Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Melatonin Related Abstracts

12 Synthesis and Evaluation of Antioxidant Behavior of Some Indole-Based Melatonin Derivatives

Authors: Eddy Neuhaus, Hanif Shirinzadeh, Cigdem Karaaslan, Elif Ince, Hande Gurer-Orhan, Sibel Suzen

Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress can cause fatal damage to essential cell structures, including DNA. It is known that use of antioxidants could be advantageous in the prevention of various diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. Since antioxidant properties of the indole ring-containing melatonin (MLT) has been described and evaluated, MLT-related compounds such as MLT metabolites and synthetic analogues are under investigation to determine which exhibit the highest activity with the lowest side-effects. Owing to indole and hydrazones appealing physiological properties and are mostly found in numerous biologically active compounds a series of indole-7-carbaldehyde hydrazone derivatives were synthesized, characterized and in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated by evaluating their reducing effect against oxidation of a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe. Cytotoxicity potential of all indole-based MLT analogues was investigated both by lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and by MTT assay. This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) Research and Development Grant 112S599.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Melatonin, antioxidant activity, indole, hydrazone

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11 Study and Melanocyte Adrenocorticotropic Effects on Sugar Metabolism and Immune Response in Rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus

Authors: A. Bouaouiche, M. S. Boulakoud

Abstract:

The functioning of the pineal gland, the transducer body of environmental information to the neuroendocrine system is subject to a circadian rhythm. Melatonin is the main neuro-hormone expressing this operation. It is synthesized in the pinealocytes after conversion serotonin via N-acetyl-transferase enzyme, itself subject to a photoperiodic modulation (activation dark inhibition by light). Some authors have suggested that melatonin is involved in diabetic disease and found that it could have a diabetogenic effect. To this study the effect of this hormone on glucose metabolism has long been subject to controversy. Agreeing in effect and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic effect. In order to illustrate the level of interaction of melatonin with neuro-immune- corticotropin axis and its impact on carbohydrate metabolism, we studied the impact homeostatic (glucose) through the solicitation of two control systems (gland pineal and corticotropin axis). We then found that melatonin could have an indirect influence on insulin control (glucose metabolism) to the levels of the growth hormone axis (somatostatin) and adrenocorticotropic (corticotropin). In addition, we have suggested that melatonin might limit the hyperglycemic action of corticosteroids by direct action at peripheral level.

Keywords: Metabolism, Melatonin, pinéal gland, neuro-immuno-corticotrop

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10 Indoleamines (Serotonin & Melatonin) in Edible Plants: Its Influence on Human Health

Authors: G. A. Ravishankar, A. Ramakrishna

Abstract:

Melatonin (MEL) and Serotonin (SER), also known as [5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] are reported to be in a range of plant types which are edible. Their occurrence in plants species appears to be ubiquitous. Their presence in high quantities in plants assumes significance owing to their physiological effects upon consumption by human beings. MEL is a well known animal hormone mainly released by the pineal gland known to influence circadian rhythm, sleep, apart from immune enhancement. Similarly, SER is a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, sleep and anxiety in mammals. It is implicated in memory, behavioral changes, scavenging reactive oxygen species, antipsychotic, etc. Similarly Role of SER and MEL in plant morphogenesis, and various physiological processes through intense research is beginning to unfold. These molecules are in common foods viz banana, pineapple, plum, nuts, milk, grape wine. N- Feruloyl serotonin and p-coumaroyl serotonin found in certain seeds are found to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, and anti-stress potential apart from reducing depression and anxiety. MEL is found in Mediterranean diets, nuts, cherries, tomato berries, and olive products. Consumption of foods rich in MEL is known to increase blood MEL levels which have been implicated in protective effect against cardiovascular damage, cancer initiation and growth. MEL is also found in wines, green tea, beer, olive oil etc. Moreover, presence of SER and MEL in Coffee beans (green and roasted beans) and decoction has been reported us. In this communication we report the occurrence of indole amines in edible plants and their implications in human health.

