Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

medicinal plant Related Abstracts

15 Evaluation of Chemopreventive Activity of Medicinal Plant, Gromwell Seed against Tumor Promoting Stage

Authors: Harukuni Tokuda, Takanari Arai, Xu FengHao, Nobutaka Suzuki

Abstract:

In our continuous search for anti-tumor promoting, chemopreventive active potency from natural source material, a kind of healthy tea, Gromwell seed (Coix lachryma-jobi) ext., and including compounds Monoolein and Trilinolein have been screened using the in vitro synergistic assay indicated by inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) by TPA. In assay, Gromwell seed aqueous extract and hot aqueous extract exhibited the potential inhibitory effects on EBV-EA activation without strong cytotoxicity on Raji cells. In our experimental system, the inhibitory effects of both Gromwell extracts and compounds were greater than that of beta-carotene, which is known anti-tumor promoting agent and/or chemopreventive agent. These compounds were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory effect on EBV-EA activation induced by TPA. The percentages of the inhibition of TPA-induced EBV-EA activation for these materials were 60% and 30% at concentration 100 μg. Based on the results obtained in vitro, we studied the inhibitory effect of compounds, in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test of mouse skin papilloma using DMBA as an initiator and TPA as a potential promoter. The control animals showed a 100% incidence of papilloma at 20 weeks after DMBA-TPA tumor promotion, while treatment with compounds reduced the percentage of number of tumor to 60 % after 20 weeks. Results from in vitro and in vivo studies showing chemopreventive activity against TPA promoting stage and these data support the effective potency of carcinogenic stage in clinical evaluation of integrative oncology.

Keywords: Chemoprevention, gromwell seed, medicinal plant, pharmaceutical medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
14 New Strategy for Breeding of Artemisia annua L. for a Sustainable Production of the Antimalarial Drug Artemisinin

Authors: Nadali Babaeian Jelodar, Chan Lai Keng, Arvind Bhatt, Laleh Bordbar, Leow E Shuen, Kamaruzaman Mohamed

Abstract:

Recently artemisinin (the endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone) has received considerable attention because of its antimalarial activity. It is isolated from the aerial part of the Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin is very difficult to synthesise also its production by mean of cell, tissue or organ cultures is very low. Presently, only its extraction from A. annua L. plants remains the only source of the drug. The reported yield of artemisinin from leaves of A. annua L. is very low and unstable, with yields typically less than 1% of leaf dry weight. To increase the percentage of artemisinin, researchers have been engaged in developing new varieties. A review concerning the breeding of A. annua L. is presented. The aim of this review is to bring together most of the available scientific research papers about the breeding conducted on the genus A. annua L., which is currently scattered across various publications. Through this review the authors hope to attract the attention of breeders throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of A. annua L. species. Also the future scope of this plant has been emphasized with a view of the importance of breeding of A. annua L. for increasing of artemisinin content. By releasing of new cultivar of A. annua L. and cultivation of this plant offers the opportunity to optimize yield and achieve a uniform, high quality product.

Keywords: Breeding, cultivation, medicinal plant, Artemisia annua L, artemisinin

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
13 Toxic Heavy Metal Accumulation by Algerian Malva sylvestris L. Depending on Location Variation

Authors: Souhila Terfi, Fatma Hassaine-Sadi

Abstract:

In the present study, wet digestion with HCl and HNO3 mixture was used to extract the heavy metals (copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd)) from the leaves, the stems and the roots of Malva sylvestris L., which were subsequently analyzed by AAS. The samples (soil and parts of species) were collected from different sites: the industrial area (IA) (Rouiba), the rubbish dump area (RDA) (Boudouaou), the residential area (RA) with large open fields and construction activities (Blida), the Montaigne area (MA) (Chrea) and the high plateau area (HPA) (Berouaguia). The study showed differences in metal concentrations according to the analysed parts and the different sampling locations. In the contaminated site of the industrial area (IA), high content of the toxic heavy metals (Cd: 3.18 µg/g DW and Pb: 34.48 µg/g DW) were found in the leaves of Malva sylvestris L. This finding suggests that the consumers of this species could be exposed to a risk associated with this higher level of these toxic metals. It was found that Malva sylvestris L. is rich by Zn and Cu in some sites, which are considered to be the essential elements for the human health. The obtained results with the control site (Montaigne area) suggest that this species can be applicable in both the health and food, feasible alternatives as medicinal plant without any risk.

