the fibrin (Fb) assemblies. Following thin surface-attached fibrin assemblies were prepared: Fb, Fb+VEGF, Fb+FGF2, Fb+heparin, Fb+heparin+VEGF, Fb+heparin+FGF2, Fb+heparin+FGF2+VEGF. Cell culture poly-styrene and glass coverslips were used as controls. Human MSCs (passage 3) were seeded at the density of 8800 cells/1.5 mL alpha-MEM medium with 2.5% FS and 200 U/mL aprotinin per well of a 24-well cell culture. The cells have been cultured on the samples for 6 days. Cell densities on day 1, 3, and 6 were analyzed after staining with LIVE/DEAD cytotoxicity/viability assay kit. The differentiation of MSCs is being analyzed using qPCR. On day 1, the highest density of MSCs was observed on Fb+VEGF and Fb+FGF2. On days 3 and 6, there were similar densities on all samples. On day 1, cell morphology was polygonal and spread on all sample. On day 3 and 6, MSCs growing on Fb assemblies with FGF2 became apparently elongated. The evaluation of expression of genes for von Willebrand factor and CD31 (endothelial cells), for alpha-actin (smooth muscle cells), and for alkaline phosphatase (osteoblasts) is in progress. We prepared fibrin assemblies with bound VEGF and FGF-2 that supported attachment and growth of mesenchymal stem cells. The layers are promising for improving the ingrowth of MSCs into the biological scaffold. Supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic TA04011345, and Ministry of Health NT11270-4/2010, and BIOCEV – Biotechnology and Biomedicine Centre of the Academy of Sciences and Charles University” project (CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0109), funded by the European Regional Development Fund for their financial supports.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, VEGF, fibrin assemblies, FGF-2

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15 Safety of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Therapy: Potential Risk of Spontaneous Transformations

Authors: Katarzyna Drela, Miroslaw Wielgos, Mikolaj Wrobel, Barbara Lukomska


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a great potential in regenerative medicine. Since the initial number of isolated MSCs is limited, in vitro propagation is often required to reach sufficient numbers of cells for therapeutic applications. During long-term culture MSCs may undergo genetic or epigenetic alterations that subsequently increase the probability of spontaneous malignant transformation. Thus, factors that influence genomic stability of MSCs following long-term expansions need to be clarified before cultured MSCs are employed for clinical application. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential for spontaneous transformation of human neonatal cord blood (HUCB-MSCs) and adult bone marrow (BM-MSCs) derived MSCs. Materials and Methods: HUCB-MSCs and BM-MSCs were isolated by standard Ficoll gradient centrifugations method. Isolated cells were initially plated in high density 106 cells per cm2. After 48 h medium were changed and non-adherent cells were removed. The malignant transformation of MSCs in vitro was evaluated by morphological changes, proliferation rate, ability to enter cell senescence, the telomerase expression and chromosomal abnormality. Proliferation of MSCs was analyzed with WST-1 reduction method and population doubling time (PDT) was calculated at different culture stages. Then the expression pattern of genes characteristic for mesenchymal or epithelial cells, as well as transcriptions factors were examined by RT-PCR. Concomitantly, immunocytochemical analysis of gene-related proteins was employed. Results: Our studies showed that MSCs from all bone marrow isolations ultimately entered senescence and did not undergo spontaneous malignant transformation. However, HUCB-MSCs from one of the 15 donors displayed an increased proliferation rate, failed to enter senescence, and exhibited an altered cell morphology. In this sample we observed two different cell phenotypes: one mesenchymal-like exhibited spindle shaped morphology and express specific mesenchymal surface markers (CD73, CD90, CD105, CD166) with low proliferation rate, and the second one with round, densely package epithelial-like cells with significantly increased proliferation rate. The PDT of epithelial-like populations was around 1day and 100% of cells were positive for proliferation marker Ki-67. Moreover, HUCB-MSCs showed a positive expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), cMYC and exhibit increased number of CFU during the long-term culture in vitro. Furthermore, karyotype analysis revealed chromosomal abnormalities including duplications. Conclusions: Our studies demonstrate that HUCB-MSCs are susceptible to spontaneous malignant transformation during long-term culture. Spontaneous malignant transformation process following in vitro culture has enormous effect on the biosafety issues of future cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine regimens.

