Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Medical Education Related Abstracts

15 Mediation Models in Triadic Relationships: Illness Narratives and Medical Education

Authors: Yoko Yamada, Chizumi Yamada

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Narrative psychology is based on the dialogical relationship between self and other. The dialogue can consist of divided, competitive, or opposite communication between self and other. We constructed models of coexistent dialogue in which self and other were positioned side by side and communicated sympathetically. We propose new mediation models for narrative relationships. The mediation models are based on triadic relationships that incorporate a medium or a mediator along with self and other. We constructed three types of mediation model. In the first type, called the “Joint Attention Model”, self and other are positioned side by side and share attention with the medium. In the second type, the “Triangle Model”, an agent mediates between self and other. In the third type, the “Caring Model”, a caregiver stands beside the communication between self and other. We apply the three models to the illness narratives of medical professionals and patients. As these groups have different views and experiences of disease or illness, triadic mediation facilitates the ability to see things from the other person’s perspective and to bridge differences in people’s experiences and feelings. These models would be useful for medical education in various situations, such as in considering the relationships between senior and junior doctors and between old and young patients.

Keywords: Psychology, Mediation, Medical Education, model, illness narrative

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14 Transnational Higher Education: Developing a Transnational Student Success Signature for Clinical Medical Students an Action Research Project

Authors: Wendy Maddison

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This paper describes an Action Research project which was undertaken to inform professional practice in order to develop a newly created Centre for Student Success in the specific context of transnational medical and nursing education in the Middle East. The objectives were to enhance the academic performance, persistence, integration and personal and professional development of a multinational study body, in particular in relation to preclinical medical students, and to establish a comfortable, friendly and student-driven environment within an Irish medical university recently established in Bahrain. Expatriating a new part of itself into a corner of the world and within a context which could be perceived as the antithesis of itself, in particular in terms of traditional cultural and organisational values, the university has had to innovate in the range of services, programmes and other offerings which engages and supports the academic success of medical and nursing students as they “encounter the world in the classroom” in the context of an Arab Islamic culture but within a European institution of transnational education, engaging with a global learning environment locally. The outcomes of the project resulted in the development of a specific student success ‘signature’ for this particular transnational higher education context.

Keywords: Medical Education, Student success, action research, transnational higher education, Middle Eastern context, student persistence in the global-local, student support mechanisms

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13 Priming through Open Book MCQ Test: A Tool for Enhancing Learning in Medical Undergraduates

Authors: Bharati Mehta, Bharti Bhandari, Sabyasachi Sircar

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Medical education is advancing in India, with its advancement newer innovations are being incorporated in teaching and assessment methodology. Our study focusses on a teaching innovation that is more student-centric than teacher-centric and is the need of the day. The teaching innovation was carried out in 1st year MBBS students of our institute. Students were assigned control and test groups. Priming was done for the students in the test group with an open-book MCQ based test in a particular topic before delivering formal didactic lecture on that topic. The control group was not assigned any such exercise. This was followed by formal didactic lecture on the same topic. Thereafter, both groups were assessed on the same topic. The marks were compiled and analysed using appropriate statistical tests. Students were also given questionnaire to elicit their views on the benefits of “self-priming”. The mean marks scored in theory assessment by the test group were statistically higher than the marks scored by the controls. According to students’ feedback, the ‘self-priming “process was interesting, helped in better orientation during class-room lectures and better understanding of the topic. They want it to be repeated for other topics with moderate difficulty level. Better performance of the students in the primed group validates the combination of student-centric priming model and didactic lecture as superior to the conventional, teacher-centric methods alone. If this system is successfully followed, the present teacher-centric pedagogy should increasingly give way to student-centric activities where the teacher is only a facilitator.

