Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Medicine Related Abstracts

17 Investigating the Effect of Height on Essential Oils of Urtica diocia L.: Case Study of Ramsar, Mazandaran, Iran

Authors: Khalil Pourshamsian, Keivan Saeb, Azade Kakouei, Razieh Jafari Hajati, Babak Babakhani

Abstract:

Urtica Diocia L. from the Urticaceae family is a plant of herbal value and of a noticeable distribution in the north of Iran. The growth of different plants in various natural environments and ecosystems seems to be affected by factors such as the height (from sea surface).To investigate the effect of height on Urtica Diocia L. medicine compounds in its natural environment, three areas with the height of zero, 800 and 1800m were selected.The samples were randomly gathered three times and were dried; also, their compounds was extracted using the Clivenger with the water-distilling method. To determine the medicine compounds, the GC-MS as well as the GC machines were used. The analysis of variance was done in the form of the random-full-block design. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the percent of EOs in the selected heights; however, such difference was not significant within each height. From among the eight flavors of the study, the phytol compound was more in terms of percentage. By increasing the height the percent of EOs would decrease. lower heights could be considered most appropriate for producing the studied effective materials despite of the moistened climate and soil there.

Keywords: Medicine, EoS, Urtica diocia L, height

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16 Anthropometric Profile and Its Influence on the Vital Signs of Baja California College Students

Authors: J. A. López, C. Camargo, J. E. Olguín, G. A. Quijano, R. Martínez

Abstract:

An anthropometric study applied to 1,115 students of the Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Engineering of the Autonomous University of California. Thirteen individual measurements were taken in a sitting position. The results obtained allow forming a reliable anthropometric database for statistical studies and analysis and inferences of specific distributions, so the opinion of experts in occupational medicine recommendations may emit to reduce risks resulting in an alteration of the vital signs during the execution of their school activities. Another use of these analyses is to use them as a reliable reference for future deeper research, to the design of spaces, tools, utensils, workstations, with anthropometric dimensions and ergonomic characteristics suitable to use.

Keywords: Medicine, Anthropometry, students, vital signs

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15 Extract and Naphthoquinone Derivatives from in vitro Culture of an Ascomycetous Marine Fungus with Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Uftah Ali M. Shushni, Viola Stuppec, Ulrike Lindequist

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Because of the evolving resistance of microorganisms to existing antibiotics, there is an increasing need for new antibiotics not only in human but also in veterinary medicine. As part of our ongoing work on the secondary metabolites produced by marine fungi, the organic extract of the culture filtrate of an Ascomycetous fungus, which was found on driftwood collected from the coast of the Greifswalder Bodden, Baltic Sea, Germany displayed antimicrobial activity against some fish and human pathogenic bacteria. Bioactivity-guided column chromatographic separation led to the isolation of 6-Deoxybostrycoidin. The structure was determined from the interpretation of spectroscopic data (UV, MS, and NMR). 6-Deoxybostrycoidin exhibited in vitro activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Flexibacter maritimus with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 25, 12.5 and 12.5 μg/ml respectively.

Keywords: Medicine, Microorganism, marine fungi, fish pathogenic bacteria

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14 Decision Making in Medicine and Treatment Strategies

Authors: Kamran Yazdanbakhsh, Somayeh Mahmoudi

Abstract:

Three reasons make good use of the decision theory in medicine: 1. Increased medical knowledge and their complexity makes it difficult treatment information effectively without resorting to sophisticated analytical methods, especially when it comes to detecting errors and identify opportunities for treatment from databases of large size. 2. There is a wide geographic variability of medical practice. In a context where medical costs are, at least in part, by the patient, these changes raise doubts about the relevance of the choices made by physicians. These differences are generally attributed to differences in estimates of probabilities of success of treatment involved, and differing assessments of the results on success or failure. Without explicit criteria for decision, it is difficult to identify precisely the sources of these variations in treatment. 3. Beyond the principle of informed consent, patients need to be involved in decision-making. For this, the decision process should be explained and broken down. A decision problem is to select the best option among a set of choices. The problem is what is meant by "best option ", or know what criteria guide the choice. The purpose of decision theory is to answer this question. The systematic use of decision models allows us to better understand the differences in medical practices, and facilitates the search for consensus. About this, there are three types of situations: situations certain, risky situations, and uncertain situations: 1. In certain situations, the consequence of each decision are certain. 2. In risky situations, every decision can have several consequences, the probability of each of these consequences is known. 3. In uncertain situations, each decision can have several consequences, the probability is not known. Our aim in this article is to show how decision theory can usefully be mobilized to meet the needs of physicians. The decision theory can make decisions more transparent: first, by clarifying the data systematically considered the problem and secondly by asking a few basic principles should guide the choice. Once the problem and clarified the decision theory provides operational tools to represent the available information and determine patient preferences, and thus assist the patient and doctor in their choices.

