Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Medicinal Plants Related Abstracts

49 Evaluation of the Effects of Some Medicinal Plants Extracts on Seed

Authors: Areej Ali Baeshen, Hanaa Kamal Galal, Batoul Mohamed Abdullatif

Abstract:

In the present study, the allelopathic effects of Eruca sativa, Mentha peprinta, and Coriandrum sativum aqueous extracts, prepared by 25 gm and 50 gm of fresh leaves dissolved in 100 ml of double distilled water in addition to the crude extract (100%). The final concentrations were 100 %, 50%, 25% and 0% as control. The extracts were tested for their allelopathic effects on seed germination and other growth parameters of Phaseolous vulgaris. Laboratory experiments were conducted in sterilizes Petri dishes with 5 and 10 day time interval for seed germination and 24 h, 48 h and 72 h for radicle length on an average of 25°C. The effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract were compared to distilled water (0%). 25% and 50% aqueous extracts of Eruca sativa and Coriandrum sativum caused a pronounced inhibitory effect on seed germination and the tested growth parameters of the receptor plant. The inhibitory effect was proportional to the concentration of the extract. Mentha peprinta extracts, on the other hand, caused an increase in germination percentage and other growth parameters in Phaseolous vulgaris. Hence, it could be concluded that the aqueous extracts of Eruca sativa and Coriandrum sativum might contain water-soluble allelochemicals, which could inhibit the seed germination and reduce radicle length of Phaseolous vulgaris. Mentha peprinta has beneficial allelopathic effects on the receptor plant.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Phaseolus vulgaris, Eruca sativa, Mentha peperinta, Coriandrum sativum, seed germination

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48 Use of Radiation Chemistry Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for the Elemental Analysis Medicinal Plants from India Used in the Treatment of Heart Diseases

Authors: B. M. Pardeshi

Abstract:

Introduction: Minerals and trace elements are chemical elements required by our bodies for numerous biological and physiological processes that are necessary for the maintenance of health. Medicinal plants are highly beneficial for the maintenance of good health and prevention of diseases. They are known as potential sources of minerals and vitamins. 30 to 40% of today’s conventional drugs used in the medicinal and curative properties of various plants are employed in herbal supplement botanicals, nutraceuticals and drug. Aim: The authors explored the mineral element content of some herbs, because mineral elements may have significant role in the development and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, and a close connection between the presence or absence of mineral elements and inflammatory mediators was noted. Methods: Present study deals with the elemental analysis of medicinal plants by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Medicinal herbals prescribed for skin diseases were purchased from markets and were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using 252Cf Californium spontaneous fission neutron source (flux * 109 n s-1) and the induced activities were counted by γ-ray spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) techniques (Perkin Elmer 3100 Model) available at Department of Chemistry University of Pune, INDIA, was used for the measurement of major, minor and trace elements. Results: 15 elements viz. Al, K, Cl, Na, Mn by INAA and Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Fe, Zn, Hg and Cd by AAS were analyzed from different medicinal plants from India. A critical examination of the data shows that the elements Ca , K, Cl, Al, and Fe are found to be present at major levels in most of the samples while the other elements Na, Mn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Zn, Hg and Cd are present in minor or trace levels. Conclusion: The beneficial therapeutic effect of the studied herbs may be related to their mineral element content. The elemental concentration in different medicinal plants is discussed.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, trace elemental analysis, mineral contents

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47 Improving Food Security and Commercial Development through Promotion of High Value Medicinal and Industrial Plants in the Swat Valley of Pakistan

Authors: Hassan Sher

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Agriculture has a pivotal role in Pakistan’s economy, accounting for about one-fourth of the GDP and employing almost half the population. However, the competitiveness, productivity, growth, employment potential, export opportunity, and contribution to GDP of the sector is significantly hampered by agriculture marketing laws/regulations at the provincial level that reward rent seeking behavior, promote monopoly power, artificially reduce farmer incomes while inflating prices to consumers, and act as disincentives to investment. Although of more recent vintage than some other provincial agricultural marketing laws, the NWFP Agricultural and Livestock Produce Markets Act, 2007 is a throwback to a colonial paradigm, where restrictions on agricultural produce marketing and Government control of distribution channels is the norm. The Swat Valley (in which we include its tributary valleys) is an area of Pakistan in which there is poverty is both extreme and pervasive. For many, a significant portion of the family’s income comes from selling plants that are used as herbs, medicines, and perfumes. Earlier studies have shown that the benefit they derive from this work is less than they might because of: Lack of knowledge concerning which plants and which plant parts are valuable, Lack of knowledge concerning optimal preservation and storage of material, illiteracy. Another concern that much of the plant material sold from the valley is collected in the wild, without an appreciation of the negative impact continued collecting has on wild populations. We propose: Creating colored cards to help inhabitants recognize the 25 most valuable plants in their area; Developing and sharing protocols for growing the 25 most valuable plants in a home garden; Developing and sharing efficient mechanisms for drying plants so they do not lose value; Encouraging increased literacy by incorporating numbers and a few words in the handouts.

