Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Memory Related Abstracts

37 Spatial Abilities, Memory, and Intellect of Drivers with Different Professional Experience

Authors: Khon Natalya, Kim Alla, Mukhitdinova Tansulu


The aim of the research was to reveal the link between mental variables, such as spatial abilities, memory, intellect and professional experience of drivers. Participants were allocated within 4 groups: no experience, inexperienced, skilled and professionals (total 85 participants). Level of ability for spatial navigation and indicator of nonverbal memory grow along the process of accumulation of driving experience. At high levels of driving experience this tendency is especially noticeable. The professionals having personal achievements in driving (racing) differ from skilled drivers in better feeling of direction which is specific for them not just in a short-term situation of an experimental task, but in life-size perspective. The level of ability of mental rotation does not grow with growth of driving experience which confirms the multiple intelligence theory according to which spatial abilities represent specific, other than logical intelligence type of intellect. The link between spatial abilities, memory, intellect, and professional experience of drivers seems to be different relating spatial navigation or mental rotation as different kinds of spatial abilities.

Keywords: Memory, Drivers, spatial ability, intellect

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36 Implementation of Elliptic Curve Cryptography Encryption Engine on a FPGA

Authors: Mohamad Khairi Ishak


Conventional public key crypto systems such as RSA (Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman), DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm), and Elgamal are no longer efficient to be implemented in the small, memory constrained devices. Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), which allows smaller key length as compared to conventional public key crypto systems, has thus become a very attractive choice for many applications. This paper describes implementation of an elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) encryption engine on a FPGA. The system has been implemented in 2 different key sizes, which are 131 bits and 163 bits. Area and timing analysis are provided for both key sizes for comparison. The crypto system, which has been implemented on Altera’s EPF10K200SBC600-1, has a hardware size of 5945/9984 and 6913/9984 of logic cells for 131 bits implementation and 163 bits implementation respectively. The crypto system operates up to 43 MHz, and performs point multiplication operation in 11.3 ms for 131 bits implementation and 14.9 ms for 163 bits implementation. In terms of speed, our crypto system is about 8 times faster than the software implementation of the same system.

Keywords: Memory, FPGA, Elliptic Curve Cryptography, key sizes

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35 Investigating Early Markers of Alzheimer’s Disease Using a Combination of Cognitive Tests and MRI to Probe Changes in Hippocampal Anatomy and Functionality

Authors: Netasha Shaikh, Bryony Wood, Demitra Tsivos, Michael Knight, Risto Kauppinen, Elizabeth Coulthard


Background: Effective treatment of dementia will require early diagnosis, before significant brain damage has accumulated. Memory loss is an early symptom of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The hippocampus, a brain area critical for memory, degenerates early in the course of AD. The hippocampus comprises several subfields. In contrast to healthy aging where CA3 and dentate gyrus are the hippocampal subfields with most prominent atrophy, in AD the CA1 and subiculum are thought to be affected early. Conventional clinical structural neuroimaging is not sufficiently sensitive to identify preferential atrophy in individual subfields. Here, we will explore the sensitivity of new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences designed to interrogate medial temporal regions as an early marker of Alzheimer’s. As it is likely a combination of tests may predict early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) better than any single test, we look at the potential efficacy of such imaging alone and in combination with standard and novel cognitive tasks of hippocampal dependent memory. Methods: 20 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 20 with mild-moderate AD and 20 age-matched healthy elderly controls (HC) are being recruited to undergo 3T MRI (with sequences designed to allow volumetric analysis of hippocampal subfields) and a battery of cognitive tasks (including Paired Associative Learning from CANTAB, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and a novel hippocampal-dependent abstract word memory task). AD participants and healthy controls are being tested just once whereas patients with MCI will be tested twice a year apart. We will compare subfield size between groups and correlate subfield size with cognitive performance on our tasks. In the MCI group, we will explore the relationship between subfield volume, cognitive test performance and deterioration in clinical condition over a year. Results: Preliminary data (currently on 16 participants: 2 AD; 4 MCI; 9 HC) have revealed subfield size differences between subject groups. Patients with AD perform with less accuracy on tasks of hippocampal-dependent memory, and MCI patient performance and reaction times also differ from healthy controls. With further testing, we hope to delineate how subfield-specific atrophy corresponds with changes in cognitive function, and characterise how this progresses over the time course of the disease. Conclusion: Novel sequences on a MRI scanner such as those in route in clinical use can be used to delineate hippocampal subfields in patients with and without dementia. Preliminary data suggest that such subfield analysis, perhaps in combination with cognitive tasks, may be an early marker of AD.

Keywords: Cognition, Dementia, Memory, alzheimer's disease, Hippocampus

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34 Exposure to Tactile Cues Does Not Influence Spatial Navigation in 129 S1/SvLm Mice

Authors: Rubaiyea Uddin, Rebecca Taylor, Emily Levesque


The hippocampus, located in the limbic system, is most commonly known for its role in memory and spatial navigation (as cited in Brain Reward and Pathways). It maintains an especially important role in specifically episodic and declarative memory. The hippocampus has also recently been linked to dopamine, the reward pathway’s primary neurotransmitter. Since research has found that dopamine also contributes to memory consolidation and hippocampal plasticity, this neurotransmitter is potentially responsible for contributing to the hippocampus’s role in memory formation. In this experiment we tested to see the effect of tactile cues on spatial navigation for eight different mice. We used a radial arm that had one designated “reward” arm containing sucrose. The presence or absence of bedding was our tactile cue. We attempted to see if the memory of that cue would enhance the mice’s memory of having received the reward in that arm. The results from our study showed there was no significant response from the use of tactile cues on spatial navigation on our 129 mice. Tactile cues therefore do not influence spatial navigation.