Keywords: Medicine, Decision Making, Patient, Treatment Strategies

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13 Sports and Exercise Medicine: A Public Health Tool in Combating and Preventing the Side Effects of a Sedentary Lifestyle

Authors: Shireen Ibish

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Physical inactivity and unhealthy diets have contributed to a global burden of disease with increased relation to non-communicable diseases, increased risk of colon and breast cancer, high prevalence of depression, reduced quality of life and early death. The World Health Organisation’s facts on Obesity show a tripling in prevalence across the European Region since the 1980s. This has lead to a huge public health burden, being responsible for and 10-13% of deaths (fourth largest cause of global mortality) and 2-8% of health costs in the Region. In the UK alone, the present cost of physical inactivity has been estimated to be £8.2 billion. In 2002 a paper published in the International Journal of Epidemiology on ‘sedentary’ lifestyle, put into figures the increasingly worrying statistics across European countries. “Percentages of sedentary lifestyles across European countries ranged between 43.3% (Sweden) and 87.8% (Portugal)”. This was especially so amongst obese subjects, less- educated people, and smokers. While in the UK’s “50% of adult population in the UK is predicted to be obese by 2050.” Sports and Exercise Medicine, as a specialty, has a lot to offer in targeting this globally increasing epidemic. The worrying figures and the increasing knowledge of combating and preventing this issue have lead to increased awareness amongst the medical profession and more targeted interventions to reduce the burden of disease. “The public health element of the specialty is critical – this is not simply a specialty for the management of elite athletes’ medical conditions – it is central to the promotion of exercise as a means of disease prevention, to enhance well-being and in the management of disease.” WHO advised on creating National policies, encouraging and providing opportunities for greater physical activity, and improve the affordability, availability and accessibility of healthy foods. In the UK various different movements have been established to target this problem. The Motivate2Move, Move Eat Treat and guidelines advising specialties on targeting and encouraging exercise in the population (Sport and Exercise Medicine A Fresh Approach).

Keywords: Medicine, Obesity, sedentary lifestyle, public health burden

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12 E-learning resources for radiology training: Is an ideal program available?

Authors: Eric Fang, Robert Chen, Ghim Song Chia, Bien Soo Tan

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Objective and Rationale: Training of radiology residents hinges on practical, on-the-job training in all facets and modalities of diagnostic radiology. Although residency is structured to be comprehensive, clinical exposure depends on the case mix available locally and during the posting period. To supplement clinical training, there are several e-learning resources available to allow for greater exposure to radiological cases. The objective of this study was to survey residents and faculty on the usefulness of these e-learning resources. Methods: E-learning resources were shortlisted with input from radiology residents, Google search and online discussion groups, and screened by their purported focus. Twelve e-learning resources were found to meet the criteria. Both radiology residents and experienced radiology faculty were then surveyed electronically. The e-survey asked for ratings on breadth, depth, testing capability and user-friendliness for each resource, as well as for rankings for the top 3 resources. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.4. Results: Seventeen residents and fifteen faculties completed an e-survey. Mean response rate was 54% ± 8% (Range: 14- 96%). Ratings and rankings were statistically identical between residents and faculty. On a 5-point rating scale, breadth was 3.68 ± 0.18, depth was 3.95 ± 0.14, testing capability was 2.64 ± 0.16 and user-friendliness was 3.39 ± 0.13. Top-ranked resources were STATdx (first), Radiopaedia (second) and Radiology Assistant (third). 9% of responders singled out R-ITI as potentially good but ‘prohibitively costly’. Statistically significant predictive factors for higher rankings are familiarity with the resource (p = 0.001) and user-friendliness (p = 0.006). Conclusion: A good e-learning system will complement on-the-job training with a broad case base, deep discussion and quality trainee evaluation. Based on our study on twelve e-learning resources, no single program fulfilled all requirements. The perception and use of radiology e-learning resources depended more on familiarity and user-friendliness than on content differences and testing capability.

