Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Mediterranean Sea Related Abstracts

4 Reproductive Behaviour of the Red Sea Immigrant Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789) from the Mediterranean Coast, Egypt

Authors: Mahmoud Farrag, Alaa Elhaweet, El-Sayed Akel, Mohsen Moustafa


The present work aimed to study the reproductive strategy of the common lesspsian puffer fish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmeln, 1879) from the Egyptian Mediterranean Waters. It is a famous migratory species plays an important role in the field of fisheries and ecology of aquatic ecosystem. The obtained results illustrated seven maturity stages of gonads as; I- Thread like stage: II- Immature stage (Virgin stage), III- Maturing stage (Developing Virgin and recovering spent), IV - Nearly ripe stage, V- Fully ripe; VI-Spawning stage, VII- Spent stage. Sex ratio, exhibited males had higher number than females representing 52.44 % of the total fishes with sex ratio 1: 0.91. Fish length corresponding to 50% maturation was 38.5 cm for males and 41 cm for females. The corresponding ages (age at first maturity) are equal to 2.14 and 2.27 years for male and female respectively. The gonado somatic index (GSI) increased from April for both sexes with peak in June (8.567±4.729) for males and May (6.769±4.662) for females, then the sharp decrease was observed in October showing prolong spawning season from April to September for both sexes. The hepato somatic indices (HSI) for males were lower values than those of females, it were high from December to early spawning (April & May), with the peak in April (5.217 ± 2.167) for males, and in March (5.453± 1.792) for females, then these values started to decrease towards the end of spawning period. The ova diameter ranged from 0.02 to 0.85mm, the mature ova ranged from 0.16 to 0.85mm and showed progressive increase from April towards September during spawning period introducing one peak of mature and ripe eggs. The absolute fecundity increased as the fish grew in weight and length; it was ranged from 260288 to 2372931 for fish weight and ranged from 698 to 3285 cm for length with an average of 1449522±720975. The relative fecundity ranged from 373 to 722 for fish weight with an average of 776±231, while it range from 5784 to 32957 for fish length groups ranged from 43-45 to 70-72 cm with an average of 24478 ±10011 eggs. Histological characters of gonads during the year of study indicating this fish species has prolonged spawning season from April to September where ripe oocytes were observed during this period. This species is considered totally or uni spawner with synchronous group as it contained one to two developmental stages at the same gonad and releases its ripe ova in one batch during the spawning season. These results illustrated more adaptation of this species in new habitat.

Keywords: Reproductive Biology, Histology, Egypt, Lagocephalus sceleratus, Mediterranean Sea

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3 Managing Maritime Security in the Mediterranean Sea: The Roles of the EU in Tackling Irregular Migration

Authors: Shazwanis Shukri


The Mediterranean Sea, at the crossroads of three continents has always been the focus of pan-European and worldwide attention. Over the past decade, the Mediterranean Sea has become a hotbed for irregular migration particularly from the African continent toward the Europe. Among the major transit routes in the Mediterranean Sea include the Strait of Gibraltar, Canary Island and island of Lampedusa. In recent years, Mediterranean Sea has witnessed significant numbers of accidents and shipwrecks involving the irregular migrants and refugees trying to reach Europe via the sea. The shipwrecks and traffickers exploitation of migrants draw most of the attention particularly for the European Union (EU). This incident has been a wakeup call for the EU and become the top political agenda in the EU policy to tackle irregular migration and human smuggling at sea. EU has repeatedly addressed irregular migration as one of the threats the EU and its citizens may be confronted with and therefore immediate measures are crucial to tackle the crisis. In light of this, various initiatives have been adopted by the EU to strengthen external border control and restrict access to irregular migrants, notably through the enforcement of Frontex and Eunavfor Med. This paper analyses current development of counter-migration operations by the EU in response to migration crisis in the Mediterranean Sea. The analysis is threefold. First, this study examines the patterns and trends of irregular migration’s movements from recent perspective. Second, this study concentrates on the evolution of the EU operations that are in place in the Mediterranean Sea, notably by Frontex and Eunavfor Med to curb the influx of irregular migrants to the European countries, including, among others, Greece and Italy. Third, this study investigates the EU approaches to fight against the proliferation of human trafficking networks at sea. This study is essential to determine the roles of the EU in tackling migration crisis and human trafficking in the Mediterranean Sea and the effectiveness of their counter-migration operations to reduce the number of irregular migrants travelling via the sea. Elite interviews and document analysis were used as a methodology in this study. The study discovers that the EU operations have successfully contributed to reduce the numbers of irregular migrant’s arrival to Europe. The study also shows that the operations were effective to disrupt smugglers business models particularly from Libya. This study provides essential understanding about the roles of the EU not limited to tackle the migration crisis and disrupt trafficking networks, but also pledged to prevent further loss of lives at sea.

Keywords: European Union, Irregular Migration, Mediterranean Sea, frontex

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2 Phytoplankton Community Structure in the Moroccan Coast of the Mediterranean Sea: Case Study of Saiidia, Three Forks Cape

Authors: H. Idmoussi, L. Somoue, O. Ettahiri, A. Makaoui, S. Charib, A. Agouzouk, A. Ben Mhamed, K. Hilmi, A. Errhif


The study on the composition, abundance, and distribution of phytoplankton was conducted along the Moroccan coast of the Mediterranean Sea (Saiidia - Three Forks Cape) in April 2018. Samples were collected at thirteen stations using Niskin bottles within two layers (surface and deep layers). The identification and enumeration of phytoplankton were carried out according to the Utermöhl method (1958). A total number of 54 phytoplankton species were identified over the entire survey area. Thirty-six species could be found both in the surface and the deep layers while eleven species were observed only in the surface layer and seven in the deep layer. The phytoplankton throughout the study area was dominated by diatoms represented mainly by Nitzschia sp., Pseudonitzschia sp., Chaetoceros sp., Cylindrotheca closterium, Leptocylindrus minimus, Leptocylindrus danicus, Dactyliosolen fragilissimus. Dinoflagellates were dominated by Gymnodinium sp., Scrippsiella sp., Gyrodinium spirale, Noctulica sp, Prorocentrum micans. Euglenophyceae, Silicoflagellates and Raphidophyceae were present in low numbers. Most of the phytoplankton were concentrated in the surface layer, particularly towards the Three Forks Cape (25200 cells·l⁻¹). Shannon species diversity (ranging from 2 and 4 Bits) and evenness index (broadly > 0.7) suggested that phytoplankton community is generally diversified and structured in the studied area.

Keywords: Diversity, phytoplankton, abundance, Mediterranean Sea

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1 Long-Term Trends of Sea Level and Sea Surface Temperature in the Mediterranean Sea

Authors: Bayoumy Mohamed, Khaled Alam El-Din


In the present study, 24 years of gridded sea level anomalies (SLA) from satellite altimetry and sea surface temperature (SST) from advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) daily data (1993-2016) are used. These data have been used to investigate the sea level rising and warming rates of SST, and their spatial distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. The results revealed that there is a significant sea level rise in the Mediterranean Sea of 2.86 ± 0.45 mm/year together with a significant warming of 0.037 ± 0.007 °C/year. The high spatial correlation between sea level and SST variations suggests that at least part of the sea level change reported during the period of study was due to heating of surface layers. This indicated that the steric effect had a significant influence on sea level change in the Mediterranean Sea.

Keywords: Trend Analysis, Mediterranean Sea, altimetry, AVHRR, sea level and SST changes

Procedia PDF Downloads 24