Keywords: Neurotransmitters, Serotonin, Melatonin, Edible Plants, physiological effects

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9 Attenuation of Endotoxin Induced Hepatotoxicity by Dexamethasone, Melatonin and Pentoxifylline in White Albino Mice: A Comparative Study

Authors: Ammara Khan

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Sepsis is characterized by an overwhelming surge of cytokines and oxidative stress to one of many factors, gram-negative bacteria commonly implicated. Despite major expansion and elaboration of sepsis pathophysiology and therapeutic approach; death rate remains very high in septic patients due to multiple organ damages including hepatotoxicity.The present study was aimed to ascertain the adequacy of three different drugs delivered separately and collectively- low dose steroid-dexamethasone (3mg/kg i.p) ,antioxidant-melatonin(10 mg/kg i.p) ,and phosphodiesterases inhibitor - pentoxifylline (75 mg/kg i.p)in endotoxin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Endotoxin/lipopolysaccharides induced hepatotoxicity was reproduced in mice by giving lipopolysaccharide of serotype E.Coli intraperitoneally. The preventive role was questioned by giving the experimental agent half an hour prior to LPS injection whereas the therapeutic potential of the experimental agent was searched out via post-LPS delivering. The extent of liver damage was adjudged via serum alanine aminotransferases (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) estimation along with a histopathological examination of liver tissue. Dexamethasone is given before (Group 3) and after LPS (group 4) significantly attenuated LPS generated liver injury.Pentoxifylline generated similar results and serum ALT; AST histological alteration abated considerably (p≤ 0.05) both in animals subjected to pentoxifylline pre (Group 5) and post-treatment(Group 6). Melatonin was also prosperous in aversion (Group 7) and curation (Group 8) of LPS invoked hepatotoxicity as evident by lessening of augmented ALT (≤0.01) and AST (≤0.01) along with restoration of pathological changes in liver sections (p≤0.05). Combination therapies with dexamethasone in conjunction with melatonin (Group 9), dexamethasone together with pentoxifylline (Group 10), and pentoxifylline along with melatonin (Group 11) after LPS administration tapered LPS evoked hepatic dysfunction statistically considerably. In conclusion, both melatonin and pentoxifylline set up promising results in endotoxin-induced hepatotoxicity and can be used therapeutic adjuncts to conventional treatment strategies in sepsis-induced liver failure.

Keywords: Melatonin, hepatotoxicity, dexamethasone, endotoxin/lipopolysacchride, pentoxifylline

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8 Gastro-Protective Actions of Melatonin and Murraya koenigii Leaf Extract Combination in Piroxicam Treated Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Syed Benazir Firdaus, Debosree Ghosh, Aindrila Chattyopadhyay, Kuladip Jana, Debasish Bandyopadhyay

Abstract:

Gastro-toxic effect of piroxicam, a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has restricted its use in arthritis and similar diseases. The present study aims to find if a combination of melatonin and Murraya koenigii leaf extract therapy can protect against piroxicam induced ulcerative damage in rats. For this study, rats were divided into four groups namely control group where rats were orally administered distilled water, only combination treated group, piroxicam treated group and combination pre-administered piroxicam treated group. Each group of rats consisted of six animals. Melatonin at a dose of 20mg/kg body weight and antioxidant rich Murraya koenigii leaf extract at a dose of 50 mg /kg body weight were successively administered at 30 minutes interval one hour before oral administration of piroxicam at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to Wistar rats in the combination pre-administered piroxicam treated group. The rats of the animal group which was only combination treated were administered both the drugs respectively without piroxicam treatment whereas the piroxicam treated animal group was administered only piroxicam at 30mg/kg body weight without any pre-treatment with the combination. Macroscopic examination along with histo-pathological study of gastric tissue using haemotoxylin-eosin staining and alcian blue dye staining showed protection of the gastric mucosa in the combination pre-administered piroxicam treated group. Determination of adherent mucus content biochemically and collagen content through Image J analysis of picro-sirius stained sections of rat gastric tissue also revealed protective effects of the combination in piroxicam mediated toxicity. Gelatinolytic activity of piroxicam was significantly reduced by pre-administration of the drugs which was well exhibited by the gelatin zymography study of the rat gastric tissue. Mean ulcer index determined from macroscopic study of rat stomach reduced to a minimum (0±0.00; Mean ± Standard error of mean and number of animals in the group=6) indicating the absence of ulcer spots on pre-treatment of rats with the combination. Gastro-friendly prostaglandin (PGE2) which otherwise gets depleted on piroxicam treatment was also well protected when the combination was pre-administered in the rats prior to piroxicam treatment. The requirement of the individual drugs in low doses in this combinatorial therapeutic approach will possibly minimize the cost of therapy as well as it will eliminate the possibility of any pro-oxidant side effects on the use of high doses of antioxidants. Beneficial activity of this combination therapy in the rat model raises the possibility that similar protective actions might be also observed if it is adopted by patients consuming NSAIDs like piroxicam. However, the introduction of any such therapeutic approach is subject to future studies in human.