Keywords: Memory, mice, Alzheimer's, Hippocampus, Reward, radial arm maze, spatial navigation, tactile cues, sensory skills, neuro-degenerative diseases

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33 Encounters with the Other Sisters of the Past: the Role of Colonial History and Memory in the Adjustment of the Postcolonial Female Identity

Authors: Fatiha Kaïd Berrahal, Nassima Kaïd, Djihad Affaf Selt


The present paper is a comparative analysis of the Algerian writer Assia Djebar’s women of Algiers in Their Apartment (1982) and the Anglo-Egyptian Ahdaf Soueif’s The Map of Love (1999) foregrounded on the female protagonists’ painfully common colonial and patriarchal experiences, though in different geographical regions of North Africa. This study raises questions pertaining, first, to the emerging contemporary genre “Historiographic meta-fiction” in which the novels examined could be inscribed, then, the interplay of colonial history and personal memory that impinges on the development of the identity of the post-colonial female subject. As the novels alternate between the historical and the autobiographical, we currently seek to understand how it is pertinent and pressing for women to excavate the lost and occluded stories of the past for the adjustment of their present personal identities, which are undoubtedly an important part of the identity of a nation.

Keywords: Memory, Postcolonial Feminism, islamic feminism, histoirographic metafiction

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32 Tactile Cues and Spatial Navigation in Mice

Authors: Rubaiyea Uddin


The hippocampus, located in the limbic system, is most commonly known for its role in memory and spatial navigation (as cited in Brain Reward and Pathways). It maintains an especially important role in specifically episodic and declarative memory. The hippocampus has also recently been linked to dopamine, the reward pathway’s primary neurotransmitter. Since research has found that dopamine also contributes to memory consolidation and hippocampal plasticity, this neurotransmitter is potentially responsible for contributing to the hippocampus’s role in memory formation. In this experiment we tested to see the effect of tactile cues on spatial navigation for eight different mice. We used a radial arm that had one designated 'reward' arm containing sucrose. The presence or absence of bedding was our tactile cue. We attempted to see if the memory of that cue would enhance the mice’s memory of having received the reward in that arm. The results from our study showed there was no significant response from the use of tactile cues on spatial navigation on our 129 mice. Tactile cues therefore do not influence spatial navigation.

Keywords: Memory, mice, Hippocampus, Reward, radial arm maze, spatial navigation, tactile cues, sensory skills, Alzheimer’s, neurodegnerative disease

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31 A Comparative Study of Language Learning Strategy Use of Iranian Kurdish Bilingual and Persian Monolingual in EFL Context

Authors: Reza Khani, Ziba Hosseini


This study was an attempt to investigate the difference between learners of Iranian Kurdish–Persian bilingual language and Persian monolinguals, regarding language strategy use (LLS). The participants of the study were 120 monolingual Persian and 120 bilingual Kurdish studying English as a foreign language (EFL). Data were collected using strategy inventory for language learning SILL. The results show bilingual reported higher use of language learning strategies in all categories of SILL except memory strategies.

Keywords: Language Learning, Memory, comparative study, monolingual

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30 Wayfinding Strategies in an Unfamiliar Homogenous Environment

Authors: Ahemd Sameer, Braj Bhushan


The objective of our study was to compare wayfinding strategies to remember route while navigation in an unfamiliar homogenous environment. Two videos developed using free ware Trimble Sketchup© each having nine identical turns (3 right, 3 left, 3 straight) with no distinguishing feature at any turn. Thirt-two male post-graduate students of IIT Kanpur participated in the study. The experiment was conducted in three phases. In the first phase participant generated a list of personally known items to be used as landmarks. In the second phase participant saw the first video and was required to remember the sequence of turns. In the second video participant was required to imagine a landmark from the list generated in the first phase at each turn and associate the turn with it. In both the task the participant was asked to recall the sequence of turns as it appeared in the video. In the third phase, which was 20 minutes after the second phase, participants again recalled the sequence of turns. Results showed that performance in the first condition i.e. without use of landmarks was better than imaginary landmark condition. The difference, however, became significant when the participant were tested again about 30 minutes later though performance was still better in no-landmark condition. The finding is surprising given the past research in memory and is explained in terms of cognitive factors such as mental workload.

Keywords: Memory, Wayfinding, Landmark, Homogenous Environment

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29 Synthesis of Filtering in Stochastic Systems on Continuous-Time Memory Observations in the Presence of Anomalous Noises

Authors: S. Rozhkova, O. Rozhkova, A. Harlova, V. Lasukov


We have conducted the optimal synthesis of root-mean-squared objective filter to estimate the state vector in the case if within the observation channel with memory the anomalous noises with unknown mathematical expectation are complement in the function of the regular noises. The synthesis has been carried out for linear stochastic systems of continuous-time.

Keywords: Memory, Filtration, mathematical expectation, anomalous noise

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28 Analysis of Filtering in Stochastic Systems on Continuous- Time Memory Observations in the Presence of Anomalous Noises

Authors: S. Rozhkova, O. Rozhkova, A. Harlova, V. Lasukov


For optimal unbiased filter as mean-square and in the case of functioning anomalous noises in the observation memory channel, we have proved insensitivity of filter to inaccurate knowledge of the anomalous noise intensity matrix and its equivalence to truncated filter plotted only by non anomalous components of an observation vector.