Keywords: Medicine, e-Learning, Radiology, Survey

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11 Determinants of Consultation Time at a Family Medicine Center

Authors: Ali Alshahrani, Adel Almaai, Saad Garni

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Aim of the study: To explore duration and determinants of consultation time at a family medicine center. Methodology: This study was conducted at the Family Medicine Center in Ahad Rafidah City, at the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia. It was conducted on the working days of March 2013. Trained nurses helped in filling in the checklist. A total of 459 patients were included. A checklist was designed and used in this study. It included patient’s age, sex, diagnosis, type of visit, referral and its type, psychological problems and additional work-up. In addition, number of daily bookings, physician`s experience and consultation time. Results: More than half of patients (58.39%) had less than 10 minutes’ consultation (Mean+SD: 12.73+9.22 minutes). Patients treated by physicians with shortest experience (i.e., ≤5 years) had the longest consultation time while those who were treated with physicians with the longest experience (i.e., > 10 years) had the shortest consultation time (13.94±10.99 versus 10.79±7.28, p=0.011). Regarding patients’ diagnosis, those with chronic diseases had the longest consultation time (p<0.001). Patients who did not need referral had significantly shorter consultation time compared with those who had routine or urgent referral (11.91±8.42,14.60±9.03 and 22.42±14.81 minutes, respectively, p<0.001). Patients with associated psychological problems needed significantly longer consultation time than those without associated psychological problems (20.06±13.32 versus 12.45±8.93, p<0.001). Conclusions: The average length of consultation time at Ahad Rafidah Family Medicine Center is approximately 13 minutes. Less-experienced physicians tend to spend longer consultation times with patients. Referred patients, those with psychological problems, those with chronic diseases tend to have longer consultation time. Recommendations: Family physicians should be encouraged to keep their optimal consultation time. Booking an adequate number of patients per shift would allow the family physician to provide enough consultation time for each patient.

Keywords: Medicine, Quality, Clinics, Consultation

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10 Multiple Shoot Induction and Plant Regeneration of Kepuh (Sterculia foetida L.) Tissue Culture

Authors: Titin Handayani, Endang Yuniastuti

Abstract:

Kepuh (Sterculia foetida L.) is a potential plant contain mainly oil seeds that can be used as a source of alternative bioenergy and medicine. The main problem of kepuh cultivation is the limited supply of seed plants. Seeds development were very easy, but to produce fruit have to wait for approximately 5 years. The objective of this research was to obtain kepuh plants through direct in vitro regeneration. Hypocotyls and shoot tips explants were excised from sterile germinated seedlings and placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of plant growth regulators. The results showed that shoots induction from the apical and axillary buds on MS medium + 1.5 and 2 mg/L BAP and 0.5 and 1 mg/L IAA was growth very slowly. Increasing of BAP concentrations was increased shoot formation. The first subcultures were increased the rate of shoots growth on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L IAA. The second of shoots subculture on MS medium + 1.5 to 2 mg/L BAP + 0.5 mg/L IAA was increased the number of shoots up to 4.8 in average. The best medium of shoots elongation were MS + 1 mgL-1 kinetin + 5 mg/L GA3. The highest percentage of roots (65%) occurred on MS medium with 5 mg/L IBA which average number of roots was 3.1. High percentages of survival and plants of normal appearance were obtained after five weeks of acclimatization.

Keywords: Medicine, Bioenergy, rooting, acclimatization, Kepuh, Sterculia foetida L, shoot multiplication

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9 A Study on the Personality Traits of Students Who Have Chosen Medicine as Their Career

Authors: Shalinawati Ramli, Khairani Omar, Nurul Azmawati Mohamed, Zarini Ismail, Nurul Hayati Chamhuri, Nur Syahrina Rahim