Keywords: Food Security, Economic Development, Medicinal Plants, Industrial Plants

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46 Conservation of Rare, Endangered and Threaten Medicinal Plants: Participatory Approach

Authors: G. Raviraja Shetty, K. G. Poojitha, Pranay Kumar

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Biodiversity refers to the numbers, variety and variability of living organisms and ecosystem. The climatic and altitudinal variations, coupled with varied ecological habitats of this country, have contributed to the development of immensely rich vegetation with a unique diversity in medicinal plants which provides an important source of medicinal raw materials for traditional medicine systems as well as for pharmaceutical industries in the country and abroad. World Health Organization has listed over 21000 plant species used around the world for medicinal purpose. In India, about 2500 plant species are being used in indigenous system of medicine. The red data book lists 427 Indian Medicinal plant entries on endangered species, of which 28 are considered extinct, 124 endangered, 81 rare, and 34 insufficiently known. It is abundantly clear from the experience of all govt agencies that on their own they cannot efficiently conserve the biodiversity. Participatory Approach with the involvement of local people in conservation is found to be more effective these days. Involvement of local people reduces the cost involved in conservation. Local communities have long tradition of resource use in particular area, hold in depth knowledge and experience of plant which can be invaluable for conservation efforts.Medicinal plants occupy a vital sector of health care system in India and represent a major national resource.There is an immense need for conservation of diversity of medicinal plant wealth for the present and fore coming generations, by adapting the suitable strategy with most appropriate method of conservation.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Conservation, Medicinal Plants, participatory

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45 Ethnopharmacology of Urinary Deseases in Algerian Sahara

Authors: Khaled Sekkoum

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The traditional pharmacopoeia of Algerian Sahara is very rich on vegetable drugs. The great resources and biodiversity of Algerian Sahara flora seem responsible. A survey of medicinal plants used by the local population of the south west of Algeria for the urinary disorders is reported. Sixty-three plant species belonging to thirty-three families were identified. Their botanical and local names, plant part used, mode of use and ailment treated are given.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Algeria, urinary diseases, Sahara

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44 Morphological and Elements Constituent Effects of Allelopathic Activity

Authors: Areej Ali Baeshen

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Allelopathy is a complex phenomenon that depends on the concentration of allelochemicals. It has both inhibitory and stimulatory effects, which may be decided by concentration of allelochemicals present in extraction. In the present study, the allelopathic effects of Eruca sativa, Mentha peperina, and Coriandrum sativum water extract prepared by grinding fresh leaves of the medicinal plants in distilled water and three concentrations were taken from the crude extracts (100%, 50% and 25% in addition to 0% as control), and were tested for their effects on seed germination and some growth parameters of Zea mays. The experiment was conducted in sterilized Petri dishes under the natural laboratory conditions at temperature of 25°C, with a 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h and 120 h time interval for seed germination and 24 h, 48 h and 72 h for radicle length. The effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract were compared to distilled water (control, 0%). In maize, germination percentage was suppressed when plants was treated with 100% extracts, however, 50% and 25% of M. peprina increased germination percentage by 4 times more than the control. Moreover, 50% and 25% extracts of M. peperina and 50% of C. sativum increased maize radicle and plumule length by 3 to 4 times that of the control. Results of plumule fresh and dry weights revealed that concentrations of water extracts of 100% and 50% M. peperina, E. sativa 100% and E. sativa 50% reported almost similar plumule fresh weight as in control plants. The most interesting finding is the reduction in harmful salts and TDS which could be a good factor in saline soils of Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Allelochemicals, Eruca sativa, Coriandrum sativum, aqueous extract, Zea mays, Mentha peperina

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43 Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants from Bechar Region, South-West of Algeria

Authors: Naima Fatehi

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The paper reports on 107 medicinal plants, traditionally used in the South-West of Algeria (Bechar region). The information has been documented by interviewing traditional herbalists, various elderly men and women following different ethnobotanical methods. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by botanical name, followed by family name, vernacular name, and part used. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants used extensively in Bechar region for treating various diseases and provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, ethnobotanical survey, South-West Algeria, Bechar region

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42 In vivo Anticandida Activity of Three Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants in East Africa

Authors: Daniel P. Kisangau, Ken M. Hosea, Herbert V. M. Lyaruu, Cosam C. Josep, Zakaria H. Mbwambo, Pax J. Masimba

Abstract:

Crude extracts of Dracaena steudneri bark (DSB), Sapium ellipticum bark (SEB) and Capparis erythrocarpos root (CER) were investigated for their antifungal activity in immunocompromised mice infected with Candida albicans in an in vivo mice infection model. The results revealed a substantial dose dependency in all treatments given, with mice survival to the end of the experiment correlating well to the dose levels. At a dose of 400 mg/kg, C. erythrocarpos was the most effective with mice survival of 60% and organ burden clearance ranging from 64.0%-99.9% (P<0.0001) in all treatments. At the same dose, the least effective plant was S. ellipticum which had a mice survival of 20% and organ burden clearance ranging from 78.0%-96.6 (P>0.05). Mice survival for D. steudneri was 30% with organ burden clearance ranging from 89.0%-99.9% (P<0.05). All mice receiving no active treatment died before ten days post infection. In all treatment groups, there was a steady decline in mean weights of mice immediately after immunosuppression followed by gradual recovery in some cases which appeared to be dose dependent a few days post infection. Thus, extracts of D. steudneri and C. erythrocarpos portrayed the most significant potential as sources of antifungal drugs.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, antifungal activity, Candida albicans, East Africa

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41 Study of Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Algerian Medicinal Plant