Keywords: Memory, Filtration, mathematical expectation, anomalous noise

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27 Sustainable Renovation and Restoration of the Rural — Based on the View Point of Psychology

Authors: Luo Jin China, Jin Fang


Countryside has been generally recognized and regarded as a characteristic symbol which presents in human memory for a long time. As a result of the change of times, because of it’s failure to meet the growing needs of the growing life and mental decline, the vast rural area began to decline. But their history feature image which accumulated by the ancient tradition provides people with the origins of existence on the spiritual level, such as "identity" and "belonging", makes people closer to the others in the spiritual and psychological aspects of a common experience about the past, thus the sense of a lack of culture caused by the losing of memory symbols is weakened. So, in the modernization process, how to repair its vitality and transform and planning it in a sustainable way has become a hot topics in architectural and urban planning. This paper aims to break the constraints of disciplines, from the perspective of interdiscipline, using the research methods of systems science to analyze and discuss the theories and methods of rural form factors, which based on the viewpoint of memory in psychology. So, we can find a right way to transform the Rural to give full play to the role of the countryside in the actual use and the shape of history spirits.

Keywords: Psychology, Rural, Restoration, Memory, sustainable renovation

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26 Oleic Acid Enhances Hippocampal Synaptic Efficacy

Authors: Rema Vazhappilly, Tapas Das


Oleic acid is a cis unsaturated fatty acid and is known to be a partially essential fatty acid due to its limited endogenous synthesis during pregnancy and lactation. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of oleic acid in neuronal differentiation and brain phospholipid synthesis. These evidences indicate a major role for oleic acid in learning and memory. Interestingly, oleic acid has been shown to enhance hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP), the physiological correlate of long term synaptic plasticity. However the effect of oleic acid on short term synaptic plasticity has not been investigated. Short term potentiation (STP) is the physiological correlate of short term synaptic plasticity which is the key underlying molecular mechanism of short term memory and neuronal information processing. STP in the hippocampal CA1 region has been known to require the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). The NMDAR dependent hippocampal STP as a potential mechanism for short term memory has been a subject of intense interest for the past few years. Therefore in the present study the effect of oleic acid on NMDAR dependent hippocampal STP was determined in mouse hippocampal slices (in vitro) using Multi-electrode array system. STP was induced by weak tetanic Stimulation (one train of 100 Hz stimulations for 0.1s) of the Schaffer collaterals of CA1 region of the hippocampus in slices treated with different concentrations of oleic acid in presence or absence of NMDAR antagonist D-AP5 (30 µM) . Oleic acid at 20 (mean increase in fEPSP amplitude = ~135 % Vs. Control = 100%; P<0.001) and 30 µM (mean increase in fEPSP amplitude = ~ 280% Vs. Control = 100%); P<0.001) significantly enhanced the STP following weak tetanic stimulation. Lower oleic acid concentrations at 10 µM did not modify the hippocampal STP induced by weak tetanic stimulation. The hippocampal STP induced by weak tetanic stimulation was completely blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5 (30µM) in both oleic acid and control treated hippocampal slices. This lead to the conclusion that the hippocampal STP elicited by weak tetanic stimulation and enhanced by oleic acid was NMDAR dependent. Together these findings suggest that oleic acid may enhance the short term memory and neuronal information processing through the modulation of NMDAR dependent hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity. In conclusion this study suggests the possible role of oleic acid to prevent the short term memory loss and impaired neuronal function throughout development.

Keywords: Memory, NMDA receptor, oleic acid, short-term potentiation, field excitatory post synaptic potentials

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25 Spectra of Mahmoud Darwish: Argumentative Approach in the Poem "Identity Card"

Authors: Haitham Sarhan


The experience of Mahmoud Darwish’s poetry represents one of the leading Arabic creative experiences because of its cultural specificity which is linked to the question of Palestine and its people. The poet Mahmoud Darwish does not stop there, but also reaches out to the whole of the cosmic and openness of the universal human experience. His poetry is rooted in a creative period, and was able to surpass its time. Mahmoud Darwish’s poetry contains diverse metaphors and worlds of genres, which overextends from direct romance to the lattice resistance and further stretches to the imaginary world and to the grand narratives. The poem "Identity Card" was published in his collections "Olive Leaves" and was issued in 1963. This collection highlighted the poems which included a revolutionary position, and formed a 'manifesto' and the statement of the Palestinian resistance, which represented the league of poets of Palestine. This poem has contributed along with other poems in creating a flame of resistance and increased it in the hearts of the Palestinian people. It also exercised considerable influence in the Arab world through what has been wrought from emotional responses and revolutionary impact which still remains. Moreover, this poem has succeeded with other resistance poems and postmodern poets like Nizar Qabbani in bringing modern poetry and culturally transmitted it among the Arab peoples and the masses. In spite of the fact that the poet Mahmoud Darwish exceeded this poem creatively through his other great works, "Identity Card" still has a great effect on peoples past memory’s and present. This need to hear this poem in Mahmoud Darwish’s poetic readings reflects peoples frustration and anger. It is safe to say that it is enticing people to this present day. This revolutionary poem had and still has a magical effect on Arab world.