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Choosing a career which matches a student’s personality traits is one of the key factors for future work satisfaction. This is because career satisfaction is at the highest when it is in line with one’s personality strength, values and attitudes. Personality traits play a major role in determining the success of a student in the medical course. In the pre-clinical years, medical theories are being emphasized, thus, conscientious students would perform better than those with lower level of this trait. As the emphasis changes in the clinical years during which patient interaction is important, personality traits which involved interpersonal values become more essential for success. The aim of this study was to determine the personality traits of students who had chosen medicine as their career. It was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Islamic Science University of Malaysia. The respondents consisted of 81 students whose age ranged between 20-21 years old. A set of personality assessment inventory index which has been validated for the local context was used to determine the students’ personality traits. The instrument assessed 15 personality traits namely: aggressive, analytical, autonomy, creativity, extrovert, intellectual, motivation, diversity, resiliency, self-criticism, control, helpful, support, structured and achievement. The scores ranged between 1-100%, and they were categorized into low (1-30%), moderate (40-60%) and high scores (70-100%). The respondents were Year 3 pre-clinical medical students and there were more female students (69%) compared to male students (31%). Majority of them were from middle-income families. Approximately 70% of both parents of the respondents had tertiary education. Majority of the students had high scores in autonomy, creativity, diversity, helpful, structured and achievement. In other words, more than 50% of them scored high (70-100%) in these traits. Scoring high in these traits was beneficial for the medical course. For aggressive trait, 54% of them had moderate scores which is compatible for medicine as this indicated an inclination to being assertive. In the analytical and intellectual components, only 40% and 25% had high scores respectively. These results contradicted the usual expectation of medical students whereby they are expected to be highly analytical and intellectual. It would be an added value if the students had high scores in being extrovert as this reflects on good interpersonal values, however, the students had approximately similar scores in all categories of this trait. Being resilient in the medical school is important as the course is difficult and demanding. The students had good scores in this component in which 46% had high scores while 39% had moderate scores. In conclusion, by understanding their personality traits, strengths and weaknesses, the students will have an opportunity to improve themselves in the areas they lack. This will help them to become better doctors in future.

Keywords: Medicine, Personality Traits, Career, medical students

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8 Reasons for Choosing Medicine and the Personality Traits of Pre-Clinical Medical Students

Authors: Shalinawati Ramli, Khairani Omar, Nurul Azmawati Mohamed, Zarini Ismail, Nurul Hayati Chamhuri, Nur Syahrina Rahim

Abstract:

Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions that people have to make in life. While choosing a suitable career, a person cannot ignore their intrinsic traits such as the type of personality, interests, values, and aptitude. The objective of this study is to ascertain the personality of the pre-clinical medical students and their reasons or intentions for choosing medicine as a career. This study is a cross-sectional study involving Year 3 pre-clinical medical students at Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia. Participants were given a set of validated questionnaires on demographic data and open-ended questions for reasons of choosing medicine. Thematic analysis were used to analyse the open-ended question. The Participants were also required to answer a Career Interest Questionnaire (based on Holland’s Theory). A total of 81 Year 3 medical students were involved in this study. About two third (69%) of them were female and their age ranged from 20 to 21 years old. The majority of them were from middle-income families. From the thematic analysis, there were several reasons given for choosing medicine by the students. The majority of the students stated that it was their passion and interest in the medical field (45.7%). Approximately 24.7% decided to take the medical course because of parents/family influenced and 19.8% mentioned that they wanted to help the society. Other themes emerged were jobs opportunity in future (1.2%) and influenced by friends (3.7%). Based on Holland’s theory, ideally to become a good medical doctor one should score high in investigative and social personality trait. However, 26.3% of the students had low scores in these personality traits. We then looked into the reasons given by these students for choosing medicine. Approximately 28% were due to parents/family decision while 52% admitted that it was due to their interest. When compared with the group of students with high personality scores (investigative and social), there was not much difference in the reasons given for choosing medicine. The main reasons given by the students for choosing medicine were own interest, family’s influence and to help others. However, a proportion of them had low scores in the personality traits which are relevant for medicine. Although some of these students admitted that they choose medicine based on their interest, their strength might not be suitable for their chosen carrier.

Keywords: Medicine, Personality, Career, medical students

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7 High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Study on Lay Understandings and Uses of Pharmaceuticals and Medicinal Plants for Treatment in Matzikama Municipal Region, Western Cape, South Africa