Keywords: Melatonin, piroxicam, gastro-protective action, Murraya koenigii leaf extract

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7 Effect of Fermented Orange Juice Intake on Urinary 6‑Sulfatoxymelatonin in Healthy Volunteers

Authors: I. Cerrillo, A. Carrillo-Vico, M. A. Ortega, B. Escudero-López, N. Álvarez-Sánchez, F. Martín, M. S. Fernández-Pachón

Abstract:

Melatonin is a bioactive compound involved in multiple biological activities such as glucose tolerance, circadian rhythm regulation, antioxidant defense or immune system action. In elderly subjects the intake of foods and drinks rich in melatonin is very important due to its endogenous level decreases with age. Alcoholic fermentation is a process carried out in fruits, vegetables and legumes to obtain new products with improved bioactive compounds profile in relation to original substrates. Alcoholic fermentation process carried out by Saccharomycetaceae var. Pichia kluyveri induces an important synthesis of melatonin in orange juice. A novel beverage derived of fermented orange juice could be a promising source of this bioactive compound. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the acute intake of fermented orange juice increase the levels of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in healthy humans. Nine healthy volunteers (7 women and 2 men), aged between 20 and 25 years old and BMI of 21.1  2.4 kg/m2, were recruited. On the study day, participants ingested 500 mL of fermented orange juice. The first urine collection was made before fermented orange juice consumption (basal). The rest of urine collections were made in the following time intervals after fermented orange juice consumption: 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10- 15 and 15-24 hours. During the experimental period only the consumption of water was allowed. At lunch time a meal was provided (60 g of white bread, two slices of ham, a slice of cheese, 125 g of sweetened natural yoghurt and water). The subjects repeated the protocol with orange juice following a 2-wk washout period between both types of beverages. The levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SMT) were measured in urine recollected at different time points using the Melatonin-Sulfate Urine ELISA (IBL International GMBH, Hamburg, Germany). Levels of 6-SMT were corrected to those of creatinine for each sample. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in urinary 6-SMT levels was observed between 2-5 hours after fermented orange juice ingestion with respect to basal values (increase of 67,8 %). The consumption of orange juice did not induce any significant change in urinary 6-SMT levels. In addition, urinary 6-SMT levels obtained between 2-5 hours after fermented orange juice ingestion (115,6 ng/mg) were significantly different (p < 0.05) from those of orange juice (42,4 ng/mg). The enhancement of urinary 6-SMT after the ingestion of 500 mL of fermented orange juice in healthy humans compared to orange juice could be an important advantage of this novel product as an excellent source of melatonin. Fermented orange juice could be a new functional food, and its consumption could exert a potentially positive effect on health in both the maintenance of health status and the prevention of chronic diseases.

Keywords: Functional beverage, Melatonin, fermented orange juice, healthy human

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6 The Effect of Melatonin on Acute Liver Injury: Implication to Shift Work Related Sleep Deprivation

Authors: Bing-Fang Lee, Srinivasan Periasamy, Ming-Yie Liu

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Shift work sleep disorder is a common problem in industrialized world. It is a type of circadian rhythmic sleep disorders characterized by insomnia and sleep deprivation. Lack of sleep in workers may lead to poor health conditions such as hepatic dysfunction. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland to alleviate insomnia. Moreover, it is a powerful antioxidant and may prevent acute liver injury. Therefore, workers take in melatonin to deal with sleep-related health is an important issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on an acute hepatic injury model sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with a single dose (500 mg/kg) of monocrotaline (MCT) to induce SOS. Melatonin (1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) was injected 1 h before MCT treatment. After 24 h of MCT treatment, mice were sacrificed. The blood and liver were collected. Organ damage was evaluated by serum biochemistry, hematology analyzer, and histological examination. Low doses of melatonin (1 and 3 mg/kg) had no protective effect on SOS. However, high doses (10 and 30 mg/kg) exacerbated SOS. In addition, it not only increased serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and extended liver damage indicated by histological examination but also decreased platelet levels, lymphocyte ratio, and glutathione level; it had no effect on malondialdehyde and nitric oxide level in SOS mice. To conclude, melatonin may exacerbate MCT-induced SOS in mice. Furthermore, melatonin might have a synergistic action with SOS. Usage of melatonin for insomnia by people working in long shift must be cautioned; it might cause acute hepatic injury.