Authors: Khadri Sihem, Abbaci Nafissa, Zerari Labiba

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In the context of the search for new bioactive natural products, we were interested in evaluating some antibacterial properties of two plant extracts: total phenols and flavonoids of Algerian medicinal plant. Our study occurs in two axes: The first concerns the extraction of phenolic compounds and flavonoids with methanol by liquid-liquid extraction, followed by quantification of the levels of these compounds in the end the analysis of the chemical composition of extracts. In the second axis, we studied the antibacterial power of the studied plant extracts.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, polyphenols, Flavonoids, antibacterial activity

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40 Morphological and Molecular Identification of Endophytic Colletotrichum Species from Medicinal Plants and Their Antimicrobial Potential

Authors: Mahendra Rai, Gauravi Agarkar

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Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants are important source of numerous pharmacologically important compounds. In the present investigation, the endophytic fungi were isolated from three medicinal plants; Andrographis paniculata, Rauwolfia serpentina and Tridax procumbens. Endophytic Colletotrichum sp. were identified on the basis of cultural and morphological characteristics as well as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate and methanol extract of endophytic Colletotrichum sp. was evaluated against seven different human pathogenic bacteria and six Candida sp. The extracts were effective and showed significant activity against all the test pathogens. In case of yeast Candida, the combined effect of extracts and standard antibiotic was enhanced greatly showing synergistic activity. Further, the extracts were assayed for Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration (MBC/MFC) where, MIC values were in the range of 100-250 μg/ml. These results suggest that the endophytic Colletotrichum sp. isolated from the medicinal plants are capable of producing promising antimicrobial metabolites.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Medicinal Plants, endophytic fungi, colletotrichum

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39 Assessment of Antioxidant Activities in Roots of Miswak (Salvadora persica) Plants Grown at Two Different Locations in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohamed M. Ibrahima, Abdul Aziz A.AL Sahli, Ibrahim A. Alaraidh, Ali A. Al-Homaidan, E.M. Mostafa, G.A. EL-Gaaly

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Traditionally, in Middle Eastern countries, many cultures use chewing sticks of arak for medicinal purposes especially, for oral cleanliness care. It was used by Muslims for the treatment of teeth and highly recommended to be used by muslims during the whole day. Therefore, the present work aimed to determine the total phenolic content and total flavonoids in two Miswak extracts obtained from arak roots collected from two different localities in Saudi Arabia. They were extracted with aqueous ethanol (80%) and used to estimate in vitro their antioxidative abilities. The new findings showed that the two tested extracts contained significantly different amounts of both total phenolic content and total flavonoids. According to the increase of total phenolic contents and total flavonoids obtained from the two extracts, Miswak collected from the southern region was found to contain more contents than those collected from the middle region. The results of antioxidant activities of Miswak root extract obtained by using different in vitro methods were varied depending on the technique used. According to the malondialdehyde (MDA) method, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging ability and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods, the two Miswak extracts exhibited to have high to very high antioxidant activities. Mostly, the values of antioxidant activities of Southern region have been shown to be always the highest.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Saudi Arabia, antioxidant, Arak

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38 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for the Elemental Analysis Medicinal Plants from India Used in the Treatment of Heart Diseases

Authors: B. M. Pardeshi

Abstract:

Introduction: Minerals and trace elements are chemical elements required by our bodies for numerous biological and physiological processes that are necessary for the maintenance of health. Medicinal plants are highly beneficial for the maintenance of good health and prevention of diseases. They are known as potential sources of minerals and vitamins. 30 to 40% of today’s conventional drugs used in the medicinal and curative properties of various plants are employed in herbal supplement botanicals, nutraceuticals and drug. Aim: The authors explored the mineral element content of some herbs, because mineral elements may have significant role in the development and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, and a close connection between the presence or absence of mineral elements and inflammatory mediators was noted. Methods: Present study deals with the elemental analysis of medicinal plants by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Medicinal herbals prescribed for skin diseases were purchased from markets and were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using 252Cf Californium spontaneous fission neutron source (flux* 109 n s-1) and the induced activities were counted by γ-ray spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) techniques (Perkin Elmer 3100 Model) available at Department of Chemistry University of Pune, India, was used for the measurement of major, minor and trace elements. Results: 15 elements viz. Al, K, Cl, Na, Mn by INAA and Cu, Co, Pb Ni, Cr, Ca, Fe, Zn, Hg and Cd by AAS were analyzed from different medicinal plants from India. A critical examination of the data shows that the elements Ca , K, Cl, Al, and Fe are found to be present at major levels in most of the samples while the other elements Na, Mn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Zn, Hg and Cd are present in minor or trace levels. Conclusion: The beneficial therapeutic effect of the studied herbs may be related to their mineral element content. The elemental concentration in different medicinal plants is discussed.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, trace elemental analysis, mineral contents

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
37 Effectiveness of Biopesticide against Insects Pest and Its Quality of Pomelo (Citrus maxima Merr.)

