Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

membrane separation Related Abstracts

3 Influence of La0.1Sr0.9Co1-xFexO3-δ Catalysts on Oxygen Permeation Using Mixed Conductor

Authors: Y. Muto, S. Araki, H. Yamamoto


The separation of oxygen is one key technology to improve the efficiency and to reduce the cost for the processed of the partial oxidation of the methane and the condensation of the carbon dioxide. Particularly, carbon dioxide at high concentration would be obtained by the combustion using pure oxygen separated from air. However, the oxygen separation process occupied the large part of energy consumption. Therefore, it is considered that the membrane technologies enable to separation at lower cost and lower energy consumption than conventional methods. In this study, it is examined that the separation of oxygen using membranes of mixed conductors. Oxygen permeation through the membrane is occurred by the following three processes. At first, the oxygen molecules dissociate into oxygen ion at feed side of the membrane, subsequently, oxygen ions diffuse in the membrane. Finally, oxygen ions recombine to form the oxygen molecule. Therefore, it is expected that the membrane of thickness and material, or catalysts of the dissociation and recombination affect the membrane performance. However, there is little article about catalysts for the dissociation and recombination. We confirmed the performance of La0.6Sr0.4Co1.0O3-δ (LSC) based catalyst which was commonly used as the dissociation and recombination. It is known that the adsorbed amount of oxygen increase with the increase of doped Fe content in B site of LSC. We prepared the catalysts of La0.1Sr0.9Co0.9Fe0.1O3-δ(C9F1), La0.1Sr0.9Co0.5Fe0.5O3-δ(C5F5) and La0.1Sr0.9Co0.3Fe0.7O3-δ(C7F3). Also, we used Pr2NiO4 type mixed conductor as a membrane material. (Pr0.9La0.1)2(Ni0.74Cu0.21Ga0.05)O4+δ(PLNCG) shows the high oxygen permeability and the stability against carbon dioxide. Oxygen permeation experiments were carried out using a homemade apparatus at 850 -975 °C. The membrane was sealed with Pyrex glass at both end of the outside dense alumina tubes. To measure the oxygen permeation rate, air was fed to the film side at 50 ml min-1, helium as the sweep gas and reference gas was fed at 20 ml min-1. The flow rates of the sweep gas and the gas permeated through the membrane were measured using flow meter and the gas concentrations were determined using a gas chromatograph. Then, the permeance of the oxygen was determined using the flow rate and the concentration of the gas on the permeate side of the membrane. The increase of oxygen permeation was observed with increasing temperature. It is considered that this is due to the catalytic activities are increased with increasing temperature. Another reason is the increase of oxygen diffusivity in the bulk of membrane. The oxygen permeation rate is improved by using catalyst of LSC or LSCF. The oxygen permeation rate of membrane with LSCF showed higher than that of membrane with LSC. Furthermore, in LSCF catalysts, oxygen permeation rate increased with the increase of the doped amount of Fe. It is considered that this is caused by the increased of adsorbed amount of oxygen.

Keywords: membrane separation, oxygen permeation, K2NiF4-type structure, mixed conductor

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2 Preparation of hydrophobic silica membranes supported on alumina hollow fibers for pervaporation applications

Authors: Sadao Araki, Daisuke Gondo, Hideki Yamamoto, Ami Okabe, Akira Ogawa, Yasuhisa Hasegawa, Koichi Sato


Membrane separation draws attention as the energy-saving technology. Pervaporation (PV) uses hydrophobic ceramic membranes to separate organic compounds from industrial wastewaters. PV makes it possible to separate organic compounds from azeotropic mixtures and from aqueous solutions. For the PV separation of low concentrations of organics from aqueous solutions, hydrophobic ceramic membranes are expected to have high separation performance compared with that of conventional hydrophilic membranes. Membrane separation performance is evaluated based on the pervaporation separation index (PSI), which depends on both the separation factor and the permeate flux. Ingenuity is required to increase the PSI such that the permeate flux increases without reducing the separation factor or to increase the separation factor without reducing the flux. A thin separation layer without defects and pinholes is required. In addition, it is known that the flux can be increased without reducing the separation factor by reducing the diffusion resistance of the membrane support. In a previous study, we prepared hydrophobic silica membranes by a molecular templating sol−gel method using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to form pores suitable for permitting the passage of organic compounds through the membrane. We separated low-concentration organics from aqueous solutions by PV using these membranes. In the present study, hydrophobic silica membranes were prepared on a porous alumina hollow fiber support that is thinner than the previously used alumina support. Ethyl acetate (EA) is used in large industrial quantities, so it was selected as the organic substance to be separated. Hydrophobic silica membranes were prepared by dip-coating porous alumina supports with a -alumina interlayer into a silica sol containing CTAB and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) as the silica precursor. Membrane thickness increases with the lifting speed of the sol in the dip-coating process. Different thicknesses of the γ-alumina layer were prepared by dip-coating the support into a boehmite sol at different lifting speeds (0.5, 1, 3, and 5 mm s-1). Silica layers were subsequently formed by dip-coating using an immersion time of 60 s and lifting speed of 1 mm s-1. PV measurements of the EA (5 wt.%)/water system were carried out using VTMS hydrophobic silica membranes prepared on -alumina layers of different thicknesses. Water and EA flux showed substantially constant value despite of the change of the lifting speed to form the γ-alumina interlayer. All prepared hydrophobic silica membranes showed the higher PSI compared with the hydrophobic membranes using the previous alumina support of hollow fiber.

Keywords: Pervaporation, hydrophobic, silica, membrane separation

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1 Wastewater Treatment from Heavy Metals by Nanofiltration and Ion Exchange

Authors: G. G. Kagramanov, E. N. Farnosova, Linn Maung Maung


The technologies of ion exchange and nanofiltration can be used for treatment of wastewater containing copper and other heavy metal ions to decrease the environmental risks. Nanofiltration characteristics under water treatment of heavy metals have been studied. The influence of main technical process parameters - pressure, temperature, concentration and pH value of the initial solution on flux and rejection of nanofiltration membranes has been considered. And ion exchange capacities of resins in removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater have been determined.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Nanofiltration, ion exchange, membrane separation, exchange capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 142