Keywords: Sleep Deprivation, Melatonin, Shift work, acute liver injury

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5 Co-Culture of Neonate Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells with Sertoli Cells: Inductive Role of Melatonin following Transplantation: Adult Azoospermia Mouse Model

Authors: Mehdi Abbasi, Shadan Navid, Mohammad Pourahmadi, M. Majidi Zolbin

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We have recently reported that melatonin as antioxidant enhances the efficacy of colonization of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Melatonin as an antioxidant plays a vital role in the development of SSCs in vitro. This study aimed to investigate evaluation of sertoli cells and melatonin simultaneously on SSC proliferation following transplantation to testis of adult mouse busulfan-treated azoospermia model. SSCs and sertoli cells were isolated from the testes of three to six-day old male mice.To determine the purity, Flow cytometry technique using PLZF antibody were evaluated. Isolated testicular cells were cultured in αMEM medium in the absence (control group) or presence (experimental group) of sertoli cells and melatonin extract for 2 weeks. We then transplanted SSCs by injection into the azoospermia mice model. Higher viability, proliferation, and Id4, Plzf, expression were observed in the presence of simultaneous sertoli cells and melatonin in vitro. Moreover, immunocytochemistry results showed higher Oct4 expression in this group. Eight weeks after transplantation, injected cells were localized at the base of seminiferous tubules in the recipient testes. The number of spermatogonia and the weight of testis were higher in the experimental group relative to control group. The results of our study suggest that this new protocol can increase the transplantation of these cells can be useful in the treatment of male infertility.

Keywords: Transplantation, colonization, Melatonin, spermatogonial stem cell

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4 Effect of Melatonin on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Catharanthus roseus under Cadmium Stress

Authors: Rayhaneh Amooaghaie, Masoomeh Nabaei

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In this study, 200 µM Cd reduced relative seed germination, root elongation tolerance and seed germination tolerance index of Catharanthus roseus. The melatonin improved seed germination, germination velocity, seedling length and vigor index under Cd stress in a dose-dependent manner and the maximum biological responses obtained by 100 μM melatonin. However, 200-400 μM melatonin and 400 μM SNP had negative effects that evidenced as lower germination indices and poor establishment of seedlings. The cadmium suppressed amylase activity and contents of soluble and reducing sugars in germinating seeds, thereby reduced seed germination and subsequent seedling growth whereas increased electrolyte leakage. These Cd-induced inhibitory effects were ameliorated by melatonin.

Keywords: Melatonin, seed germination, cadmium, Catharanthus roseus

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3 Melatonin Suppresses the Brain Injury after Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion in Hyperglycemic Rats

Authors: Dalia O. Saleha, Gehad A. Abdel Jaleela, Sally W. Al-Awdana

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to exacerbate cerebral ischemic injury. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of oral supplementation of melatonin (MLN) on cerebral injury caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/Re) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats. Hyperglycemia was induced by a single injection of STZ (55mg/kg; i.p.), six weeks later the cerebral injury was induced by MCAO/Re. Twenty-four hours after the MCAO/Re the MLN (10 mg/kg) was injected for 14 consecutive days. Results of the present study revealed that MCAO/Re in STZ-induced hyperglycemia in rats causes an increase in the oxidative stress biomarkers; it increased brain lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA) and brain level of nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, MCAO/Reproduces a prominent increase in the brain inflammatory markers viz. interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis nuclear factor-alpha (TNF-α). Oral treatment of MCAO/Re in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats with MLN (10 mg/kg) for two weeks restored the brain levels of MDA, GSH, NO, IL-6, IL-1β and the TNF-α. MLN succeeded to suppress the exacerbation of damage in the brain of hyperglycemic rats. These results suggest that daily intake of MLN attenuates the exacerbation of cerebral ischemic injury in a diabetic state, which may be attributed to anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the brain.