Keywords: Transformation, mesenchymal stem cells, spontaneous, long-term culture

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14 Biocompatible Beta Titanium Alloy Ti36Nb6Ta as a Suitable Material for Bone Regeneration

Authors: Eva Filová, Jana Daňková, Věra Sovková, Matej Daniel, Vera Lukasova, Michala Rampichova


Proper bone implants should promote fast adhesion of cells, stimulate cell differentiation and support the formation of bone tissue. Nowadays titanium is used as a biocompatible material capable of bone tissue integration. This study was focused on comparison of bioactive properties of two titanium alloys - beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta and standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V. The advantage of beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta is mainly that this material does not contain adverse elements like vanadium or aluminium. Titanium alloys were sterilized in ethanol, placed into 48 well plates and seeded with porcine mesenchymal stem cells. Cells were cultivated for 14 days in standard growth cultivation media with osteogenic supplements. Cell metabolic activity was quantified using MTS assay (Promega). Cell adhesion on day 1 and cell proliferation on further days were verified immunohistochemically using beta-actin monoclonal antibody and secondary antibody conjugated with AlexaFluor®488. Differentiation of cells was evaluated using alkaline phosphatase assay. Additionally, gene expression of collagen I was measured by qRT-PCR. Porcine mesenchymal stem cells adhered and spread well on beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta on day 1. During the 14 days’ time period the cells were spread confluently on the surface of the beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta. The metabolic activity of cells increased during the whole cultivation period. In comparison to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V, we did not observe any differences. Moreover, the expression of collagen I gene revealed no statistical differences between both titanium alloys. Therefore, a beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta promotes cell adhesion, metabolic activity, proliferation and collagen I expression equally to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V. Thus, beta titanium is a suitable material that provides sufficient biocompatible properties. This project was supported by the Czech Science Foundation: grant No. 16-14758S.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, mesenchymal stem cells, Differentiation, beta titanium alloy

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13 The Effects of Bisphosphonates on Osteonecrosis of Jaw Bone: A Stem Cell Perspective

Authors: Fikrettin Sahin, Huseyin Apdik, Aysegul Dogan, Selami Demirci, Ezgi Avsar Apdik


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are crucial cell types for bone maintenance and growth along with resident bone progenitor cells providing bone tissue integrity during osteogenesis and skeletal growth. Any deficiency in this regulation would result in vital bone diseases. Of those, osteoporosis, characterized by a reduction in bone mass and mineral density, is a critical skeletal disease for especially elderly people. The commonly used drugs for the osteoporosis treatment are bisphosphonates (BPs). The most prominent role of BPs is to prevent bone resorption arisen from high osteoclast activity. However, administrations of bisphosphonates may also cause bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (BIONJ). Up to the present, the researchers have proposed several circumstances for BIONJ. However, effects of long-term and/or high dose usage of BPs on stem cell’s proliferation, survival, differentiation or maintenance capacity have not been evaluated yet. The present study will be held to; figure out BPs’ effects on MSCs in vitro in the aspect of cell proliferation and toxicity, migration, angiogenic activity, lineage specific gene and protein expression levels, mesenchymal stem cell properties and potential signaling pathways affected by BP treatment. Firstly, mesenchymal stem cell characteristics of Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) and Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs) were proved using flow cytometry analysis. Cell viability analysis was completed to determine the cytotoxic effects of BPs (Zoledronate (Zol), Alendronate (Ale) and Risedronate (Ris)) on DPSCs and PDLSCs by the 3-(4,5-di-methyl-thiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Non-toxic concentrations of BPs were determined at 24 h under growth condition, and at 21 days under osteogenic differentiation condition for both cells. The scratch assay was performed to evaluate their migration capacity under the usage of determined of BPs concentrations at 24 h. The results revealed that while the scratch closure is 70% in the control group for DPSCs, it was 57%, 66% and 66% in Zol, Ale and Ris groups, respectively. For PDLSs, while wound closure is 71% in control group, it was 65%, 66% and 66% in Zol, Ale and Ris groups, respectively. As future experiments, tube formation assay and aortic ring assay will be done to determinate angiogenesis abilities of DPSCs and PDLSCs treated with BPs. Expression levels of osteogenic differentiation marker genes involved in bone development will be determined using real time-polymerase change reaction (RT-PCR) assay and expression profiles of important proteins involved in osteogenesis will be evaluated using western blotting assay for osteogenically differentiated MSCs treated with or without BPs. In addition to these, von Kossa staining will be performed to measure calcium mineralization status of MSCs.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, osteogenesis, bisphosphonates, bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw

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12 Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Diabetic Therapy

Authors: K. J. Keerthi, Vasundhara Kamineni, A. Ravi Shanker, T. Rammurthy, A. Vijaya Lakshmi, Q. Hasan


Pancreatic β-cells are the predominant insulin-producing cell types within the Islets of Langerhans and insulin is the primary hormone which regulates carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Apoptosis of β-cells or insufficient insulin production leads to Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Current therapy for diabetes includes either medical management or insulin replacement and regular monitoring. Replacement of β- cells is an attractive treatment option for both Type-1 and Type-2 DM in view of the recent paper which indicates that β-cells apoptosis is the common underlying cause for both the Types of DM. With the development of Edmonton protocol, pancreatic β-cells allo-transplantation became possible, but this is still not considered as standard of care due to subsequent requirement of lifelong immunosuppression and the scarcity of suitable healthy organs to retrieve pancreatic β-cell. Fetal pancreatic cells from abortuses were developed as a possible therapeutic option for Diabetes, however, this posed several ethical issues. Hence, in the present study Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were differentiated into insulin producing cells which were isolated from Human Umbilical cord (HUC) tissue. MSCs have already made their mark in the growing field of regenerative medicine, and their therapeutic worth has already been validated for a number of conditions. HUC samples were collected with prior informed consent as approved by the Institutional ethical committee. HUC (n=26) were processed using a combination of both mechanical and enzymatic (collagenase-II, 100 U/ml, Gibco ) methods to obtain MSCs which were cultured in-vitro in L-DMEM (Low glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, Sigma, 4.5 mM glucose/L), 10% FBS in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C. After reaching 80-90% confluency, MSCs were characterized with Flowcytometry and Immunocytochemistry for specific cell surface antigens. Cells expressed CD90+, CD73+, CD105+, CD34-, CD45-, HLA-DR-/Low and Vimentin+. These cells were differentiated to β-cells by using H-DMEM (High glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium,25 mM glucose/L, Gibco), β-Mercaptoethanol (0.1mM, Hi-Media), basic Fibroblast growth factor (10 µg /L,Gibco), and Nicotinamide (10 mmol/L, Hi-Media). Pancreatic β-cells were confirmed by positive Dithizone staining and were found to be functionally active as they released 8 IU/ml insulin on glucose stimulation. Isolating MSCs from usually discarded, abundantly available HUC tissue, expanding and differentiating to β-cells may be the most feasible cell therapy option for the millions of people suffering from DM globally.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, mesenchymal stem cells, Differentiation, human umbilical cord

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11 Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effect of Mitoxantrone Conjugated Magnetite Nanoparticles and Graphene Oxide-Magnetite Nanocomposites on Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Abbas Jafarizad, Duygu Ekinci


In this work targeted drug delivery is proposed to decrease adverse effect of drugs with concomitant reduces in consumption and treatment outgoings. Nanoparticles (NPs) can be prepared from a variety of materials such as lipid, biodegradable polymer that prevent the drugs cytotoxicity in healthy cells, etc. One of the most important drugs used in chemotherapy is mitoxantrone (MTX) which prevents cell proliferation by inhibition of topoisomerase II and DNA repair; however, it is not selective and has some serious side effects. In this study, mentioned aim is achieved by using several nanocarriers like magnetite (Fe3O4) and their composites with magnetic graphene oxide ([email protected]). Also, cytotoxic potential of Fe3O4, Fe3O4-MTX, and [email protected] nanocomposite were evaluated on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we reported the synthesis of monodisperse Fe3O4 NPs and [email protected] nanocomposite and their structures were investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Brauneur Emmet Teller (BET) isotherm and contact angle studies. Moreover, we used 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to evaluate cytotoxic effects of MTX, Fe3O4 NPs, Fe3O4-MTX and [email protected] nanocomposite on MSCs. The in-vitro MTT results indicated that all concentrations of MTX and [email protected] nanocomposites showed cytotoxic effects while all concentrations of Fe3O4 NPs and Fe3O4-MTX NPs did not show any cytotoxic effect on stem cells. The results from this study indicated that using Fe3O4 NPs as anticancer drug delivery systems could be a trustworthy method for cancer treatment. But for reaching excellent and accurate results, further investigation is necessary.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, MTT assay, magnetite, mitoxantrone, magnetic graphene oxide