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Chuenchooklin

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Effect of biopesticide from wood vinegar and extracted substances from 3 medicinal plants such as: non taai yak (Stemona tuberosa Lour), boraphet (Tinospora crispa Mier) and derris (Derris elliptica Roxb) were tested on the age five years of pomelo. The selected pomelo was carried out for insects pest control and its quality. The experimental site was located at farmer’s orchard in Phichit Province, Thailand. This study was undertaken during the drought season (December to March). The extracted from plants and wood vinegar were evaluated in 6 treatments: 1) water as control; 2) wood vinegar; 3) S. tuberosa Lour; 4) T. crispa Mier; 5) D. elliptica Roxb; 6) mixed (wood vinegar + S. tuberosa Lour + T. crispa Mier + D. elliptica Roxb). The experiment was RCB with 6 treatments and 3 replications per treatment. The results showed that T. crispa Mier was the highest effectiveness for reduction population of thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood) and citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) at 14.10 and 15.37 respectively, followed by treatment of mixed, D. elliptica Roxb, S. tuberosa Lour and wood vinegar with significance different. Additionally, T. crispa Mier promoted the high quality of harvested pomelo in term of thickness of skin at 12.45 mm and S. tuberosa Lour gave the high quality of the pomelo in term of firmness (276.5 kg/cm2) and brix (11.0%).

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, wood vinegar, Pomelo (Citrus maxima Merr.), Thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood), citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton)

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36 Biochemical Studies on the Effects of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon Grass) on Wistar Albino Rats

Authors: Adegbegi Ademuyiwa Joshua, Onoagbe Iyare

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Medicinal plants have been recognized to have therapeutic effects and they may also have toxic side effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of extracts of Cymbopogon citratus on normal rats. Blood glucose levels of all animals were determined. Biochemical studies carried out to determine the oxidative status by measuring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and in the liver, kidney and pancrease. Oral administration of ethanolic and aqueous extract of C. citratus at a doses of 200 mg/kg body weight, for a period of 30 days, caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood glucose levels. Effect on hormonal profile (TSH, T3, and T4) was also determined, and was found to be significantly higher in all the administered groups when compared with control. Lipid profiles levels; Total cholesterols, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly (p>0.05) higher for all treated rats as compared against control. SOD, catalase, GSH and Vitamin C activities in the tissues (liver, kidney and pancrease) of the rats treated with the medicinal plants were generally higher or statistical slightly similar to control. Histopathology result showed that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (200 mg/kg body weight) of C. citratus was safer as no adverse effects were observed in the organs examined. Findings in this study showed that this plant has hypoglycemic properties and did not exert oxidative damage; in some instances, particularly in the liver, kidney and pancreas as well as its relative safety and possible use for weight gain.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, blood glucose, cymbopogon citratus, hypoglycaemic, oxidative status

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35 Excessive Recruitment of Neutrophils and Elastase Release in Emphysema and COPD; Effect of Natural Protease Inhibitors

Authors: Rachid Kacem

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Excessive recruitment of Neutrophils into the lungs is a hallmark of several chronic inflammatory disorders such as emphysema and COPD. The resulting of this recruitment is the pathogenesis of lungs which is characterized by an imbalance between leukocyte serine proteinases mainly neutrophil elastase and the physiological inhibitors. The development of emphysema and remodeling of airway tissue occurred when neutrophil migrate into the lungs with more release of elastase and other proteolytic enzymes. Many reports have demonstrated that the extracts from medicinal plants such as Nigella sativa (L.) seeds extracts have anti-elastase activity; this is mainly due to the enrichment of the extracts with many bioactive molecules mainly phenolic compounds. Neutrophil serine proteases including human neutrophil elastase are involved in many inflammatory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. Since the current therapies for these diseases are inadequate and have numerous adverse effects, there is an acute need of potential alternative therapies. The natural protease inhibitors have received increasing attention as useful tools for potential utilization in pharmacology. This work is elucidating the most important natural phenolic substances that have been reported recently for their effectiveness as natural anti-elastase molecules, and hence, to the possibility of their use in the field of pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, COPD, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Phenols, elastase, anti-elastase, emphysema

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34 Inhibition of Crystallization Lithiasis Phosphate (Struvite) by Extracts Zea mays

Authors: A. Cheriti, N. Benahmed

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Kidney stones of infectious origin, in particular, the phosphate amoniaco-magnesian hexahydrate or struvite are one of the risk factors that most often leads of renal insufficiency. Many plants species, described in pharmacopoeias of several countries is used as a remedy for urinary stones, the latter is a disease resulting from the presence of stones in the kidneys or urinary tract. Our research is based on the existing relationship between the effect of extracts of medicinal plant used for the cure of urinary tract diseases in the region of Algeria south-west on urolithiasis especially Ammonium-Magnesium Phosphate Hexahydrate (Struvite). We have selected Zea mays L. (POACEAE) for this study. On the first stage, we have studied the crystallisation of struvite 'in vitro' without inhibitors, after we have compared to crystallization with inhibitors. Most of The organic and aqueous extracts of this plant give an effect on the crystal size of struvite. It is a very significant reduction in the size of the crystals of struvite in the presence of hexane and ethanol extract (12 to 5-6 μm). We’ve observed a decrease in the size of the aggregates in the presence of all the extracts. This reduction is important for the aqueous, acetone and chloroform extract (45 to 10-16μm). Finally, a deep study was conducted on the effective extract of Zea mays L.; for determine the influence of inhibitory phytochemical compounds.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, urolithiasis, Zea mays, struvite

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33 Medicinal Plants and Arbuscular mycorrhizal Colonization

Authors: Ammani K., Glory M.