Keywords: rats, Brain Injury, Melatonin, hyperglycemia, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

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2 The Effects of Circadian Rhythms Change in High Latitudes

Authors: Ekaterina Zvorykina

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Nowadays, Arctic and Antarctic regions are distinguished to be one of the most important strategic resources for global development. Nonetheless, living conditions in Arctic regions still demand certain improvements. As soon as the region is rarely populated, one of the main points of interest is health accommodation of the people, who migrate to Arctic region for permanent and shift work. At Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, personnel face polar day and polar night conditions during the time of the year. It means that they are deprived of natural sunlight in winter season and have continuous daylight in summer. Firstly, the change in light intensity during 24-hours period due to migration affects circadian rhythms. Moreover, the controlled artificial light in winter is also an issue. The results of the recent studies on night shift medical professionals, who were exposed to permanent artificial light, have already demonstrated higher risks in cancer, depression, Alzheimer disease. Moreover, people exposed to frequent time zones change are also subjected to higher risks of heart attack and cancer. Thus, our main goals are to understand how high latitude work and living conditions can affect human health and how it can be prevented. In our study, we analyze molecular and cellular factors, which play important role in circadian rhythm change and distinguish main risk groups in people, migrating to high latitudes. The main well-studied index of circadian timing is melatonin or its metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. In low light intensity melatonin synthesis is disturbed and as a result human organism requires more time for sleep, which is still disregarded when it comes to working time organization. Lack of melatonin also causes shortage in serotonin production, which leads to higher depression risk. Melatonin is also known to inhibit oncogenes and increase apoptosis level in cells, the main factors for tumor growth, as well as circadian clock genes (for example Per2). Thus, people who work in high latitudes can be distinguished as a risk group for cancer diseases and demand more attention. Clock/Clock genes, known to be one of the main circadian clock regulators, decrease sensitivity of hypothalamus to estrogen and decrease glucose sensibility, which leads to premature aging and oestrous cycle disruption. Permanent light exposure also leads to accumulation superoxide dismutase and oxidative stress, which is one of the main factors for early dementia and Alzheimer disease. We propose a new screening system adjusted for people, migrating from middle to high latitudes and accommodation therapy. Screening is focused on melatonin and estrogen levels, sleep deprivation and neural disorders, depression level, cancer risks and heart and vascular disorders. Accommodation therapy includes different types artificial light exposure, additional melatonin and neuroprotectors. Preventive procedures can lead to increase of migration intensity to high latitudes and, as a result, the prosperity of Arctic region.

Keywords: Circadian Rhythm, Melatonin, high latitudes, neuroprotectors

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1 The Effect of Common Daily Schedule on the Human Circadian Rhythms during the Polar Day on Svalbard: Field Study

Authors: Kamila Weissova, Jitka Skrabalova, Katerina Skalova, Jana Koprivova, Zdenka Bendova

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Any Arctic visitor has to deal with extreme conditions, including constant light during the summer season or constant darkness during winter time. Light/dark cycle is the most powerful synchronizing signal for biological clock and the absence of daily dark period during the polar day can significantly alter the functional state of the internal clock. However, the inner clock can be synchronized by other zeitgebers such as physical activity, food intake or social interactions. Here, we investigated the effect of polar day on circadian clock of 10 researchers attending the polar base station in the Svalbard region during July. The data obtained on Svalbard were compared with the data obtained before the researchers left for the expedition (in the Czech Republic). To determine the state of circadian clock we used wrist actigraphy followed by sleep diaries, saliva, and buccal mucosa samples, both collected every 4 hours during 24h-interval to detect melatonin by radioimmunoassay and clock gene (PER1, BMAL1, NR1D1, DBP) mRNA levels by RT-qPCR. The clock gene expression was analyzed using cosinor analysis. From our results, it is apparent that the constant sunlight delayed melatonin onset and postponed the physical activity in the same order. Nevertheless, the clock gene expression displayed higher amplitude on Svalbard compared to the amplitude detected in the Czech Republic. These results have suggested that the common daily schedule at the Svalbard expedition can strengthen circadian rhythm in the environment that is lacking light/dark cycle. In conclusion, the constant sunlight delays melatonin onset, but it still maintains its rhythmic secretion. The effect of constant sunlight on circadian clock can be minimalized by common daily scheduled activity.

Keywords: Human, Melatonin, actighraph, clock genes, polar day

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