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10 The Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Full Thickness Skin Wound Healing in Albino Rats

Authors: Abir O. El Sadik


Introduction: Wound healing involves the interaction of multiple biological processes among different types of cells, intercellular matrix and specific signaling factors producing enhancement of cell proliferation of the epidermis over dermal granulation tissue. Several studies investigated multiple strategies to promote wound healing and to minimize infection and fluid losses. However, burn crisis, and its related morbidity and mortality are still elevated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in accelerating wound healing and to compare the most efficient route of administration of MSCs, either intradermal or systemic injection, with focusing on the mechanisms producing epidermal and dermal cell regeneration. Material and methods: Forty-two adult male Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into three equal groups (fourteen rats in each group): control group (group I); full thickness surgical skin wound model, Group II: Wound treated with systemic injection of MSCs and Group III: Wound treated with intradermal injection of MSCs. The healing ulcer was examined on day 2, 6, 10 and 15 for gross morphological evaluation and on day 10 and 15 for fluorescent, histological and immunohistochemical studies. Results: The wounds of the control group did not reach complete closure up to the end of the experiment. In MSCs treated groups, better and faster healing of wounds were detected more than the control group. Moreover, the intradermal route of administration of stem cells increased the rate of healing of the wounds more than the systemic injection. In addition, the wounds were found completely healed by the end of the fifteenth day of the experiment in all rats of the group injected intradermally. Microscopically, the wound areas of group III were hardly distinguished from the adjacent normal skin with complete regeneration of all skin layers; epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and underlying muscle layer. Fully regenerated hair follicles and sebaceous glands in the dermis of the healed areas surrounded by different arrangement of collagen fibers with a significant increase in their area percent were recorded in this group more than in other groups. Conclusion: MSCs accelerate the healing process of wound closure. The route of administration of MSCs has a great influence on wound healing as intradermal injection of MSCs was more effective in enhancement of wound healing than systemic injection.

Keywords: Morphology, mesenchymal stem cells, intradermal, skin wound, systemic injection

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9 Treatment of Neuronal Defects by Bone Marrow Stem Cells Differentiation to Neuronal Cells Cultured on Gelatin-PLGA Scaffolds Coated with Nano-Particles

Authors: Alireza Shams, Ali Zamanian, Atefehe Shamosi, Farnaz Ghorbani


Introduction: Although the application of a new strategy remains a remarkable challenge for treatment of disabilities due to neuronal defects, progress in Nanomedicine and tissue engineering, suggesting the new medical methods. One of the promising strategies for reconstruction and regeneration of nervous tissue is replacing of lost or damaged cells by specific scaffolds after Compressive, ischemic and traumatic injuries of central nervous system. Furthermore, ultrastructure, composition, and arrangement of tissue scaffolds are effective on cell grafts. We followed implantation and differentiation of mesenchyme stem cells to neural cells on Gelatin Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds coated with iron nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of stem cells to differentiate into motor neuron-like cells under topographical cues and morphogenic factors. Methods and Materials: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) was obtained by primary cell culturing of adult rat bone marrow got from femur bone by flushing method. BMMSCs were incubated with DMEM/F12 (Gibco), 15% FBS and 100 U/ml pen/strep as media. Then, BMMSCs seeded on Gel/PLGA scaffolds and tissue culture (TCP) polystyrene embedded and incorporated by Fe Nano particles (FeNPs) (Fe3o4 oxide (M w= 270.30 gr/mol.). For neuronal differentiation, 2×10 5 BMMSCs were seeded on Gel/PLGA/FeNPs scaffolds was cultured for 7 days and 0.5 µ mol. Retinoic acid, 100 µ mol. Ascorbic acid,10 ng/ml. Basic fibroblast growth factor (Sigma, USA), 250 μM Iso butyl methyl xanthine, 100 μM 2-mercaptoethanol, and 0.2 % B27 (Invitrogen, USA) added to media. Proliferation of BMMSCs was assessed by using MTT assay for cell survival. The morphology of BMMSCs and scaffolds was investigated by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Expression of neuron-specific markers was studied by immunohistochemistry method. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, and statistical significance was determined by Turkey’s test. Results: Our results revealed that differentiation and survival of BMMSCs into motor neuron-like cells on Gel/PLGA/FeNPs as a biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds were better than those cultured in Gel/PLGA in absence of FeNPs and TCP scaffolds. FeNPs had raised physical power but decreased capacity absorption of scaffolds. Well defined oriented pores in scaffolds due to FeNPs may activate differentiation and synchronized cells as a mechanoreceptor. Induction effects of magnetic FeNPs by One way flow of channels in scaffolds help to lead the cells and can facilitate direction of their growth processes. Discussion: Progression of biological properties of BMMSCs and the effects of FeNPs spreading under magnetic field was evaluated in this investigation. In vitro study showed that the Gel/PLGA/FeNPs scaffold provided a suitable structure for motor neuron-like cells differentiation. This could be a promising candidate for enhancing repair and regeneration in neural defects. Dynamic and static magnetic field for inducing and construction of cells can provide better results for further experimental studies.