Keywords: medicinal plant, Malva sylvestris L, toxic heavy metal, impact on human health

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
12 Chemopreventive Potency of Medicinal and Eatable Plant, Gromwell Seed on in Vitro and in Vivo Carcinogenesis Systems

Authors: Harukuni Tokuda, Xu FengHao, Nobutaka Suzuki

Abstract:

As part of an ongoing our projects to investigate the anti-tumor promoring properties (chemopreventive potency) of Gromwell seed, dry powder materials and its active compounds were carried out through useful test systems. Gromwell seed (Coix lachryma-jobi seed) (GS) is a grass crop that has long been used and played a role in traditional medicine as a nourishing food, and for the treatment of various aliments, paticularly cancer. The application of a new screening procedure which utilizes the synergistic effect of short-chain fatty acids and phorbol esters in enable rapid and easy detection of naturally occurring substances(anti-tumor promoters chemo-preventive agents) with inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) activation, using human lymphblastoid cells. In addition, we have now extended these investigations to a new tumorigenesis model in which we initiated the tumors with DMBA intiation and promoted with 1.7 nmol of TPA in two-stage mouse skin test and other models. these results provide a basis for further development of these botanical supplements for human cancer chemoprevention and observations seem that this materials more extensively as one of the trials for the purpose of complementary and alternative medicine.

Keywords: Chemoprevention, medicinal plant, mouse, carcinogenesis systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
11 Component Composition of Biologically Active Substances in Extracts of Some Species from the Family Lamiaceae Lindl.

Authors: Galina N. Parshina, Olga N. Shemshura, Ulzhan S. Mukiyanova, Gulnur M. Beisetbayeva

Abstract:

From a medical point of view some species from the family Lamiaceae Lindl. attract the attention of scientists. Many plant species from this family are used in science and medicine. Some researchers believe that the medicinal properties of these plants are caused by the action on the organism of the individual components (camphor, menthol, thymol, eugenol, phenols, flavonoids, alcohols, and their derivatives) or the entire complex of essential oils. Biologically active substances (BAS), isolated from these medicinal plants can be an effective supplement in the complex treatment of infectious diseases. The substances of the phenolic group such as flavonoids and phenolic acids; and also alkaloids included in the component composition of the plants from the family Lamiaceae Lindl. present the scientific and practical interest for future investigations of their biological activity and development of medicinal products. The research objects are the species from the family Lamiaceae Lindl., cultivated in the North-Kazakhstan region. In this abstract, we present the results of the investigation of polyphenolic complex (flavonoids and phenolic acids) and alkaloids in aqueous and ethanol extracts. Investigation of the qualitative composition of flavonoids in the aqueous extracts showed that the species Monarda Diana contains flavone, Dracocephalum moldavica contains rutin, Ocimum basilicum (purple form) contains both ruin and quercetin. Biochemical analysis revealed that the ethanol extract of Monarda Diana has phenolic acids, similar to protocatechuic and benzoic acids by their chromatographic characteristics. But the aqueous extract contains four phenolic acids, one of which is an analogue of gentisic acid; and the other three are not identified yet. The phenolic acids such as benzoic and gentisic acids identified in ethanol extracts of species Ocimum basilicum (purple form) and Satureja hortensis, correspondingly. But the same phenolic acids did not appear in aqueous extracts. The phenolic acids were not determined neither in the ethanol or aqueous extracts of species Dracocephalum moldavica. The biochemical analysis did not reveal the content of alkaloids in aqueous extracts of investigated plants. However, the alkaloids in the amount of 5-13 components were identified in the ethanolic extracts of plants by the qualitative reactions. The results of analysis with reagent of Dragendorff showed that next amounts of alkaloids were identified in extracts of Monarda Diana (6-7), Satureja hortensis (6), Ocimum basilicum (7-9) and Dracocephalum moldavica (5-6). The reactions with reagent of Van-Urca showed that next amounts of alkaloids were identified in extracts of Monarda Diana (9-12), Satureja hortensis (9-10), two alkaloids of them with Rf6=0,39 and Rf6=0,31 similar to roquefortine), Ocimum basilicum (11) and Dracocephalum moldavica (13, two of them with Rf5=0,34 and Rf5=0,33 by their chromatographic characteristics similar to epikostaklavin).