Keywords: pedagogy, Medical Education, Priming, open-book test

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12 Usage of “Flowchart of Diagnosis and Treatment” Software in Medical Education

Authors: Boy Subirosa Sabarguna, Aria Kekalih, Irzan Nurman

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Introduction: Software in the form of Clinical Decision Support System could help students in understanding the mind set of decision-making in diagnosis and treatment at the stage of general practitioners. This could accelerate and ease the learning process which previously took place by using books and experience. Method: Gather 1000 members of the National Medical Multimedia Digital Community (NM2DC) who use the “flowchart of diagnosis and treatment” software, and analyse factors related to: display, speed in learning, convenience in learning, helpfulness and usefulness in the learning process, by using the Likert Scale through online questionnaire which will further be processed using percentage. Results and Discussions: Out of the 1000 members of NM2DC, apparently: 97.0% of the members use the software and 87.5% of them are students. In terms of the analysed factors related to: display, speed in learning, convenience in learning, helpfulness and usefulness of the software’s usage, the results indicate a 90.7% of fairly good performance. Therefore, the “Flowchart of Diagnosis and Treatment” software has helped students in understanding the decision-making of diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion: the use of “Flowchart of Diagnosis and Treatment” software indicates a positive role in helping students understand decision-making of diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: software, Medical Education, Diagnosis and Treatment, usage

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11 Validation of Global Ratings in Clinical Performance Assessment

Authors: S. J. Yune, S. Y. Lee, S. J. Im, B. S. Kam, S. Y. Baek

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This study aimed to determine the reliability of clinical performance assessments, having been emphasized by ability-based education, and professors overall assessment methods. We addressed the following problems: First, we try to find out whether there is a difference in what we consider to be the main variables affecting the clinical performance test according to the evaluator’s working period and the number of evaluation experience. Second, we examined the relationship among the global rating score (G), analytic global rating score (Gc), and the sum of the analytical checklists (C). What are the main factors affecting clinical performance assessments in relation to the numbers of times the evaluator had administered evaluations and the length of their working period service? What is the relationship between overall assessment score and analytic checklist score? How does analytic global rating with 6 components in OSCE and 4 components in sub-domains (Gc) CPX: aseptic practice, precision, systemic approach, proficiency, successfulness, and attitude overall assessment score and task-specific analytic checklist score sum (C) affect the professor’s overall global rating assessment score (G)? We studied 75 professors who attended a 2016 Bugyeoung Consortium clinical skills performances test evaluating third and fourth year medical students at the Pusan National University Medical school in South Korea (39 prof. in OSCE, 36 prof. in CPX; all consented to participate in our study). Each evaluator used 3 forms; a task-specific analytic checklist, subsequent analytic global rating scale with sub-6 domains, and overall global scale. After the evaluation, the professors responded to the questionnaire on the important factors of clinical performance assessment. The data were analyzed by frequency analysis, correlation analysis, and hierarchical regression analysis using SPSS 21.0. Their understanding of overall assessment was analyzed by dividing the subjects into groups based on experiences. As a result, they considered ‘precision’ most important in overall OSCE assessment, and ‘precise accuracy physical examination’, ‘systemic approaches to taking patient history’, and ‘diagnostic skill capability’ in overall CPX assessment. For OSCE, there was no clear difference of opinion about the main factors, but there was for CPX. Analytic global rating scale score, overall rating scale score, and analytic checklist score had meaningful mutual correlations. According to the regression analysis results, task-specific checklist score sum had the greatest effect on overall global rating. professors regarded task-specific analytic checklist total score sum as best reflecting overall OSCE test score, followed by aseptic practice, precision, systemic approach, proficiency, successfulness, and attitude on a subsequent analytic global rating scale. For CPX, subsequent analytic global rating scale score, overall global rating scale score, and task-specific checklist score had meaningful mutual correlations. These findings support explanations for validity of professors’ global rating in clinical performance assessment.