Keywords: Scaffolds, mesenchymal stem cells, Differentiation, nano particles, neuronal defects

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8 Up-Regulation of SCUBE2 Expression in Co-Cultures of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Hirowati Ali, Aisyah Ellyanti, Dewi Rusnita, Septelia Inawati Wanandi


Stem cell has been known for its potency to be differentiated in many cells. Recently stem cell has been used for many treatment of degenerative medicine. It is still controversy whether stem cell can be used for therapy or these cells can activate cancer stem cell. SCUBE2 is a novel secreted and membrane-anchored protein which has been reported to its role in better prognosis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our study aims to observe whether stem cell can up-regulate SCUBE2 gene in MCF7 breast cancer cell line. We used in vitro study using MCF-7 cell treated with stem cell derived from placenta Wharton's jelly which has been known for its stemness and widely used. Our results showed that MCF-7 cell line grows up rapidly in 6-well culture dish. Stem cell was cultured in 6-well dish. After 50%-60% MCF-7 confluence, we co-cultured these cells with stem cells for 24 hours and 48 hours. We hypothesize SCUBE2 gene which is previously known for its higher expression in better prognosis of breast cancer, is up-regulated after stem cells addition in MCF7 culture dishes.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, breast cancer cells, inhibition of cancer cells, SCUBE2

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7 Expression of Fibrogenesis Markers after Mesenchymal Stem Cells Therapy for Experimental Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Tatsiana Ihnatovich, Darya Nizheharodava, Mikalai Halabarodzka, Tatsiana Savitskaya, Marina Zafranskaya


Liver fibrosis is a complex of histological changes resulting from chronic liver disease accompanied by an excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix components in the hepatic parenchyma. Liver fibrosis is a serious medical and social problem. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) make a significant contribution to the extracellular matrix deposition due to liver injury. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a pronounced anti-inflammatory, regenerative and immunomodulatory effect; they are able to differentiate into hepatocytes and induce apoptosis of activated HSCs that opens the prospect of their use for preventing the excessive fibro-formation and the development of liver cirrhosis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of MSCs therapy on the expression of fibrogenesis markers genes in liver tissue and HSCs cultures of rats with experimental liver cirrhosis (ELC). Materials and methods: ELC was induced by the common bile duct ligation (CBDL) in female Wistar rats (n = 19) with an average body weight of 250 (220 ÷ 270) g. Animals from the control group (n = 10) were sham-operated. On the 56th day after the CBDL, the rats of the experimental (n = 12) and the control (n = 5) groups received intraportal MSCs in concentration of 1×106 cells/animal (previously obtained from rat’s bone marrow) or saline, respectively. The animals were taken out of the experiment on the 21st day. HSCs were isolated by sequential liver perfusion in situ with following disaggregation, enzymatic treatment and centrifugation of cell suspension on a two-stage density gradient. The expression of collagen type I (Col1a1) and type III (Col3a1), matrix metalloproteinase type 2 (MMP2) and type 9 (MMP9), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type 1 (TIMP1), transforming growth factor β type 1 (TGFβ1) and type 3 (TGFβ3) was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 10.0. Results: In ELC rats compared to sham-operated animals, a significant increase of all studied markers expression was observed. The administration of MSCs led to a significant decrease of all detectable markers in the experimental group compared to rats without cell therapy. In ELC rats, an increased MMP9/TIMP1 ratio after cell therapy was also detected. The infusion of MSCs in the sham-operated animals did not lead to any changes. In the HSCs from ELC animals, the expression of Col1a1 and Col3a1 exceeded the similar parameters of the control group (p <0.05) and statistically decreased after the MSCs administration. The correlation between Col3a1 (Rs = 0.51, p <0.05), TGFβ1 (Rs = 0.6, p <0.01), and TGFβ3 (Rs = 0.75, p <0.001) expression in HSCs cultures and liver tissue has been found. Conclusion: Intraportal administration of MSCs to rats with ELC leads to a decreased Col1a1 and Col3a1, MMP2 and MMP9, TIMP1, TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 expression. The correlation between the expression of Col3a1, TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 in liver tissue and in HSCs cultures indicates the involvement of activated HSCs in the fibrogenesis that allows considering HSCs to be the main cell therapy target in ELC.