Keywords: medicinal plant, Lamiaceae, biologically active substances, component composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
10 Antifungal Activity of Commiphora myrrha L. against Some Air Fungi

Authors: Sarfaraz Hadi, Ahmed E. Al-Sabri, Mohamed A. Moslem

Abstract:

To avoid the harmful effects of the chemical fungicides on the human and minimize the environmental pollution, an alternative eco-friendly control strategies should be developed. The extract of Commiphora myhrra L. was tested against twenty fungal genera isolated from the indoor air collected from different rooms in King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Disc diffusion test was modified for use in this study and the collected data was statistically analyzed. Variable antifungal efficacy of different myrrh extract was recorded against the investigated fungal genera. The efficacy of the extract was increased as the concentration increased. The highest growth inhibition (74.6%) was against Acremonium strictum followed by Trichoderma psuedokoningii (70.6%). On contrast, the lowest efficacy (12.7%) was against Ulocladium consortiale. It could be concluded that myrrh extract is promised as a source of substances from which of safer and eco-friendly could be used as antimicrobial agents against a number of pathogenic fungi.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antifungal, medicinal plant, myrrh

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
9 Effects of Nutrient Source and Drying Methods on Physical and Phytochemical Criteria of Pot Marigold (Calendula offiCinalis L.) Flowers

Authors: Leila Tabrizi, Farnaz Dezhaboun

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of plant nutrient source and different drying methods on physical and phytochemical characteristics of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae) flowers, a factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications in Research Laboratory of University of Tehran in 2010. Different nutrient sources (vermicompost, municipal waste compost, cattle manure, mushroom compost and control) which were applied in a field experiment for flower production and different drying methods including microwave (300, 600 and 900 W), oven (60, 70 and 80oC) and natural-shade drying in room temperature, were tested. Criteria such as drying kinetic, antioxidant activity, total flavonoid content, total phenolic compounds and total carotenoid of flowers were evaluated. Results indicated that organic inputs as nutrient source for flowers had no significant effects on quality criteria of pot marigold except of total flavonoid content, while drying methods significantly affected phytochemical criteria. Application of microwave 300, 600 and 900 W resulted in the highest amount of total flavonoid content, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, respectively, while oven drying caused the lowest amount of phytochemical criteria. Also, interaction effect of nutrient source and drying method significantly affected antioxidant activity in which the highest amount of antioxidant activity was obtained in combination of vermicompost and microwave 900 W. In addition, application of vermicompost combined with oven drying at 60oC caused the lowest amount of antioxidant activity. Based on results of drying trend, microwave drying showed a faster drying rate than those oven and natural-shade drying in which by increasing microwave power and oven temperature, time of flower drying decreased whereas slope of moisture content reduction curve showed accelerated trend.