Keywords: Identity, Memory, Argumentation, Arab contemporary poetry

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24 A Case Report on Cognitive-Communication Intervention in Traumatic Brain Injury

Authors: Nikitha Francis, Anjana Hoode, Vinitha George, Jayashree S. Bhat


The interaction between cognition and language, referred as cognitive-communication, is very intricate, involving several mental processes such as perception, memory, attention, lexical retrieval, decision making, motor planning, self-monitoring and knowledge. Cognitive-communication disorders are difficulties in communicative competencies that result from underlying cognitive impairments of attention, memory, organization, information processing, problem solving, and executive functions. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an acquired, non - progressive condition, resulting in distinct deficits of cognitive communication abilities such as naming, word-finding, self-monitoring, auditory recognition, attention, perception and memory. Cognitive-communication intervention in TBI is individualized, in order to enhance the person’s ability to process and interpret information for better functioning in their family and community life. The present case report illustrates the cognitive-communicative behaviors and the intervention outcomes of an adult with TBI, who was brought to the Department of Audiology and Speech Language Pathology, with cognitive and communicative disturbances, consequent to road traffic accident. On a detailed assessment, she showed naming deficits along with perseverations and had severe difficulty in recalling the details of the accident, her house address, places she had visited earlier, names of people known to her, as well as the activities she did each day, leading to severe breakdowns in her communicative abilities. She had difficulty in initiating, maintaining and following a conversation. She also lacked orientation to time and place. On administration of the Manipal Manual of Cognitive Linguistic Abilities (MMCLA), she exhibited poor performance on tasks related to visual and auditory perception, short term memory, working memory and executive functions. She attended 20 sessions of cognitive-communication intervention which followed a domain-general, adaptive training paradigm, with tasks relevant to everyday cognitive-communication skills. Compensatory strategies such as maintaining a dairy with reminders of her daily routine, names of people, date, time and place was also recommended. MMCLA was re-administered and her performance in the tasks showed significant improvements. Occurrence of perseverations and word retrieval difficulties reduced. She developed interests to initiate her day-to-day activities at home independently, as well as involve herself in conversations with her family members. Though she lacked awareness about her deficits, she actively involved herself in all the therapy activities. Rehabilitation of moderate to severe head injury patients can be done effectively through a holistic cognitive retraining with a focus on different cognitive-linguistic domains. Selection of goals and activities should have relevance to the functional needs of each individual with TBI, as highlighted in the present case report.

Keywords: Memory, traumatic brain injury, Executive Functions, cognitive-communication

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23 Trauma in the Unconsoled: A Crisis of the Self

Authors: Assil Ghariri


This article studies the process of rewriting the self through memory in Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel, the Unconsoled (1995). It deals with the journey that the protagonist Mr. Ryder takes through the unconscious, in search for his real self, in which trauma stands as an obstacle. The article uses Carl Jung’s theory of archetypes. Trauma, in this article, is discussed as one of the true obstacles of the unconscious that prevent people from realizing the truth about their selves.

Keywords: Trauma, Memory, Carl Jung, Kazuo Ishiguro

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22 Quranic Recitation Listening Relate to Memory Processing, Language Selectivity and Attentional Process

Authors: Samhani Ismail, Tahamina Begum, Faruque Reza, Zamzuri Idris, Hafizan Juahir, Jafri Malin Abdullah


Holy Quran, a rhymed prosed scripture has a complete literary structure that exemplifies the peak of literary beauty. Memorizing of its verses could enhance one’s memory capacity and cognition while those who are listening to its recitation it is also believed that the Holy Quran alter brainwave producing neuronal excitation engaging with cognitive processes. 28 normal healthy subjects (male =14 & female = 14) were recruited and EEG recording was done using 128-electrode sensor net (Electrical Geosics, Inc.) with the impedance of ≤ 50kΩ. They listened to Sura Fatiha recited by Sheikh Qari Abdul Basit bin Abdus Samad. Arabic news and no sound were chosen as positive and negative control, respectively. The waveform was analysed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to get the power in frequency bands. Bilateral frontal (F7, F8) and temporal region (T7, T8) showed decreased power significantly in alpha wave band in respondent stimulated by Sura Fatihah recitation reflects acoustic attention processing. However, decreased in alpha power in selective attention to memorized, and in familial but not memorized language, reveals the memorial processing in long-term memory. As a conclusion, Quranic recitation relates both cognitive element of memory and language in its listeners and memorizers.

Keywords: Cognition, Memory, Linguistic, eeg, auditory stimulation, Quranic recitation

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21 The Effect of Iconic and Beat Gestures on Memory Recall in Greek’s First and Second Language

Authors: Eleni Ioanna Levantinou


Gestures play a major role in comprehension and memory recall due to the fact that aid the efficient channel of the meaning and support listeners’ comprehension and memory. In the present study, the assistance of two kinds of gestures (iconic and beat gestures) is tested in regards to memory and recall. The hypothesis investigated here is whether or not iconic and beat gestures provide assistance in memory and recall in Greek and in Greek speakers’ second language. Two groups of participants were formed, one comprising Greeks that reside in Athens and one with Greeks that reside in Copenhagen. Three kinds of stimuli were used: A video with words accompanied with iconic gestures, a video with words accompanied with beat gestures and a video with words alone. The languages used are Greek and English. The words in the English videos were spoken by a native English speaker and by a Greek speaker talking English. The reason for this is that when it comes to beat gestures that serve a meta-cognitive function and are generated according to the intonation of a language, prosody plays a major role. Thus, participants that have different influences in prosody may generate different results from rhythmic gestures. Memory recall was assessed by asking the participants to try to remember as many words as they could after viewing each video. Results show that iconic gestures provide significant assistance in memory and recall in Greek and in English whether they are produced by a native or a second language speaker. In the case of beat gestures though, the findings indicate that beat gestures may not play such a significant role in Greek language. As far as intonation is concerned, a significant difference was not found in the case of beat gestures produced by a native English speaker and by a Greek speaker talking English.