Keywords: Medical Education, global rating, clinical performance assessment, analytic checklist

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10 A Comparative Study on the Use of Learning Resources in Learning Biochemistry by MBBS Students at Ras Al Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University, UAE

Authors: B. K. Manjunatha Goud, Aruna Chanu Oinam

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The undergraduate medical curriculum is oriented towards training the students to undertake the responsibilities of a physician. During the training period, adequate emphasis is placed on inculcating logical and scientific habits of thought; clarity of expression and independence of judgment; and ability to collect and analyze information and to correlate them. At Ras Al Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University (RAKMHSU), Biochemistry a basic medical science subject is taught in the 1st year of 5 years medical course with vertical interdisciplinary interaction with all subjects, which needs to be taught and learned adequately by the students to be related to clinical case or clinical problem in medicine and future diagnostics so that they can practice confidently and skillfully in the community. Based on these facts study was done to know the extent of usage of library resources by the students and the impact of study materials on their preparation for examination. It was a comparative cross sectional study included 100 and 80 1st and 2nd-year students who had successfully completed Biochemistry course. The purpose of the study was explained to all students [participants]. Information was collected on a pre-designed, pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was validated by the senior faculties and pre tested on students who were not involved in the study. The study results showed that 80.30% and 93.15% of 1st and 2nd year students have the clear idea of course outline given in course handout or study guide. We also found a statistically significant number of students agreed that they were benefited from the practical session and writing notes in the class hour. A high percentage of students [50% and 62.02%] disagreed that that reading only the handouts is enough for their examination as compared to other students. The study also showed that only 35% and 41% of students visited the library on daily basis for the learning process, around 65% of students were using lecture notes and text books as a tool for learning and to understand the subject and 45% and 53% of students used the library resources (recommended text books) compared to online sources before the examinations. The results presented here show that students perceived that e-learning resources like power point presentations along with text book reading using SQ4R technique had made a positive impact on various aspects of their learning in Biochemistry. The use of library by students has overall positive impact on learning process especially in medical field enhances the outcome, and medical students are better equipped to treat the patient. But it’s also true that use of library use has been in decline which will impact the knowledge aspects and outcome. In conclusion, a student has to be taught how to use the library as learning tool apart from lecture handouts.

Keywords: Biochemistry, Medical Education, learning resources, study guide

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9 Global Health Student Selected Components in Undergraduate Medical Education: Analysis of Student Feedback and Reflective Writings

Authors: Kevin Jones, Harriet Bothwell, Lowri Evans

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Background: The University of Bristol provides all medical students the opportunity to undertake student selected components (SSCs) at multiple stages of the undergraduate programme. SSCs enable students to explore areas of interest that are not necessarily covered by the curriculum. Students are required to produce a written report and most use SSCs as an opportunity to undertake an audit or small research project. In 2013 Swindon Academy, based at the Great Western Hospital, offered eight students the opportunity of a global health SSC which included a two week trip to rural hospital in Uganda. This SSC has since expanded and in 2017 a total of 20 students had the opportunity to undertake small research projects at two hospitals in rural Uganda. 'Tomorrows Doctors' highlights the importance of understanding healthcare from a 'global perspective' and student feedback from previous SSCs suggests that self-assessed knowledge of global health increases as a result of this SSC. Through the most recent version of this SSC students had the opportunity to undertake projects in a wide range of specialties including paediatrics, palliative care, surgery and medical education. Methods: An anonymous online questionnaire was made available to students following the SSC. There was a response rate of 80% representing 16 out of the 20 students. This questionnaire surveyed students’ satisfaction and experience of the SSC including the level of academic, project and spiritual support provided as well as perceived challenges in completing the project and barriers to healthcare delivery in the low resource setting. This survey had multiple open questions allowing the collection of qualitative data. Further qualitative data was collected from the students’ project report. The suggested format included a reflection and all students completed these. All qualitative data underwent thematic analysis. Results: All respondents rated the overall experience of the SSC as 'good' or 'excellent'. Preliminary data suggest that students’ confidence in their knowledge of global health, diagnosis of tropical diseases and management of tropical diseases improved after completing this SSC. Thematic analysis of students' reflection is ongoing but suggests that students gain far more than improved knowledge of tropical diseases. Students reflect positively on having the opportunity to research in a low resource setting and feel that by completing these projects they will be 'useful' to the hospital. Several students reflect the stark contrast to healthcare delivery in the UK and recognise the 'privilege' of having a healthcare system that is free at the point of access. Some students noted the different approaches that clinicians in Uganda had to train in 'taking ownership' of their own learning. Conclusions: Students completing this SSC report increased knowledge of global health and tropical medicine. However, their reflections reveal much broader learning outcomes and demonstrate considerable insight in multiple topics including conducting research in the low resource setting, training and healthcare inequality.