Authors: Diana Gibson

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Aim: The first aim of the study was to ascertain the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/ or Type2 Diabetes Mellitus in Matzikama municipal district, Western Cape, South Africa. These two conditions are reportedly very high in this particular province, even though few statistics are available. A second aim was to gain insight into the understanding of these two conditions among sufferers. A third aim was to determine their allopathic use as well as indigenous medicinal plants to manage these conditions. A fourth aim was to understand how users of medicinal plants attend to their materiality and relationality as a continuum between humans and plants. The final aim was to ascertain the conservation status of medicinal plants utilised. Methods: One thousand one hundred and eighty-four (1184) respondents were interviewed. Semi-structured surveys were utilised to gather data on the percentage of people who had been medically diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Local healers and knowledgeable old people were subsequently selected through a non-probability snowball sampling method. They were helped with plant collection. The plants were botanically identified. Results: The study found that people who have been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus drew on and continuously moved between biomedical and local understandings of these conditions. While they followed biomedical treatment regimens as far as possible they also drew on alternative ways of managing it through the use of medicinal plants. The most commonly used plant species overall were Lessertia frutescens, Tulbaghia violacea, Artemisia afra and Leonotus leonurus. For the users, medicinal plants were not mere material entities, they were actants in social networks where knowledge was produced through particular practices in specific places. None of the identified plants are currently threatened. Significance: Sufferers had a good understanding of the symptoms of and biomedical treatment regime for both conditions, but in everyday life they adhered to their local understandings and medicinal plants for treatment. The majority used reportedly used prescribed medication as well as plant alternatives.

Keywords: Medicine, Plants, Diabetes, High Blood Pressure

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6 Ethnobotanical Medicines for Treating Snakebites among the Indigenous Maya Populations of Belize

Authors: Mark Wright, Kerry Hull

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This paper brings light to ethnobotanical medicines used by the Maya of Belize to treat snake bites. The varying ecological zones of Belize boast over fifty species of snakes, nine of which are poisonous and dangerous to humans. Two distinct Maya groups occupy neighboring regions of Belize, the Q’eqchi’ and the Mopan. With Western medical care often far from their villages, what traditional methods are used to treat poisonous snake bites? Based primarily on data gathered with native consultants during the authors’ fieldwork with both groups, this paper details the ethnobotanical resources used by the Q’eqchi’ and Mopan traditional healers. The Q’eqchi’ and Mopan most commonly rely on traditional ‘bush doctors’ (ilmaj in Mopan), both male and female, and specialized ‘snake doctors’ to heal bites from venomous snakes. First, this paper presents each plant employed by healers for bites for the nine poisonous snakes in Belize along with the specific botanical recipes and methods of application for each remedy. Individual chemical and therapeutic qualities of some of those plants are investigated in an effort to explain their possible medicinal value for different toxins or the symptoms caused by those toxins. In addition, this paper explores mythological associations with certain snakes that inform local understanding regarding which plants are considered efficacious in each case, arguing that numerous oral traditions (recorded by the authors) help to link botanical medicines to episodes within their mythic traditions. Finally, the use of plants to counteract snakebites brought about through sorcery is discussed inasmuch as some snakes are seen as ‘helpers’ of sorcerers. Snake bites given under these circumstances can only be cured by those who know both the proper corresponding plant(s) and ritual prayer(s). This paper provides detailed documentation of traditional ethnomedicines and practices from the dying art of traditional Maya healers and argues for multi-faceted diagnostic techniques to determine toxin severity, the presence or absence of sorcery, and the appropriate botanical remedy.

Keywords: Medicine, Ethnobotany, Maya, snake bites

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5 Nanoparticles and Nanoproducts in Medicine Applications

Authors: Ali Safari, Shideh Mohseni Movahed, Mansoureh Safari

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In this paper, the state of play and prospect of nanoparticles and nanoproducts in medicine have been discussed. Advances in terms of scientific knowledge in the Nanosciences (nanotechnologies and/or nanomaterials) have and already translated into an industrial and economic reality. Just like other sectors in the phase of launching products in the markets, it is to consider the introduction of these new products in order to measure and control potential consequences in terms of health impacts on humans and the environment, but also in terms of societal impacts.

Keywords: Medicine, Health, Nanoparticles, nanoproducts

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4 Intelligent Drug Delivery Systems

Authors: Shideh Mohseni Movahed, Mansoureh Safari

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Intelligent drug delivery systems (IDDS) are innovative technological innovations and clinical way to advance current treatments. These systems differ in technique of therapeutic administration, intricacy, materials and patient compliance to address numerous clinical conditions that require different pharmacological therapies. IDDS capable of releasing an active molecule at the proper site and at a amount that adjusts in response to the progression of the disease or to certain functions/biorhythms of the organism is particularly appealing. In this paper, we describe the most recent advances in the development of intelligent drug delivery systems.