Keywords: Memory, Second language acquisition, gestures, first language

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20 An Overview on the Effectiveness of Brand Mascot and Celebrity Endorsement

Authors: Isari Pairoa, Proud Arunrangsiwed


Celebrity and brand mascot endorsement have been explored for more than three decades. Both endorsers can effectively transfer their reputation to corporate image and can influence the customers to purchase the product. However, there was little known about the mediators between the level of endorsement and its effect on buying behavior. The objective of the current study is to identify the gab of the previous studies and to seek possible mediators. It was found that consumer’s memory and identification are the mediators, of source credibility and endorsement effect. A future study should confirm the model of endorsement, which was established in the current study.

Keywords: Memory, unintentional effect, product endorsement, identification theory, source credibility

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19 Cellular Automata Using Fractional Integral Model

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan


In this paper, a proposed model of cellular automata is studied by means of fractional integral function. A cellular automaton is a decentralized computing model providing an excellent platform for performing complex computation with the help of only local information. The paper discusses how using fractional integral function for representing cellular automata memory or state. The architecture of computing and learning model will be given and the results of calibrating of approach are also given.

Keywords: Learning, Memory, cellular automata, fractional integral

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18 The Role of Planning and Memory in the Navigational Ability

Authors: Greeshma Sharma, Sushil Chandra, Vijander Singh, Alok Prakash Mittal


Navigational ability requires spatial representation, planning, and memory. It covers three interdependent domains, i.e. cognitive and perceptual factors, neural information processing, and variability in brain microstructure. Many attempts have been made to see the role of spatial representation in the navigational ability, and the individual differences have been identified in the neural substrate. But, there is also a need to address the influence of planning, memory on navigational ability. The present study aims to evaluate relations of aforementioned factors in the navigational ability. Total 30 participants volunteered in the study of a virtual shopping complex and subsequently were classified into good and bad navigators based on their performances. The result showed that planning ability was the most correlated factor for the navigational ability and also the discriminating factor between the good and bad navigators. There was also found the correlations between spatial memory recall and navigational ability. However, non-verbal episodic memory and spatial memory recall were also found to be correlated with the learning variable. This study attempts to identify differences between people with more and less navigational ability on the basis of planning and memory.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Memory, planning navigational ability

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17 [Keynote Talk]: The Intoxicated Eyewitness: Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Identification Accuracy in Lineup

Authors: Vikas S. Minchekar


The eyewitness is a crucial source of evidence in the criminal judicial system. However, rely on the reminiscence of an eyewitness especially intoxicated eyewitness is not always judicious. It might lead to some serious consequences. Day by day, alcohol-related crimes or the criminal incidences in bars, nightclubs, and restaurants are increasing rapidly. Tackling such cases is very complicated to any investigation officers. The people in that incidents are violated due to the alcohol consumption hence, their ability to identify the suspects or recall these phenomena is affected. The studies on the effects of alcohol consumption on motor activities such as driving and surgeries have received much attention. However, the effect of alcohol intoxication on memory has received little attention from the psychology, law, forensic and criminology scholars across the world. In the Indian context, the published articles on this issue are equal to none up to present day. This field experiment investigation aimed at to finding out the effect of alcohol consumption on identification accuracy in lineups. Forty adult, social drinkers, and twenty sober adults were randomly recruited for the study. The sober adults were assigned into 'placebo' beverage group while social drinkers were divided into two group e. g. 'low dose' of alcohol (0.2 g/kg) and 'high dose' of alcohol (0.8 g/kg). The social drinkers were divided in such a way that their level of blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) will become different. After administering the beverages for the placebo group and liquor to the social drinkers for 40 to 50 minutes of the period, the five-minute video clip of mock crime is shown to all in a group of four to five members. After the exposure of video, clip subjects were given 10 portraits and asked them to recognize whether they are involved in mock crime or not. Moreover, they were also asked to describe the incident. The subjects were given two opportunities to recognize the portraits and to describe the events; the first opportunity is given immediately after the video clip and the second was 24 hours later. The obtained data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffe’s posthoc multiple comparison tests. The results indicated that the 'high dose' group is remarkably different from the 'placebo' and 'low dose' groups. But, the 'placebo' and 'low dose' groups are equally performed. The subjects in a 'high dose' group recognized only 20% faces correctly while the subjects in a 'placebo' and 'low dose' groups are recognized 90 %. This study implied that the intoxicated witnesses are less accurate to recognize the suspects and also less capable of describing the incidents where crime has taken place. Moreover, this study does not assert that intoxicated eyewitness is generally less trustworthy than their sober counterparts.