Keywords: Medical Education, Global health, undergraduate, student feedback

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8 The Maldistribution of Doctors and the Responsibility of Medical Education: A Literature Review

Authors: Catherine Bernard

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The maldistribution of clinicians within countries is well documented. It is a common theme throughout the world that rural areas often struggle to recruit and retain health workers resulting in inadequate healthcare for many. This paper will concentrate on the responsibilities that medical schools may have in addressing this shortage of rural health workers. Recommendations are made with regards to targeted rural student admissions, rurally-based medical schools, rural clinical rotations and a curriculum orientated towards rural health issues. The evidence gathered suggests that individual factors are positive in encouraging health workers to practice in rural locations. However, there is strength in numbers, and combining all the recommendations will likely result in a synergistic effect, thereby increasing numbers of rural health workers and achieving accessible healthcare for those living in rural populations.

Keywords: Public Health, Medical Education, Rural health, medical education design

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7 'Get the DNR': Exploring the Impact of an Educational eModule on Internal Medicine Residents' Attitudes and Approaches to Goals of Care Conversations

Authors: Leora Branfield Day, Stephanie Saunders, Leah Steinberg, Shiphra Ginsburg, Christine Soong

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Introduction: Discordance between patients expressed and documented preferences at the end of life is common. Although junior trainees frequently lead goals of care (GOC) conversations, lack of training can result in poor communication. Based on a needs assessment, we developed an interactive electronic learning module (eModule) for conducting patient-centred GOC discussions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the eModule on residents’ attitudes towards GOC conversations. Methods: First-year internal medicine residents (n=11) from the University of Toronto selected using purposive sampling underwent semi-structured interviews before and after completing a GOC eModule. Interviews were anonymized, transcribed and open-coded using NVivo. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we developed a framework to understand the attitudes of residents to GOC conversations before and after viewing the module. Results: Before the module, participants described limited training and negative emotions towards GOC conversations. Many focused on code status and procedure choices (e.g., ventilation) instead of eliciting patient-centered values. Pressure to “get the DNR" led to conflicting feelings and distress. After the module, participants’ approached conversations with a greater focus on patient values and process. They felt more prepared and comfortable, recognizing the complexity of conversations and the importance of patient-centeredness. Conclusions: A novel GOC eModule allowed residents to develop a patient-centered and standardized approach to GOC conversations while improving confidence and preparedness. This resource could be an effective strategy toward attaining a critical communication competency among learners with the potential to enhance accurate GOC documentation.

Keywords: Medical Education, Communication Skills, goals of care conversations, emodule

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6 Practical Skill Education for Doctors in Training: Economical and Efficient Methods for Students to Receive Hands-on Experience

Authors: Nathaniel Deboever, Malcolm Breeze, Adrian Sheen

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Basic surgical and suturing techniques are a fundamental requirement for all doctors. In order to gain confidence and competence, doctors in training need to obtain sufficient teaching and just as importantly: practice. Young doctors with an apt level of expertise on these simple surgical skills, which are often used in the Emergency Department, can help alleviate some pressure during a busy evening. Unfortunately, learning these skills can be quite difficult during medical school or even during junior doctor years. The aim of this project was to adequately train medical students attending University of Sydney’s Nepean Clinical School through a series of workshops highlighting practical skills, with hopes to further extend this program to junior doctors in the hospital. The sessions instructed basic skills via tutorials, demonstrations, and lastly, the sessions cemented these proficiencies with practical sessions. During such an endeavor, it is fundamental to employ models that appropriately resemble what students will encounter in the clinical setting. The sustainability of workshops is similarly important to the continuity of such a program. To address both these challenges, the authors have developed models including suturing platforms, knot tying, and vessel ligation stations, as well as a shave and punch biopsy models and ophthalmologic foreign body device. The unique aspect of this work is that we utilized hands-on teaching sessions, to address a gap in doctors-in-training and junior doctor curriculum. Presented to you through this poster are our approaches to creating models that do not employ animal products and therefore do not necessitate particular facilities or discarding requirements. Covering numerous skills that would be beneficial to all young doctors, these models are easily replicable and affordable. This exciting work allows for countless sessions at low cost, providing enough practice for students to perform these skills confidently as it has been shown through attendee questionnaires.