Keywords: Cell Therapy, mesenchymal stem cells, hepatic stellate cells, experimental liver cirrhosis

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6 Evaluation of Gene Expression after in Vitro Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells to Insulin-Producing Cells

Authors: Mahmoud M. Zakaria, Omnia F. Elmoursi, Mahmoud M. Gabr, Camelia A. AbdelMalak, Mohamed A. Ghoneim


Many protocols were publicized for differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCS) into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in order to excrete insulin hormone ingoing to treat diabetes disease. Our aim is to evaluate relative gene expression for each independent protocol. Human bone marrow cells were derived from three volunteers that suffer diabetes disease. After expansion of mesenchymal stem cells, differentiation of these cells was done by three different protocols (the one-step protocol was used conophylline protein, the two steps protocol was depending on trichostatin-A, and the three-step protocol was started by beta-mercaptoethanol). Evaluation of gene expression was carried out by real-time PCR: Pancreatic endocrine genes, transcription factors, glucose transporter, precursor markers, pancreatic enzymes, proteolytic cleavage, extracellular matrix and cell surface protein. Quantitation of insulin secretion was detected by immunofluorescence technique in 24-well plate. Most of the genes studied were up-regulated in the in vitro differentiated cells, and also insulin production was observed in the three independent protocols. There were some slight increases in expression of endocrine mRNA of two-step protocol and its insulin production. So, the two-step protocol was showed a more efficient in expressing of pancreatic endocrine genes and its insulin production than the other two protocols.

Keywords: Gene expression, mesenchymal stem cells, insulin producing cells, conophylline protein, trichostatin-A, beta-mercaptoethanol, immunofluorescence technique

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5 In vitro Regeneration of Neural Cells Using Human Umbilical Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Urvi Panwar, Kanchan Mishra, Kanjaksha Ghosh, ShankerLal Kothari


Background: Day-by-day the increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases have become a global issue to manage them by medical sciences. The adult neural stem cells are rare and require an invasive and painful procedure to obtain it from central nervous system. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) therapies have shown remarkable application in treatment of various cell injuries and cell loss. MSCs can be derived from various sources like adult tissues, human bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and cord tissue. MSCs have similar proliferation and differentiation capability, but the human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are proved to be more beneficial with respect to cell procurement, differentiation to other cells, preservation, and transplantation. Material and method: Human umbilical cord is easily obtainable and non-controversial comparative to bone marrow and other adult tissues. The umbilical cord can be collected after delivery of baby, and its tissue can be cultured using explant culture method. Cell culture medium such as DMEMF12+10% FBS and DMEMF12+Neural growth factors (bFGF, human noggin, B27) with antibiotics (Streptomycin/Gentamycin) were used to culture and differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into neural cells, respectively. The characterisations of MSCs were done with Flow Cytometer for surface markers CD90, CD73 and CD105 and colony forming unit assay. The differentiated various neural cells will be characterised by fluorescence markers for neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes; quantitative PCR for genes Nestin and NeuroD1 and Western blotting technique for gap43 protein. Result and discussion: The high quality and number of MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord via explant culture method. The obtained MSCs were differentiated into neural cells like neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The differentiated neural cells can be used to treat neural injuries and neural cell loss by delivering cells by non-invasive administration via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood. Moreover, the MSCs can also be directly delivered to different injured sites where they differentiate into neural cells. Therefore, human umbilical cord is demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easily available source for MSCs. Moreover, the hUCMSCs can be a potential source for neural cell therapies and neural cell regeneration for neural cell injuries and neural cell loss. This new way of research will be helpful to treat and manage neural cell damages and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Still the study has a long way to go but it is a promising approach for many neural disorders for which at present no satisfactory management is available.