Keywords: Memory, intoxicated eyewitness, social drinkers, lineups

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16 Role of Maternal Astaxanthin Supplementation on Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Spatial Learning Behavior in Wistar Rat Offspring’s

Authors: K. M. Damodara Gowda


Background: Maternal health and nutrition are considered as the predominant factors influencing brain functional development. If the mother is free of illness and genetic defects, maternal nutrition would be one of the most critical factors affecting the brain development. Calorie restrictions cause significant impairment in spatial learning ability and the levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in rats. But, the mechanism by which the prenatal under-nutrition leads to impairment in brain learning and memory function is still unclear. In the present study, prenatal Astaxanthin supplementation on BDNF level, spatial learning and memory performance in the offspring’s of normal, calorie restricted and Astaxanthin supplemented rats was investigated. Methodology: The rats were administered with 6mg and 12 mg of astaxanthin /kg bw for 21 days following which acquisition and retention of spatial memory was tested in a partially-baited eight arm radial maze. The BDNF level in different regions of the brain (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) was estimated by ELISA method. Results: Calorie restricted animals treated with astaxanthin made significantly more correct choices (P < 0.05), and fewer reference memory errors (P < 0.05) on the tenth day of training compared to offsprings of calorie restricted animals. Calorie restricted animals treated with astaxanthin also made significantly higher correct choices (P < 0.001) than untreated calorie restricted animals in a retention test 10 days after the training period. The mean BDNF level in cerebral cortex, Hippocampus and cerebellum in Calorie restricted animals treated with astaxanthin didnot show significant variation from that of control animals. Conclusion: Findings of the study indicated that memory and learning was impaired in the offspring’s of calorie restricted rats which was effectively modulated by astaxanthin at the dosage of 12 mg/kg body weight. In the same way the BDNF level at cerebral cortex, Hippocampus and Cerebellum was also declined in the offspring’s of calorie restricted animals, which was also found to be effectively normalized by astaxanthin.

Keywords: Learning, Memory, Hippocampus, cerebellum, astaxanthin, BDNF, calorie restiction, Cerebral cortex

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15 Testing Supportive Feedback Strategies in Second/Foreign Language Vocabulary Acquisition between Typically Developing Children and Children with Learning Disabilities

Authors: Panagiota A. Kotsoni, George S. Ypsilandis


Learning an L2 is a demanding process for all students and in particular for those with learning disabilities (LD) who demonstrate an inability to catch up with their classmates’ progress in a given period of time. This area of study, i.e. examining children with learning disabilities in L2 has not (yet) attracted the growing interest that is registered in L1 and thus remains comparatively neglected. It is this scientific field that this study wishes to contribute to. The longitudinal purpose of this study is to locate effective Supportive Feedback Strategies (SFS) and add to the quality of learning in second language vocabulary in both typically developing (TD) and LD children. Specifically, this study aims at investigating and comparing the performance of TD with LD children on two different types of SFSs related to vocabulary short and long-term retention. In this study two different SFSs have been examined to a total of ten (10) unknown vocabulary items. Both strategies provided morphosyntactic clarifications upon new contextualized vocabulary items. The traditional SFS (direct) provided the information only in one hypertext page with a selection on the relevant item. The experimental SFS (engaging) provided the exact same split information in three successive hypertext pages in the form of a hybrid dialogue asking from the subjects to move on to the next page by selecting the relevant link. It was hypothesized that this way the subjects would engage in their own learning process by actively asking for more information which would further lead to their better retention. The participants were fifty-two (52) foreign language learners (33 TD and 19 LD) aged from 9 to 12, attending an English language school at the level of A1 (CEFR). The design of the study followed a typical pre-post-post test procedure after an hour and after a week. The results indicated statistically significant group differences with TD children performing significantly better than the LD group in both short and long-term memory measurements and in both SFSs. As regards the effectiveness of one SFS over another the initial hypothesis was not supported by the evidence as the traditional SFS was more effective compared to the experimental one in both TD and LD children. This difference proved to be statistically significant only in the long-term memory measurement and only in the TD group. It may be concluded that the human brain seems to adapt to different SFS although it shows a small preference when information is provided in a direct manner.

Keywords: Memory, Learning Disabilities, second/foreign language acquisition, supportive feedback

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14 Sub-Chronic Exposure to Dexamethasone Impairs Cognitive Function and Insulin in Prefrontal Cortex of Male Wistar Rats

Authors: A. Alli-Oluwafuyi, A. Amin, S. M. Fii, S. O. Amusa, A. Imam, N. T. Asogwa, W. I. Abdulmajeed, F. Olaseinde, B. V. Owoyele


Chronic stress or prolonged glucocorticoid administration impairs higher cognitive functions in rodents and humans. However, the mechanisms are not fully clear. Insulin and receptors are expressed in the brain and are involved in cognition. Insulin resistance accompanies Alzheimer’s disease and associated cognitive decline. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of sub-chronic administration of a glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DEX) on behavior and biochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Male Wistar rats were administered DEX (2, 4 & 8 mg/kg, IP) or saline for seven consecutive days and behavior was assessed in the following paradigms: “Y” maze, elevated plus maze, Morris’ water maze and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Insulin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity were evaluated in homogenates of the prefrontal cortex. DEX-treated rats exhibited impaired prefrontal cortex function manifesting as reduced locomotion, impaired novel object exploration and impaired short- and long-term spatial memory compared to normal controls (p < 0.05). These effects were not consistently dose-dependent. These behavioral alterations were accompanied by a decrease in insulin concentration observed in PFC of 4 mg/kg DEX-treated rats compared to control (10μIU/mg vs. 50μIU/mg; p < 0.05) but not 2mg/kg. Furthermore, we report a modification of brain stress markers LDH and SOD (p > 0.05). These results indicate that prolonged activation of GCs disrupt prefrontal cortex function which may be related to insulin impairment. These effects may not be attributable to a non-specific elevation of oxidative stress in the brain. Future studies would evaluate mechanisms of GR-induced insulin loss.