Keywords: Medicine, Health, Drug Delivery Systems, IDDS

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3 The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Pain Relief in the Elderly: An Investigational Analysis of Seniors Residing in an Independent/Assisted Seniors’ Living Facility

Authors: Carol Cameletti

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The goal of this study was to perform a pilot survey to assess pain frequency and intensity in an elderly population and to assess treatment options for chronic pain that include complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). Ten participants were recruited from an independent and supportive living housing facility in Northern Ontario and asked to complete two questionnaires: 1) a self-assessment on pain, and 2) the use of CAM for pain. Results from our study show that 80% of the participants experienced pains other than the regular everyday pains such as minor headaches, sprains or toothaches. Although participants stated that on average the highest level of pain they experienced within the past 24 hours had a score of 6.5 (0=no pain, 10=worst pain imaginable) the level of pain they experienced moderately interfered with their daily activities. Unfortunately, participants stated that they were only able to attain minimal levels of pain relief using treatments or medications causing some of the participants to seek alternative therapies or self-help practices. The most commonly used CAMs were vitamins/minerals, herbs and supplements, and self-help practices such as meditation, prayer, visualization and relaxation techniques. Although some of the participants stated that they had received complementary treatments directly from their physician, four of the nine participants said that they had not disclosed CAM use to their physician thereby indicating a need to open the lines of communication between healthcare providers and patients with regards to CAM use. It is our hope that the data generated from this study will serve as the platform for a pain management clinic that is client-centered, consumer-driven and truly integrative and tailored in order to meet the unique needs of older adults in Great Sudbury, Ontario.

Keywords: Medicine, Complementary, Alternative, Elderly

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2 Nursing and Allied Health Perception of Desirable Junior Doctor Attributes for Effective Collaboration and Teamwork

Authors: Hansraj Riteesh Bookun, Maneka Marianne Britto

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The ability of a junior doctor to deliver complex multi-disciplinary care to patients in a paradigm of respect and collaboration requires a multitude of interpersonal skills and competencies. A short survey was used to explore the perspective of allied health staff on the desirable attributes of a junior doctor which are conducive to good teamwork. 23 allied health professionals (14 nurses, 4 physiotherapists, 2 dietitians, 1 occupational therapist, 1 speech therapist and 1 audiologist) responded to this 17-item survey. There were 17 females. The mean age of the respondents was 34.9 ± 10.1 years. The salient findings of our survey are that 95% of our respondents rated friendliness and non-clinical small talk with average importance or greater. 45% of them viewed these 2 items as very important or absolutely essential. A single respondent viewed these 2 items with little importance. The other criteria which were rated with high levels of importance were the acknowledgment of allied health suggestions and good ward organizational skills. Training these collaborative skills is challenging, and an enhanced understanding of interprofessional perspectives will help a junior doctor to achieve better clinical outcomes. It is hoped that this paper will further stimulate discussion in this area and will encourage junior doctors to engage in non-clinical conversations with allied health staff in the spirit of promoting effective teamwork.

Keywords: Medicine, Surgery, Collaboration, Allied Health, doctor

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1 Making Waves: Preparing the Next Generation of Bilingual Medical Doctors

Authors: Edith Esparza-Young, Ángel M. Matos, Yaritza Gonzalez, Kirthana Sugunathevan

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Introduction: This research describes the existing medical school program which supports a multicultural setting and bilingualism. The rise of Spanish speakers in the United States has led to the recruitment of bilingual medical students who can serve the evolving demographics. This paper includes anecdotal evidence, narratives and the latest research on the outcomes of supporting a multilingual academic experience in medical school and beyond. People in the United States will continue to need health care from physicians who have experience with multicultural competence. Physicians who are bilingual and possess effective communication skills will be in high demand. Methodologies: This research is descriptive. Through this descriptive research, the researcher will describe the qualities and characteristics of the existing medical school programs, curriculum, and student services. Additionally, the researcher will shed light on the existing curriculum in the medical school and also describe specific programs which help to serve as safety nets to support diverse populations. The method included observations of the existing program and the implementation of the medical school program, specifically the Accelerated Review Program, the Language Education and Professional Communication Program, student organizations and the Global Health Institute. Concluding Statement: This research identified and described characteristics of the medical school’s program. The research explained and described the current and present phenomenon of this medical program, which has focused on increasing the graduation of bilingual and minority physicians. The findings are based on observations of the curriculum, programs and student organizations which evolves and remains innovative to stay current with student enrollment.

Keywords: Medicine, English, Bilingual, doctor

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