Keywords: Neurodegenerative Diseases, Cell Therapy, Regeneration, mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow, neuroprotective, human umbilical cord, explant culture method, flow cytometer

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4 Insulin-Producing Cells from Adult Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Control Chemically-Induced Diabetes in Dogs

Authors: Maha Azzam, Mahmoud Gabr, Mahmoud Zakaria, Ayman Refaie, Amani Ismail, Sherry Khater, Sylvia Ashamallah, Mohamed Ghoniem


Evidence was provided that human bone marrow-derived mesenhymal stem cells (HBM-MSCs) could be differentiated to form insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Transplantation of these cells was able to cure chemically-induced diabetes in nude mice. The efficacy of these cells to control diabetes in large animals was carried out to evaluate the sufficient number of cells needed/Kg body weight and to determine the functional longevity in vivo. Materials/Methods: Ten male mongrel dogs weighing 15-20 Kg were used in this study. Diabetes was chemically-induced in 7 dogs by a mixture of alloxan and streptozotocin. Three non-diabetic served as normal controls. Differentiated HBM-MSCs (5 million/Kg) were encapsulated in theracyte capsules and transplanted beneath the rectus sheath. Each dog received 2 capsules. One dog died 4 days postoperative from inhalation pneumonia. The remaining 6 dogs were followed up for 6-18 months. Results: Four dogs became normoglycemic within 6-8 weeks with normal glucose tolerance curves providing evidence that the transplanted cells were glucose-sensitive and insulin-responsive. In the remaining 2 dogs, fasting blood glucose was reduced but did not reach euglycemic levels. The sera of all transplanted dogs contained human insulin and c-peptide but negligible levels of canine insulin. When the HBM-MSCs loaded capsules were removed, rapid return of diabetic state was noted. The harvested capsules were examined by immunofluorescence. IPCs were seen and co-expression of with c-peptide was confirmed. Furthermore, all the pancreatic endocrine genes were expressed by the transplanted cells. Conclusions: This study provided evidence that theracyte capsules could protect the xenogenic HBM-MSCs from the host immune response. This is an important issue when clinical stem cell therapy is considered for definitive treatment for T1DM.

Keywords: Diabetes, mesenchymal stem cells, Dogs, Insulin-producing cells

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3 Analysis of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells under Atherosclerosis Microenvironment

Authors: Do Khanh Vy, Vuong Cat Khanh, Osamu Ohneda


During atherosclerosis (AS) progression, perivascular adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PVAT-MSCs) are exposed to the hypoxic environment due to the oxygenic deprivation which might influence the adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) function. Additionally, it has been reported that the angiogenic ability of subcutaneous AT-MSCs (SAT-MSCs) was impaired in the AS patients. However, up to now, the effects of AS on the characteristics and function of PVAT-MSCs have not been clarified yet. In the present study, we analyzed the AS microenvironment effects on the characteristics and function of AT-MSCs. We found that there was no significant difference in cellular morphology and differentiation ability between SAT-MSCs and PVAT-MSCs in AS patients. However, the proliferation of AS-derived PVAT-MSCs was less than those of AS-derived SAT-MSCs. Importantly, the migration of AS-derived PVAT-MSCs was faster than AS-derived SAT-MSCs. Of note, AS-derived PVAT-MSCs showed the upregulation of SDF1, which is related to the homing, and VEGF, which is related to the angiogenesis compared to those of AS-derived SAT-MSCs. Consistent with these results, AS-derived PVAT-MSCs showed the higher ability to recruit EPCs and ECs than AS-derived SAT-MSCs. In addition, EPCs and ECs which cultured in the presence of AS-derived PVAT-MSC conditioned medium showed the higher angiogenic function of the tube formation compared to those cultured in AS-derived SAT-MSC conditioned medium. This result suggests that the higher paracrine effects of AS-derived PVAT-MSCs support the angiogenic function of the target cells. Our data showed the different characteristics and functions of AT-MSCs derived from different sources of tissues. Under the AS microenvironment, it seems that the characteristics and functions of PVAT-MSCs might reflect the progression of AS. Further study will be necessary to clarify the mechanism in the future.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, mesenchymal stem cells, perivascular adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue

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2 Effect of Locally Injected Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Bone Regeneration of Rat Calvaria Defects

Authors: Gileade P. Freitas, Helena B. Lopes, Alann T. P. Souza, Paula G. F. P. Oliveira, Adriana L. G. Almeida, Paulo G. Coelho, Marcio M. Beloti, Adalberto L. Rosa


Bone tissue presents great capacity to regenerate when injured by trauma, infectious processes, or neoplasia. However, the extent of injury may exceed the inherent tissue regeneration capability demanding some kind of additional intervention. In this scenario, cell therapy has emerged as a promising alternative to treat challenging bone defects. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of local injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) on bone regeneration of rat calvaria defects. BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs were isolated and characterized by expression of surface markers; cell viability was evaluated after injection through a 21G needle. Defects of 5 mm in diameter were created in calvaria and after two weeks a single injection of BM-MSCs, AT-MSCs or vehicle-PBS without cells (Control) was carried out. Cells were tracked by bioluminescence and at 4 weeks post-injection bone formation was evaluated by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histology, nanoindentation, and through gene expression of bone remodeling markers. The data were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (p≤0.05). BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs presented characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells, kept viability after passing through a 21G needle and remained in the defects until day 14. In general, injection of both BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs resulted in higher bone formation compared to Control. Additionally, this bone tissue displayed elastic modulus and hardness similar to the pristine calvaria bone. The expression of all evaluated genes involved in bone formation was upregulated in bone tissue formed by BM-MSCs compared to AT-MSCs while genes involved in bone resorption were upregulated in AT-MSCs-formed bone. We show that cell therapy based on the local injection of BM-MSCs or AT-MSCs is effective in delivering viable cells that displayed local engraftment and induced a significant improvement in bone healing. Despite differences in the molecular cues observed between BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs, both cells were capable of forming bone tissue at comparable amounts and properties. These findings may drive cell therapy approaches toward the complete bone regeneration of challenging sites.

Keywords: Cell Culture, Cell Therapy, mesenchymal stem cells, bone repair

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1 BSYJ Promoting Homing and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells at the Retina of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Model Mice Induced by Sodium Iodate

Authors: Jing Zhang, Lina Liang, Kai Xu


Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major leading cause of visual impairment and blindness with no cure currently established. Cell replacement is discussed as a potential therapy for AMD. Besides intravitreal injection and subretinal injection, intravenous administration has been explored as an alternative route. This study is to observe the effect of BSYJ, a traditional Chinese medicine on the homing and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted via tail vein injection in an age-related macular degeneration mouse model. Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6J mice were injected with 40 mg/kg NaIO₃ to induce age-related macular degeneration model. At the second day after NaIO₃ injection, 1×10⁷ GFP labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GFP-MSCs) were transplanted via tali vein injection into the experimental mice. Then the mice were randomly divided into two groups, gavaged with either BSYJ solution (BSYJ group, n=12) or distilled water (DW group, n=12). 12 age-matched healthy C57BL/6J mice were fed regularly as normal control. At day 7, day 14, and day 28 after treatment, retina flat mounting was used to detect the homing of mesenchymal stem cells at the retina. Double-labeling immunofluorescence was used to determine the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Results: At 7, 14, 28 days after treatment, the numbers of GFP-MSCs detected by retina flatmount were 10.2 ± 2.5, 14.5 ± 3.4 and 18.7 ± 5.8, respectively in the distilled water group, while 15.7 ± 3.8, 32.3 ± 3.5 and 77.3 ± 6.4 in BSYJ group, the differences between the two groups were significant (p < 0.05). At 28 days after treatment, it was shown by double staining immunofluorescence that there were more GFP positive cells in the retina of BSYJ group than that of the DW group, but none of the cells expressed RPE specific genes such as RPE65 and CRALBP, or photoreceptor genes such as recoverin and rhodopsin either in BSYJ group or DW group. However, GFAP positive cells were found among the cells labeled with GFP, and the double labeling cells were much more in the BSYJ group than the distilled water group. Conclusion: BSYJ could promote homing of mesenchymal stem cells at the retina of age-related macular degeneration model mice induced by NaIO₃, and the differentiation towards to glial cells. Acknowledgement: National Natural Foundation of China (No: 81473736, 81674033,81973912).

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, Differentiation, BSYJ, homing

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