Keywords: Memory, insulin, dexamethasone, prefrontal cortex

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13 Rational Memory Therapy: The Counselling Technique to Control Psychological and Psychosomatic Illnesses

Authors: Sachin Deshmukh


Mind and body synchronization occurs through memory and sensation production. Sensations are the guiding language of subconscious mind for conscious mind to take a proper action. Mind-mechanism is based upon memories collected so far since intrauterine life. There are three universal triggers for memory creation; they are persons, situations and objects. Memory is created as sensations experienced by special senses. Based upon experiencing comfort or discomfort, the triggers are categorized as safe or unsafe triggers. A memory comprises of ‘safe or unsafe feeling for triggers, and actions taken for that feeling’. Memories for triggers are created slowly, thoughtfully and consciously by the conscious mind, and archived in the subconscious mind for future references. Later on, similar triggers can come in contact with the individual. Subconscious mind uses these stored feelings to decide whether these triggers are safe or unsafe. It produces comfort or discomfort sensations as emotions accordingly and reacts in the same way as has been recorded in memory. Speed of sensing and processing the triggers, and reacting by subconscious mind is that of the speed of bioelectricity. Hence, formula for human emotions has been designed in this paper as follows: Emotion (Stress or Peace) = Trigger (Person or Situation or object) x Mass of feelings (stressful or peaceful) associated with the Trigger x Speed of Light². We also establish modern medical scientific facts about relationship between reflex activity and memory. This research further develops the ‘Rational Memory Therapy’ focusing on therapeutic feelings conversion techniques, for stress prevention and management.

Keywords: Memory, sensations, Emotions, Feelings, rational memory therapy

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12 Memory and Narratives Rereading before and after One Week

Authors: Abigail M. Csik, Gabriel A. Radvansky


As people read through event-based narratives, they construct an event model that captures information about the characters, goals, location, time, and causality. For many reasons, memory for such narratives is represented at different levels, namely, the surface form, textbase, and event model levels. Rereading has been shown to decrease surface form memory, while, at the same time, increasing textbase and event model memories. More generally, distributed practice has consistently shown memory benefits over massed practice for different types of materials, including texts. However, little research has investigated distributed practice of narratives at different inter-study intervals and these effects on these three levels of memory. Recent work in our lab has indicated that there may be dramatic changes in patterns of forgetting around one week, which may affect the three levels of memory. The present experiment aimed to determine the effects of rereading on the three levels of memory as a factor of whether the texts were reread before versus after one week. Participants (N = 42) read a set of stories, re-read them either before or after one week (with an inter-study interval of three days, seven days, or fourteen days), and then took a recognition test, from which the three levels of representation were derived. Signal detection results from this study reveal that differential patterns at the three levels as a factor of whether the narratives were re-read prior to one week or after one week. In particular, an ANOVA revealed that surface form memory was lower (p = .08) while textbase (p = .02) and event model memory (p = .04) were greater if narratives were re-read 14 days later compared to memory when narratives were re-read 3 days later. These results have implications for what type of memory benefits from distributed practice at various inter-study intervals.

Keywords: Memory, consolidation, event cognition, distributed practice

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11 Shadows and Symbols: The Tri-Level Importance of Memory in Jane Yolen's 'the Devil's Arithmetic' and Soon-To-Be-Published 'Mapping the Bones'

Authors: Kirsten A. Bartels


'Never again' and 'Lest we forget' have long been messages associated with the events of the Shoah. Yet as we attempt to learn from the past, we must find new ways to engage with its memories. The preservation of the culture and the value of tradition are critical factors in Jane Yolen's works of Holocaust fiction, The Devil's Arithmetic and Mapping the Bones, emphasized through the importance of remembering. That word, in its multitude of forms (remember, remembering, memories), occurs no less than ten times in the first four pages and over one hundred times in the one hundred and sixty-four-page narrative The Devil’s Arithmetic. While Yolen takes a different approach to showcasing the importance of memory in Mapping the Bones, it is of equal import in this work and arguably to the future of Holocaust knowing. The idea of remembering, the desire to remember, and the ability to remember, are explored in three divergent ways in The Devil’s Arithmetic. First, in the importance to remember a past which is not her own – to understand history or acquired memories. Second, in the protagonist's actual or initial memories, those of her life in modern-day New York. Third, in a reverse mode of forgetting and trying to reacquire that which has been lost -- as Hannah is processed in the camp and she forgets everything, all worlds prior to the camp are lost to her. As numbers replace names, Yolen stresses the importance of self-identity or owned memories. In addition, the importance of relaying memory, the transitions of memory from perspective, and the ideas of reflective telling are explored in Mapping the Bones -- through the telling of the story through the lens of one of the twins as the events are unfolding; and then the through the reflective telling from the lens of the other twin. Parallel to the exploration of the intersemiosis of memory is the discussion of literary shadows (foreshadowing, backshadowing, and side-shadowing) and their impact on the reader's experience with Yolen's narrative. For in this type of exploration, one cannot look at the events described in Yolen's work and not also contemplate the figurative shadows cast.

