Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

melanin Related Abstracts

3 Increasing Sustainability of Melanin Bio-Production Using Seawater

Authors: Keyur Raval, Harsha Thaira, Ritu Raval

Abstract:

Melanin has immense applications in the field of agriculture, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries due to its photo-protective, UV protective and anti- oxidant activities. However, its production is limited to costly chemical methods or harsh extractive methods from hair which ultimately gives poor yields. This makes the cost of melanin very high, to the extent of US Dollar 300 per gram. Some microorganisms are reported to produce melanin under stress conditions. Out of all melanin producing organisms, Pseudomonas stutzeri can grow in sea water and produce melanin under saline stress. The objective of this study was to develop a sea water based bioprocess. Effects of different growth media and process parameters on melanin production using sea water were investigated. The marine bacterial strain Pseudomonas stutzeri HMGM-7(MTCC 11712) was selected and the effect of different media such as Nutrient Broth (NB), Luria Bertini (LB) broth, Bushnell- Haas broth (BHB) and Trypticase Soy broth (TSB) and various medium components were investigated with one factor at a time approach. Parameters like shaking frequency, inoculum age, inoculum size, pH and temperature were also investigated in order to obtain the optimum conditions for maximum melanin production. The highest yield of melanin concentration, 0.306 g/L, was obtained in Trypticase Soy broth at 36 hours. The yield was 1.88 times higher than the melanin obtained before optimization, 0.163 g/L at 36 hours. Studies are underway to optimize medium constituents to further enhance melanin production.

Keywords: Marine, Bioprocess, Pseudomonas, melanin

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2 Primary Melanocytic Tumors of the Central Nervous System: A Clinico-Pathological Study of Seven Cases

Authors: Sushila Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar Jaiswal

Abstract:

Background: Primary melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are uncommon lesions and arise from the melanocytes located within the leptomeninges. Aim and objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical details, histomorphology of the primary melanocytic tumor of CNS. Method: The study was performed by the retrospective review of the case records of the primary melanocytic tumors of CNS diagnosed in our department. The formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue blocks and tissue sections were retrieved and reviewed. Results: Seven cases (6 males, 1 female; age range- 16-40 years; mean age- 27 years) of primary melanocytic tumors of CNS were retrieved over last seven years. The tumor was intracranial (n=5; frontal – 1 case, parietal – 1 case, cerebello-pontine angle- 1 case, occipital -1 case, foramen magnum-1 case) and intra spinal (n=2; cervical – 2 cases). All patients presented with the neurological deficits related to the location of the tumor. Four cases were malignant melanoma; two were melanocytoma of intermediate grade and remaining one was melanocytoma. On histopathology, melanocytoma and melanoma both displayed sheets of well-differentiated melanocytes having round to oval nuclei with finely dispersed chromatin, occasional single eosinophilic nucleoli and a moderate amount of cytoplasm with abundant granular melanin pigment. The absence of mitosis and macronucleoli was noticed in melanocytoma while melanoma showed frequent mitosis and macronucleoli. On immunohistochemistry, both showed diffuse strong HMB45 and S-100 immunopositivity. Conclusion: Primary melanocytic tumors of CNS are rare and predominantly seen in males. It is important to differentiate melanoma from melanocytoma as prognosis of later is good.

Keywords: Melanoma, brain tumor, melanin, melanocytoma

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1 The Effect of Arbutin Powder and Arctostaphylos uvaursi Aqueous Leaf Extract on Synthesis of Melanin by Madurella mycetomatis

Authors: Ikram Elsiddig, Amina Omer

Abstract:

Arctostaphylos uvaursi is a plant of the family Ericaceae, it’s used in skin care products mostly for its depigmenting action, due to the presence of hydroquinones that are well known inhibitors of tyrosinase, an enzyme involved in melanin biosynthesis in humans. The main hydroquinone found within the A. uvaursi is arbutin, which is found with varying percentage within the plant depending on the season, and area from which the plant is harvested. An in vitro experiment has shown that the arbutin found within the bearberry leaf extract inhibited the biosynthesis of melanin in human melanoma cells and in three-dimensional human skin model. Madurella mycetomatis is filamentous fungus that causes the fungal form of mycetoma known as eumycetoma, with existing anti-fungals and surgery, only 35% of people living eumycetoma are treated, M. mycetomatis has been found to shield itself against the antifungal therapy through the production of melanin decreasing the effectiveness of the therapy, therefore there is a need for a new and more effective therapy. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the effect of arbutin powder and aqueous extract of A. uvaursi containing arbutin on the biosynthesis of melanin by M. mycetomatis. The experiment was carried out by culturing M. mycetomatis on minimal media composed of 2% agar, 15 mM glucose, 10 mM MgSO4, 29.4 mM KH2PO4, 13 mM glycin and 80mg/l gentamicin, the media was supplied with different concentration of arbutin solution (5, 25 50,and 75mg) and aqueous extract of A. uvaursi to contain arbutin with concentrations (5, 25 50,and 75mg), the plates were incubated for two month and the result was observed by the naked eye. The results revealed that the arbutin powder had an inhibitory effect on melanin synthesis by M. mycetomatis that correlated with its established inhibitory effect on melanin synthesis in humans. The inhibitory effect of arbutin on melanin synthesis by M. mycetomatis was found to be dose dependent. A. uvaursi aqueous leaf extract containing arbutin was also found to decrease melanin production by M. mycetomatis, however plates containing high concentrations of aqueous extract couldn’t be assessed for its melanin inhibitory effect due to the high content of carbohydrates in the extract that promoted the growth of fungi Asperigullus niger rendering the plates unsuitable for visual inspection. In conclusion inhibition of melanin synthesis was observed on the arbutin powder as well as the aqueous extract containing arbutin. A. uvaursi is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity, which can aid in wound healing that is beneficial in the chronic inflammation caused by M. mycetomatis.

Keywords: melanin, arbutin, arctostaphylos, Madurella

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