Keywords: medicinal plant, organic fertilizer, drying kinetic, phytochemical criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
8 Determination of Antimicrobial Effect and Essential Oil Composition Salvia verticillata L. Subsp. amasiaca

Authors: Yener Tekeli, Tanju Teker, Esra Karpuz

Abstract:

Salvia species are known as medicinal plant and often used in public. The antimicrobial effects and essential oil composition of Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca were determined. The antimicrobial activity is determined by using disk diffusion method against two Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one kind of yeast and essential oil composition was determined by GC - MS. As a result of antimicrobial analysis while sample has shown very strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, moderately effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and low effective against Enterococcus faecalis, it has not shown antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and C. albicans. Trans-caryophyllene (% 35.07), germacrene-d (% 10.98) and caryopyllene oxide (% 5.81) are the main components of essential oil composition.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Essential Oil, medicinal plant, salvia

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
7 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity Through RAPD Markers Among Melia azedarach L (Chinabery)

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq, Nadir Ali Rind, Özlem Aksoy, Muhammad Umar Dahot, Salih Dikilitaş, Burçak Tütünoğlu

Abstract:

Melia azedarach L. is freshly fruited small to medium sized tree native to China and North western India. It is growing in Pakistan and Turkey in various areas facing great environmental changes to maintain its survival. The species is valued for its high quality wood, medicinal, ornamental and shade purposes. The present work was aimed to estimate the genetic variation among the populations of Melia azedarach L. leaf samples that were collected from five different locations of Turkey and three different areas of Pakistan. These populations were chosen on the random bases by applying RAPD primers in order to construct a dendogram using UPGMA method to show genetic diversity. After that appropriate conservation strategies were suggested. 14 primers producing polymorphic and monomorphic bands were analyzed. Genetic distances were calculated for all the species studied by RAPD-PCR methods. According to the results the lowest genetic identity values and the highest genetic polymorphic values were determined. It is observed that there was a clear split among populations from different areas in Turkey and Pakistan. These differences may be due to eco-geographical association with genetic variation and should be conserved to retain the genetic variation of the species.

Keywords: Conservation, Genetic Diversity, medicinal plant, RAPD-PCR, melia azedarach L

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
6 Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Lavandula antineae Maire from Algeria

Authors: Soumeya Krimat, Tahar Dob, Aicha Kesouri, Hafidha Metidji, Ahmed Nouasri

Abstract:

Lavandula antineae Maire is an endemic medicinal plant of Algeria which is traditionally used for the treatment of chills, bruises, oedema and rheumatism. The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory of hydromethanolic aerial parts extract of Lavandula antineae for the first time using carrageenan-paw edema and croton oil-ear odema models. The plant extract, at the dose of 200 mg/kg, showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity (P˂0.05) in the carrageenan induced edema test in mice, showing 80.74% reduction in the paw thikness comparable to that produced by the standard drug aspirin 83.44% at 4h. When it was applied topically at a dosage of 1 and 2 mg per ear, the percent edema reduction in treated mice was 29.45% and 74.76%, respectively. These results demonstrate that Lavandula antineae Maire extract possess remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, supporting the folkloric usage of the plant to treat various inflammatory and pain diseases.

Keywords: medicinal plant, anti-inflammatory activity, lavandula antineae maire, carrageenan-paw edema, croton oil-ear edema

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
5 Alterations in Esterases and Phosphatases of Three Economically Important Stored Grain Insect Pests Exposed to Botanical Extracts, Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus

Authors: Abdul Rashid, Kazam Ali, Muhammad Sagheer, Mansoor-Ul- Hasan, Chaudhary Muhammad Shahid Hanif, Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif

Abstract:

Natural extracts of two medicinal plants Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus were tested for their toxic and enzyme inhibition effects against three insects species of stored grains Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium and Sitophilus granarius. Responses of insects varied with exposure periods and dilution levels of acetone extracts of plants. Both plant extracts were lethal to insects but the crude leaf extract of N. tabacum evidenced strong toxic action against three tested insect species. Maximum mortality 36.30% in S. granarius, 25.96% in T. castaneum, and 21.88% in T. granarium were found at 20% dilution level, after 10 days exposure to botanical extract of N. tabacum. The impact of N. tabacum and E. globulus on the activity of esterases; acetylcholinesterase (AChE), α-carboxylesterase (α-CE), β-carboxylesterase (β-CE) and phosphatses; acid phosphatase (AcP), alkaline phosphatase (AlP) of three stored grain insect species were also studied in the survivors of toxicity assay. Whole body homogenates of insects were used for enzyme determination and consumption of high dose rate N. tabacum extract containing diet resulted in maximum 55.33% inhibition of AChE and 26.17% AlP inhibition in T. castaneum, while 44.17% of α-CE and 31.67% inhibition of β-CE activity were noted in S. granarius. Maximum inhibition 23.44% of AcP activity was found in T. granarium exposed to diet treated with the extract of E. globulus. The findings indicate that acetone extracts of N. tabacum and E. globulus are naturally occurring pesticide and facts of the enzyme inhibition relations specify that their effect changes with the insect species.

Keywords: enzyme inhibition, medicinal plant, natural extract, acetone extract, toxic effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
4 Isolation and Biological Activity of Betulinic and Oleanolic Acids from the Aerial Plant Parts of Maesobotrya Barteri (Baill)

Authors: Christiana Ene Ogwuche, Joseph Amupitan, George Ndukwe, Rachael Ayo

Abstract:

Maesobotrya barteri (Baill), belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae, is a medicinal plant growing widely in tropical Africa. The Aerial plant parts of Maesobotrya barteri (Baill) were collected fresh from Orokam, Ogbadibo local Government of Benue State, Nigeria in July 2013. Taxonomical identification was done by Mallam Musa Abdullahi at the Herbarium unit of Biological Sciences Department, ABU, Zaria, Nigeria. Pulverized aerial parts of Maesobotrya barteri (960g) was exhaustively extracted successively using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol and concentrated in the rotary evaporator at 40°C. The Petroleum ether extract had the second highest activity against test microbes from preliminary crude microbial screenings. The Petroleum ether extract was subjected to phytochemical studies, antimicrobial analysis and column chromatography (CC). The column chromatography yielded fraction PE, which was further purified using preparative thin layer chromatography to give PE1. The structure of the isolated compound was established using 1-D NMR and 2-D NMR spectroscopic analysis and by direct comparison with data reported in literature was confirmed to be a mixture, an isomer of Betulinic acid and Oleanolic acid, both with the molecular weight (C₃₀H₄₈O₃). The bioactivity of this compound was carried out using some clinical pathogens and the activity compared with standard drugs, and this was found to be comparable with the standard drug.

Keywords: Bioactivity, medicinal plant, Maesobotrya barteri, petroleum spirit extract, butellinic acid, oleanilic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
3 Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants of Leguminosae in Kantharalak Community Forest, Si Sa Ket Province, Thailand

Authors: W. Chatan, W. Promprom

Abstract:

Leguminosae is a large plant family and its members are important for local people utilization in the Northeast of Thailand. This research aimed to survey medicinal plants in this family in Kantharalak Community forest. The plant collection and exploration were made from October 2017 to September 2018. Folk medicinal uses were studied by interviewing villagers and folk medicine healers living around the community forest by asking about local names, using parts, preparation and properties. The results showed that 65 species belonging to 40 genera were found. Among these, 30 species were medicinal plant. The most used plant parts were leaf. Decoction and drinking were mostly preparation method and administration mode used. All medicinal plants could be categorized into 17 diseases/symptoms. Most plant (56.66%) were used for fever. The voucher specimens were deposited in Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Thailand. Therefore, the data from this study might be widely used by the local area and further scientific study.