Keywords: Memory, Narrative, holocaust literature, Yolen

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10 Serial Position Curves under Compressively Expanding and Contracting Schedules of Presentation

Authors: Priya Varma, Denis John McKeown


Psychological time, unlike physical time, is believed to be ‘compressive’ in the sense that the mental representations of a series of events may be internally arranged with ever decreasing inter-event spacing (looking back from the most recently encoded event). If this is true, the record within immediate memory of recent events is severely temporally distorted. Although this notion of temporal distortion of the memory record is captured within some theoretical accounts of human forgetting, notably temporal distinctiveness accounts, the way in which the fundamental nature of the distortion underpins memory and forgetting broadly is barely recognised or at least directly investigated. Our intention here was to manipulate the spacing of items for recall in order to ‘reverse’ this supposed natural compression within the encoding of the items. In Experiment 1 three schedules of presentation (expanding, contracting and fixed irregular temporal spacing) were created using logarithmic spacing of the words for both free and serial recall conditions. The results of recall of lists of 7 words showed statistically significant benefits of temporal isolation, and more excitingly the contracting word series (which we may think of as reversing the natural compression within the mental representation of the word list) showed best performance. Experiment 2 tested for effects of active verbal rehearsal in the recall task; this reduced but did not remove the benefits of our temporal scheduling manipulation. Finally, a third experiment used the same design but with Chinese characters as memoranda, in a further attempt to subvert possible verbal maintenance of items. One change to the design here was to introduce a probe item following the sequence of items and record response times to this probe. Together the outcomes of the experiments broadly support the notion of temporal compression within immediate memory.

Keywords: Memory, serial position curves, temporal isolation, temporal schedules

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9 Electroencephalography Correlates of Memorability While Viewing Advertising Content

Authors: Victor N. Anisimov, Igor E. Serov, Ksenia M. Kolkova, Natalia V. Galkina


The problem of memorability of the advertising content is closely connected with the key issues of neuromarketing. The memorability of the advertising content contributes to the marketing effectiveness of the promoted product. Significant directions of studying the phenomenon of memorability are the memorability of the brand (detected through the memorability of the logo) and the memorability of the product offer (detected through the memorization of dynamic audiovisual advertising content - commercial). The aim of this work is to reveal the predictors of memorization of static and dynamic audiovisual stimuli (logos and commercials). An important direction of the research was revealing differences in psychophysiological correlates of memorability between static and dynamic audiovisual stimuli. We assumed that static and dynamic images are perceived in different ways and may have a difference in the memorization process. Objective methods of recording psychophysiological parameters while watching static and dynamic audiovisual materials are well suited to achieve the aim. The electroencephalography (EEG) method was performed with the aim of identifying correlates of the memorability of various stimuli in the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex. All stimuli (in the groups of statics and dynamics separately) were divided into 2 groups – remembered and not remembered based on the results of the questioning method. The questionnaires were filled out by survey participants after viewing the stimuli not immediately, but after a time interval (for detecting stimuli recorded through long-term memorization). Using statistical method, we developed the classifier (statistical model) that predicts which group (remembered or not remembered) stimuli gets, based on psychophysiological perception. The result of the statistical model was compared with the results of the questionnaire. Conclusions: Predictors of the memorability of static and dynamic stimuli have been identified, which allows prediction of which stimuli will have a higher probability of remembering. Further developments of this study will be the creation of stimulus memory model with the possibility of recognizing the stimulus as previously seen or new. Thus, in the process of remembering the stimulus, it is planned to take into account the stimulus recognition factor, which is one of the most important tasks for neuromarketing.

Keywords: branding, Memory, eeg, Neuromarketing, commercials

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8 Harrison’s Stolen: Addressing Aboriginal and Indigenous Islanders Human Rights

Authors: M. Shukry


According to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, every human being is entitled to rights in life that should be respected by others and protected by the state and community. Such rights are inherent regardless of colour, ethnicity, gender, religion or otherwise, and it is expected that all humans alike have the right to live without discrimination of any sort. However, that has not been the case with Aborigines in Australia. Over a long period of time, the governments of the State and the Territories and the Australian Commonwealth denied the Aboriginal and Indigenous inhabitants of the Torres Strait Islands such rights. Past Australian governments set policies and laws that enabled them to forcefully remove Indigenous children from their parents, which resulted in creating lost generations living the trauma of the loss of cultural identity, alienation and even their own selfhood. Intending to reduce that population of natives and their Aboriginal culture while, on the other hand, assimilate them into mainstream society, they gave themselves the right to remove them from their families with no hope of return. That practice has led to tragic consequences due to the trauma that has affected those children, an experience that is depicted by Jane Harrison in her play Stolen. The drama is the outcome of a six-year project on lost children and which was first performed in 1997 in Melbourne. Five actors only appear on the stage, playing the role of all the different characters, whether the main protagonists or the remaining cast, present or non-present ones as voices. The play outlines the life of five children who have been taken from their parents at an early age, entailing a disastrous negative impact that differs from one to the other. Unknown to each other, what connects between them is being put in a children’s home. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the play’s text in light of the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights, using it as a lens that reflects the atrocities practiced against the Aborigines. It highlights how such practices formed an outrageous violation of those natives’ rights as human beings. Harrison’s dramatic technique in conveying the children’s experiences is through a non-linear structure, fluctuating between past and present that are linked together within each of the five characters, reflecting their suffering and pain to create an emotional link between them and the audience. Her dramatic handling of the issue by fusing tragedy with humour as well as symbolism is a successful technique in revealing the traumatic memory of those children and their present life. The play has made a difference in commencing to address the problem of the right of all children to be with their families, which renders the real meaning of having a home and an identity as people.

Keywords: Trauma, Human Rights, Culture, Identity, Children, Memory, Indigenous, drama, Australia, audience, stage, setting, aboriginal, home, Jane Harrison, scenic effects, stage directions, Stolen

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