Abstract:

Demands of traditional herbal medicines are increasing day by day over the world. Considering the growing demand of medicinal plants in curative treatments and the role of VAM fungi in augmentation of the production of active secondary metabolites by the medicinal plants, the present work has been undertaken to survey the mycorrhizal status in 30 different medicinal plants belonging to various families from Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh. The roots were collected carefully and stained by the Phillips & Hayman technique. Basing on the occurrence of vesicles and arbuscules, categorized into four grades; Excellent: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present more than 75% of root bits, Good: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 50-75% in surface of root bits, moderate: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 25-50% in surface of root bits, and poor: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 1-25% in surface of root bits. The study reveals that the roots of all plants were colonized by AM fungi. Percentage of root colonization by AM fungi was more in Aloe vera, Phylanthus emblica, Azadiracta indica and least in plants such as Aerva lanata, Vinca rosea, Crotalaria verrucosa among the 30 medicinal plants in present study. The enhancement of growth and vigour and increased production of bioactive compounds of the medicinal plants is desirable which may be achieved by inoculation of the roots with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. There is a steady increase in the cultivation of medicinal plants to maintain a steady supply to support the increasing demand but corresponding researches of VAM fungi and their association in medicinal plants have received very little attention as compared to the studies on forest species and field crops. So a vast research on this field is necessary for a better tomorrow.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, colonization, Categories, Arbuscular mycorrhizae

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32 Antioxidants: Some Medicinal Plants in Indian System of Medicine Work as Anti-cervical Cancer

Authors: Kamini Kaushal

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Medicinal plants of Ayurveda are effective in the treatment of cervical cancer. The aim of this paper is to assess anti cancerous activities of these medicinal plants against cancer. Most of the medicinal plants in Ayurveda are using to treat cervical cancer as name of disease as treatment of YONI VYAPADA. The selected plants has been studied scientifically in India and evidence based written since Vedic era. The compilation results showed potential anti cervical cancer activity of the tested plants. There plants are remaining under the dark due to lack of awareness, lack of popularity and barrier of language. Now this is the time to eye opener regarding the classical text and clinical evidences, so that we can give the hope to world's affected women from this disease. World is waiting for such type of remedy which is having zero side effects, low cost and effective.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Cervical Cancer, Ayurveda, anti cancerous, scientific study, classical text

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31 Ethnomedicinal Plants Used for Gastrointestinal Ailments by the People of Tribal District Kinnaur (Himachal Pradesh) India

Authors: Richa, Geeta, M. L. Sharma

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Himachal Pradesh, a hilly State of India located in the Western Himalayas, with varied altitudinal gradients and climatic conditions, is a repository of plant diversity and the traditional knowledge associated with plants. The State is inhabited by various tribal communities who usually depend upon local plants for curing various ailments. Utilization of plant resources in their day-to-day life has been an age old practice of the people inhabiting this State. The present study pertains to the tribal district Kinnaur of Himachal Pradesh, located between 77°45’ and 79°00’35” east longitudes and between 31°05’50” and 32°05’15” north altitudes. Being a remote area with only very basic medical facilities, local people mostly use traditional herbal medicines for primary healthcare needs. Traditional healers called “Amji” are usually very secretive in revealing their medicinal knowledge to novice and pass on their knowledge to next generation orally. As a result, no written records of healing herbs are available. The aim of present study was to collect and consolidate the ethno-medicinal knowledge of local people of the district about the use of plants for treating gastrointestinal ailments. The ethnobotanical information was collected from the local practitioners, herbal healers and elderly people having rich knowledge about the medicinal herbs through semi-structured questionnaire and key informant discussions. A total 46 plant species belonging to 40 genera and 24 families have been identified which are used as cure for gastrointestinal ailments. Among the parts used for gastointestinal ailments, aerial parts (14%) were followed by the whole plant (13%), root (8%), leaves (6%), flower (5%), fruit and seed (3%) and tuber (1%). These plant species could be prioritized for conservation and subject to further studies related to phytochemical screening for their authenticity. Most of the medicinal plants of the region are collected from the wild and are often harvested for trade. Sustainable harvesting and domestication of the highly traded species from the study area is needed.

Keywords: Gastrointestinal, Medicinal Plants, traditional knowledge, Amji, Kinnaur

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30 Seasonal Stirred Variations in Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants Turraea holstii and Clausena anisata

Authors: Francis Machumi, Ester Innocent, Pius Yanda, Philip C. Stevenson

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Curative dependence of traditionally used medicinal plants on season of harvest is an alleged claim by traditional health practitioners. This study intended to verify these claims by investigating antifungal activity and chemical composition of traditionally used medicinal plants Turraea holstii and Clausena anisata harvested in rainy season and dry season. The antifungal activities were determined by broth microdilution method whereas chemical profiling of the extracts from the plant materials was done by gas chromatography (GC). Results indicated that extracts of plant materials harvested in dry season showed enhanced antifungal activity as compared to extracts of plant materials harvested in rainy season. GC chromatograms showed overalls increase in number and amount of chemical species for extracts of plant materials harvested in dry season as compared to extracts of plant materials harvested in rainy season.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Chemical Composition, antifungal activity, seasonal dependence

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29 Valorization, Conservation and Sustainable Production of Medicinal Plants in Morocco

Authors: Elachouri Mostafa, Fakchich Jamila, Lazaar Jamila, Elmadmad Mohammed, Marhom Mostafa

Abstract:

Of course, there has been a great growth in scientific information about medicinal plants in recent decades, but in many ways this has proved poor compensation, because such information is accessible, in practice, only to a very few people and anyway, rather little of it is relevant to problems of management and utilization, as encountered in the field. Active compounds are used in most traditional medicines and play an important role in advancing sustainable rural livelihoods through their conservation, cultivation, propagation, marketing and commercialization. Medicinal herbs are great resources for various pharmaceutical compounds and urgent measures are required to protect these plant species from their natural destruction and disappearance. Indeed, there is a real danger of indigenous Arab medicinal practices and knowledge disappearing altogether, further weakening traditional Arab culture and creating more insecurity, as well as forsaking a resource of inestimable economic and health care importance. As scientific approach, the ethnopharmacological investigation remains the principal way to improve, evaluate, and increase the odds of finding of biologically active compounds derived from medicinal plants. As developing country, belonging to the Mediterranean basin, Morocco country is endowed with resources of medicinal and aromatic plants. These plants have been used over the millennia for human welfare, even today. Besides, Morocco has a large plant biodiversity, in fact, its medicinal flora account more than 4200 species growing on various bioclimatic zones from subhumide to arid and Saharan. Nevertheless, the human and animal pressure resulting from the increase of rural population needs has led to degradation of this patrimony. In this paper, we focus our attention on ethnopharmacological studies carried out in Morocco. The goal of this work is to clarify the importance of herbs as platform for drugs discovery and further development, to highlight the importance of ethnopharmacological study as approach on discovery of natural products in the health care field, and to discuss the limit of ethnopharmacological investigation of drug discovery in Morocco.

Keywords: Natural Products, Ethnopharmacology, Medicinal Plants, Morocco, drug-discovery

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28 Diabetes and Medical Plant's Treatment: Ethnobotanical Studies Carried out in Morocco

Authors: Jamila Fakchich, Mostafa Jamila Lazaar Elachouri, Lakhder Fakchich, Fatna Ouali, Abd Errazzak Belkacem

Abstract:

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that has a significant impact on the health, quality of life, and life expectancy of patients as well as the health care system. By its nature diabetes, is a multisystem disease with wide-ranging complication that span nearly all region of the body. This epidemic problem, however, is not unique to the industrialized society, but has also hardly struck the developing countries. In Morocco, as developing country, there is an epidemic rise in diabetes, with ensuing concern about the management and control of this disease; it began a chronic burdensome disease of largely middle-aged and elderly people, with a long course and serious complications often resulting in high death-rate, the treatment of diabetes spent vast amount of resources including medicines, diets, physical training. Treatment of this disease is considered problematic due to the lack of effective and safe drugs capable of inducing sustained clinical, biochemical, and histological cure. In Moroccan society, the phytoremedies are some times the only affordable sources of healthcare, particularly for the people in remote areas. In this paper, we present a synthesis work obtained from the ethnobotanical data reported in different specialized journals. A Synthesis of four published ethnobotanical studies that have been carried out in different region of Morocco by different team seekers during the period from 1997 to 2015. Medicinal plants inventoried by different seekers in four Moroccan’s areas have been regrouped and codified, then, Factorial Analysis (FA) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are used to analyse the aggregated data from the four studies and plants are classified according to their frequency of use by population. Our work deals with an attempt to gather information on some traditional uses of medicinal plants from different regions of Morocco, also, it was designed to give a set of medicinal plants commonly used by Moroccan people in the treatment of diabetes; In this paper, we intended to provide a basic knowledge about plant species used by Moroccan society for treatment of diabetes. One of the most interesting aspects of this type of works is to assess the relative cultural importance of medicinal plants for specific illnesses and exploring its usefulness in the context of diabetes.

Keywords: Diabetes, Medicinal Plants, Morocco, ethnobotanical, phytoremedies

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27 Purgative Plants Used by the Residents of Muledani Village in Thohoyandou, South Africa

Authors: Mokganya Mokgaetji Georginah

Abstract:

Traditional medicine continued to play a pivotal role in treating various diseases affecting VhaVenda people. The Venda region is rich with different types of medicinal plants that are used to treat quite a variety of illnesses. This includes plants that are used as laxative. Laxative can be defined as a food composed of a combination of drugs that help to relieve constipation. The study was conducted in the Muledani Village of the Thulamela Municipality. The study investigated all plant forms that are used by Muledani residents as laxative. The semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the respondents aged forty years and above. The households of the respondents were sampled randomly by visiting every tenth homestead in each street. Total of thirteen different plants was given by all respondents participated in the current research. Different parts of plants like Aloe arborences, Erythrina lysistemon, Terminalia sericea and others are used as laxative. Amongst all the plant parts, roots and barks are used by the respondents. They are either ground or boiled first before consumption. Furthermore, the study indicated that the plants can be used by people of all age groups only when the dosage of the medicine is taken into account. The use of traditional medicine as laxative is recommended as no side effects are experienced if the correct dosage is given to the relevant age group.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, questionnaire, Muledani, Venda region

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26 CICAP: Promising Wound Healing Gel from Bee Products and Medicinal Plants

Authors: Laïd Boukraâ

Abstract:

Complementary and Alternative Medicine is an inclusive term that describes treatments, therapies, and modalities that are not accepted as components of mainstream education or practice, but that are performed on patients by some practitioners. While these treatments and therapies often form part of post-graduate education, study and writing, they are generally viewed as alternatives or complementary to more universally accepted treatments. Ancient civilizations used bee products and medicinal plants, but modern civilization and ‘education’ have seriously lessened our natural instinctive ability and capability. Despite the fact that the modern Western establishment appears to like to relegate apitherapy and aromatherapy to the status of 'folklore' or 'old wives' tales', they contain a vast spread of pharmacologically-active ingredients and each one has its own unique combination and properties. They are classified in modern herbal medicine according to their spheres of action. Bee products and medicinal plants are well-known natural product for their healing properties and their increasing popularity recently as they are widely used in wound healing. Honey not only has antibacterial properties which can help as an antibacterial agent but also has chemical properties which may further help in the wound healing process. A formulation with honey as its main component was produced into a honey gel. This new formulation has enhanced texture and is more user friendly for usage as well. This new formulation would be better than other formulas as it is hundred percent consisting of natural products and has been made into a better formulation. In vitro assay, animal model study and clinical trials have shown the effectiveness of LEADERMAX for the treatment of diabetic foot, burns, leg ulcer and bed sores. This one hundred percent natural product could be the best alternative to conventional products for wound and burn management. The advantages of the formulation are: 100% natural, affordable, easy to use, strong power of absorption, dry surface on the wound making a film, will not stick to the wound bed; helps relieve wound pain, inflammation, edema and bruising while improving comfort.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Wounds, burns, Leg Ulcer, diabetic foot, bed sore bee products

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25 Chemical Variability in the Essential Oils from the Leaves and Buds of Syzygium Species

Authors: Rabia Waseem, Low Kah Hin, Najihah Mohamed Hashim

Abstract:

The variability in the chemical components of the Syzygium species essential oils has been evaluated. The leaves of Syzygium species have been collected from Perak, Malaysia. The essential oils extracted by using the conventional Hydro-distillation extraction procedure and analyzed by using Gas chromatography System attached with Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Twenty-seven constituents were found in Syzygium species in which the major constituents include: α-Pinene (3.94%), α-Thujene (2.16%), α-Terpineol (2.95%), g-Elemene (2.89%) and D-Limonene (14.59%). The aim of this study was the comparison between the evaluated data and existing literature to fortify the major variability through statistical analysis.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Medicinal Plants, Cluster Analysis, Essential Oil, chemotaxonomy

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24 The State of Herb Medicine in Oriental Morocco: Cases of Debdou, Taourirt and Guerssif Districts

Authors: Elachouri Mostafa, Himer Khalid, Alami Ilyass, Kharchoufa Loubna

Abstract:

It has been estimated by the World Health Organization that 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicine to meet their daily health requirements. In Morocco reliance on such medicine is partly owing to the high cost of conventional medicine and the inaccessibility of modern health care facilities. There was high agreement in the use of plants as medicine in Oriental Morocco. Our objective is to evaluate the informant’s knowledge on medicinal plants by the local population and to document the uses of medicinal plants by this community, for the treatment of different illnesses. Using an ethnopharmacological approach, we collected information concerning the traditional medicinal knowledge and the medicinal plants used, by interviewing successfully 458 informants living in oriental Morocco (from Debdou, Taourirt, Guersif a,d Laayoune districts). The data were analyzed by statistical methods (Component Analysis “CA”, Factorial Analysis “FA”) and other methods such as through Informant’s Consensus Factor (ICF) and Use Value (UV). Our results indicate that, more than 60% of the population in these regions relies on medicinal plants for the treatment of different ailments with predominance of women consumers. 135 plant species belonging to 61 families were documented. These plants were used by the population for the treatment of a group of illness (about 14 principal ailments). We conclude that, in oriental Morocco, till now, the population has some traditional knowledge commonly used as medical tradition. These wealthy heritage needs conservation and evaluation.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Morocco, traditional knowledge, wealthy heritage

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23 The State of Research on Medicinal Plants in Morocco

Authors: Elachouri Mostafa, Alami Ilyass, Loubna Kharchoufa

Abstract:

The two great realms of living diversity are cultural and biological. Today, both are being lost at an alarming rate. Of all the Earth’s biological diversity, plant kingdom is of high significance, and most essential to human welfare, in fact, medicinal plants are extensively exploited for countless purposes. Among these multiple uses, medicinal plants are the most important source of medicine for humankind healthcare and well being. In recent years there has been a great surge of public interest in the use of herbs and plants. Some scientists have viewed this phenomenon as a modern “herbal renaissance”. The importance of plants as medicines in developed and developing countries has recently been acknowledged by the United Nations (UN). However, to date fewer than 5% of the approximately 250,000 species of higher plants have been exhaustively studied for their potential pharmacological activity. A number of drugs from ethnobotanical leads have provided significant milestones in Western medicine. Despite this success, pharmacognosy research on Moroccan flora needs more studies aimed at the exploration of their therapeutic potential. A major weakness is the absence of strong funding agencies in the country, and a real national drug discovery program. Moreover, the lack of the coordination between different universities and research institutions leads, in most cases, to a waste of time, money and efforts of many researchers. In this work, we focus our attention on research into traditional indigenous medicinal plants in Morocco. Three parts constitute the head lines of this work: In the first one, we take up Moroccan biodiversity matter, the second part is devoted principally to the state of research into medicinal plants by Moroccan scholars and the last one is consecrated to the debate of factors which handicap the progress of research on phytomedicine in Morocco. The objectives of the present study are twofold: first, to highlight the state of the medicinal plants researches in Morocco. Second goal is to assess and correlate the levels of knowledge of the local flora to the research on medicinal plants to attempt to build capacity for research within Moroccan Scientific community at rate of developing country.