Keywords: Utilization, taxonomy, Ethnobotany, medicinal plant, ethnophamacology

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
2 Documentation of Traditional Knowledge on Wild Medicinal Plants of Egypt

Authors: Mahmoud M. Sakr, Nahla S. Abdel-Azim, Khaled A. Shams, Elsayed A. Omer

Abstract:

Medicinal plants play a significant role in the health care system in Egypt. Knowledge developed over the years by people is mostly unrecorded and orally passes on from one generation to the next. This knowledge is facing the danger of becoming extinct. Therefore there is an urgent need to document the medicinal and aromatic plants associated with traditional knowledge. The Egyptian Encyclopedia of wild medicinal plants (EEWMP) is the first attempt to collect most of the basic elements of the medicinal plant resources of Egypt and their traditional uses. It includes scientific data on about 500 medicinal plants in the form of monographs. Each monograph contains all available information and scientific data on the selected species including the following: names, description, distribution, parts used, habitat, conservational status, active or major chemical constituents, folk medicinal uses and heritage resources, pharmacological and biological activities, authentication, pharmaceutical products, and cultivation. The DNA bar-coding is also included (when available). A brief Arabic summary is given for every monograph. This work revealed the diversity in plant parts used in the treatment of different ailments. In addition, the traditional knowledge gathered can be considered a good starting point for effective in situ and ex-situ conservation of endangered plant species.

Keywords: Traditional Medicine, medicinal plant, encyclopedia, wild flora

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1 The Effect of Radish (Raphanus Sativus L.) Leaves Ethanol Extract on Blood Glucose Levels in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide-Induced Type-2 Diabetic Rats

Authors: Satria B. Mahathma, Asri Hendrawati

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder syndrome characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. The number of people with diabetes rose from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. In general, almost 90% of the prevalence of DM is type 2 DM which marked by insulin resistance and decreased receptor sensitivity. Aside from conventional antidiabetic therapy, the utilization of medicinal plants as alternative medicine has beneficial effects in diabetic patients. Flavonoid contents in radish leaves such as quercetin, pelargonidin, and kaempferol are thought to have antidiabetic activity on decreasing blood glucose levels by tricyclic nucleotide modulation of pancreatic beta cells and ameliorating insulin resistance. This study aimed to determine the effect of variant concentration of radish leaves ethanol extract on blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. Method: This study used pretest-posttest control group design by using 16 male Wistar rats which were induced type-2 diabetic by streptozotocin 60 mg/kg BW-nicotinamide 120 mg/kg BW intraperitoneally. Rats who had developed type-2 DM later divided randomly into 4 groups; negative control received placebo, positive control received glibenclamide 5 mg/kg BW/day, rats intervention I and intervention II received 100% and 50% of radish leaves ethanol extract, respectively. Treatments were administered orally for four weeks. The blood glucose levels were measured using the Enzymatic Colorimetric Test “GOD-PAP”. Data were analyzed by the dependent t-test for pretest-posttest intervention difference and one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc test to determine the significant difference of each treatment to obtain the significant data. Result: The result revealed that intervention group had lower blood glucose levels mean than control group which the lowest was intervention II group (negative control: 540,9 ± 191,7 mg/dl, positive control: 494, 97 ± 64,91 mg/dl, intervention I: 301,92 ± 165,70 mg/dl, and intervention II group: 276,1 ± 139,02 mg/dl. Intervention II group had the highest antidiabetic activity, followed by the intervention I group with the amount of decrease in blood glucose levels were -151,85 ± 77,43 mg/dl and -11,08 ± 186,62 mg/dl, however negative and positive control group didn’t have antidiabetic activity. The dependent t-test result showed there is a significant difference in decreasing blood glucose levels in the intervention II pretest-posttest intervention (p=0,03) while the other group didn’t. Data analyzed by one-way ANOVA also revealed the intervention II group significantly declined blood glucose levels compared to the negative and positive control group (p = 0,033 and p=0,032, respectively). Conclusion: There is a significant effect of radish leaves ethanol extract on blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats with the optimal therapeutic effect at a concentration of 50%.

Keywords: medicinal plant, blood glucose levels, type-2 diabetes mellitus, radish leaves

Procedia PDF Downloads 1