Keywords: Pharmacognosy, Medicinal Plants, Phytomedicine, Morocco, ethnobotanical

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22 Medicinal Plants Used by Moroccan People in the Management of Diabetes and Hypertension

Authors: Alami Ilyass, Kharchoufa Loubna, Alachouri Mostafa

Abstract:

Cardiovascular disease (CDV) remains the major cause of morbidity; mortality and disability throughout the world. The ethnopharmcological and ethnobotanical studies are the paramount importance to set a high value on phytogenetic resources and to address health problems of some communities; especially poor peoples. Our work presents an analysis of published data from studies, that have been undertaken, in Morocco, by different seeker teams in separately areas during the last decades. Objectives: Evaluate and identify medicinal plants used for cardiovascular treatment by Moroccan people. Methodology: All these studies have the same approaches ; they were conducted by interviewing people suffering from diabetes. We use Factorial Analysis (FA) and principal Components analysis (PCA) to analyse the aggregated data from the different studies. Results: globally; 95 plants species were listed; all these plant were used empirically by Moroccan society for treating cardiovascular problems. These plants were divided in to 42 families and 87 genus. The lamiaceae; asteraceae; Apiaceae and poaceae are the botanical families with high number of plant species. Coclusion: Traditional medecine has been widely used for treatment of cardiovascular problems and it has been recognized as an interesting alternative to conventional medicine.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Medicinal Plants, Morocco, ethnobotanical

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21 Extracting the Antioxidant Compounds of Medicinal Plant Limoniastrum guyonianum

Authors: Assia Belfar, Mohamed Hadjadj, Messaouda Dakmouche, Zineb Ghiaba, Mahdi Belguidoum

Abstract:

Introduction: This study aims to phytochemical screening; Extracting the active compounds and estimate the effectiveness of antioxidant in Medicinal plants desert Limoniastrum guyonianum (Zeïta) from South Algeria. Methods: Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by the following methods: DPPH (1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and reducing power assay. Results: Phytochemical screening of the plant part reveals the presence of phenols, saponins, flavonoids and tannins. While alkaloids and Terpenoids were absent. The Methanolic extract of L. guyonianum was extracted successively with ethyl acetate and butanol. Extraction of yield varied widely in the L. guyonianum ranging from (1.315 % to 4.218%). butanol fraction had the highest yield. The higher content of phenols was recorded in butanol fraction (311.81 ± 0.02mg GAE/g DW), the higher content of flavonoids was found in butanol fraction (9.58 ± 0.33mg QE/g DW). IC50 of inhibition of radical DPPH in ethyl acetate fraction was (0.05 ± 0.01µg/ml) Equal effectiveness with BHT, All extracts showed good activity of ferric reducing power, the higher power was in butanol fraction (16.16 ± 0.05mM). Conclusions: Demonstrated this study that the Methanolic extract of L. guyonianum contain a considerable quantity of phenolic compounds and possess a good antioxidant activity. It can be used as an easily accessible source of Natural Antioxidants and as a possible food supplement and in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Phenolic Compounds, phytochemical screening, flavonoid compound, l. guyonianum

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20 Evaluation of Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory Effect of Two Plants from Brazilian Cerrado

Authors: N. A. P. Camaforte, P. M. P. Vareda, L. L. Saldanha, A. L. Dokkedal, J. M. Rezende-Neto, M. R. Senger, F. P. Silva-Jr, J. R. Bosqueiro

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by deficiency of insulin secretion and/or action which results in hyperglycemia. Nowadays, acarbose is a medicine used by diabetic people to inhibit alpha-glucosidases leading to the decreasing of post-feeding glycaemia, but with low effectiveness and many side effects. Medicinal plants have been used for the treatment of many diseases including diabetes and their action occurs through the modulation of insulin-depending processes, pancreas regeneration or inhibiting glucose absorption by the intestine. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the treatment using two crude extracts of plants from Brazilian cerrado was able to decrease fasting blood glucose and improve glucose tolerance in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Because of this and the importance of the search for new alternatives to decrease the hyperglycemia, we decided to evaluate the inhibitory action of two plants from Brazilian cerrado - B.H. and Myrcia bella. The enzymatic assay was performed in 50 µL of final volume using pancreatic α-amylase and maltase together with theirs commercial substrates. The inhibition potency (IC50) was determined by the incubation of eight different concentrations of both extracts and the enzymes for 5 minutes at 37ºC. After, the substrate was added to start the reaction. Glucosidases assay was evaluated measuring the quantity of p-nitrophenol in 405 nmin 384 wells automatic reader. The in vitro assay with the extracts of B.H. and M. bella showed an IC50 of 28,04µg/mL and 16,93 µg/mL for α-amilase, and 43,01µg/mL and 17 µg/mL for maltase, respectively. M. bella extract showed a higher inhibitory activity for those enzymes than B.H. extract. The crude extracts tested showed a higher inhibition rate to α-amylase, but were less effective against maltase in comparison to acarbose (IC50 36µg/mL and 9 µg/mL, respectively). In conclusion, the crude extract of B.H. and M. bella showed a potent inhibitory effect against α-amylase and showed promising results to the possible development of new medicines to treat diabetes with less or even without side effects.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, diabetes mellitus, alfa-glucosidases, glycaemia

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