Keywords: surgical simulation, Medical Education, surgical models, surgical skills education

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5 Allied Health Students Health-Related Quality of Life and Its Musculoskeletal and Mental Stress Predictors

Authors: Khader A. Almhdawi, Saddam F. Kanaan

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Background: Allied health (AH) students, including rehabilitation sciences students, are subjected to significant levels of physical and mental stressors, which could affect their education. This study aimed to study physical and mental of Health-related Quality of Life (HR-QoL) levels along with their predictors among students of nine AH majors. Methods: Students filled validated anonymous surveys covering demographics and life style, Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS- 42). SF-12 Mental (MCS) and Physical (PCS) summary scores were compared between academic majors and gender. Multiple linear regression models were conducted to examine potential predictors of PCS and MCS scores. Results: 838 students (77.4% females) participated in this study. Participants’ PCS mean score was 45.64±7.93 and found statistically different between the nine academic majors (P < 0.001). Additionally, participants’’ MCS mean score was 39.45±10.86 and significantly greater in males (P < 0.001). Significant PCS scores predictors included hip and upper back musculoskeletal pain, anxiety score, diet self-evaluation, and GPA. Finally, MCS scores were statistically associated with neck musculoskeletal pain, stress score, depression score, number of weekly clinical training hours, gender, university year, GPA, sleep quality self-evaluation, and diet self-evaluation. Conclusion: Clinical educators of AH need to account for students’ low levels of HR-QoL and their academic-related, health-related, and lifestyle-related associated factors. More studies are recommended to investigate the progression of HR-QoL throughout university years and to create effective interventions to improve HR-QoL among healthcare students.

Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, Quality of Life, Medical Education, stress

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4 Virtual Reality Learning Environment in Embryology Education

Authors: Jannat F. Falah, Nadia Muhaidat, Amjad Hudaib, Diana Koshebye, Sawsan AlHourani, Salsabeel F. M. Alfalah

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Educational technology is changing the way how students engage and interact with learning materials. This improved the learning process amongst various subjects. Virtual Reality (VR) applications are considered one of the evolving methods that have contributed to enhancing medical education. This paper utilizes VR to provide a solution to improve the delivery of the subject of Embryology to medical students, and facilitate the teaching process by providing a useful aid to lecturers, whilst proving the effectiveness of this new technology in this particular area. After evaluating the current teaching methods and identifying students ‘needs, a VR system was designed that demonstrates in an interactive fashion the development of the human embryo from fertilization to week ten of intrauterine development. This system aims to overcome some of the problems faced by the students’ in the current educational methods, and to increase the efficacy of the learning process.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Embryology, Medical Education, student assessment

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3 A Framework for Teaching the Intracranial Pressure Measurement through an Experimental Model

Authors: Christina Klippel, Lucia Pezzi, Silvio Neto, Rafael Bertani, Priscila Mendes, Flavio Machado, Aline Szeliga, Maria Cosendey, Adilson Mariz, Raquel Santos, Lys Bendett, Pedro Velasco, Thalita Rolleigh, Bruna Bellote, Daria Coelho, Bruna Martins, Julia Almeida, Juliana Cerqueira

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This project presents a framework for teaching intracranial pressure monitoring (ICP) concepts using a low-cost experimental model in a neurointensive care education program. Data concerning ICP monitoring contribute to the patient's clinical assessment and may dictate the course of action of a health team (nursing, medical staff) and influence decisions to determine the appropriate intervention. This study aims to present a safe method for teaching ICP monitoring to medical students in a Simulation Center. Methodology: Medical school teachers, along with students from the 4th year, built an experimental model for teaching ICP measurement. The model consists of a mannequin's head with a plastic bag inside simulating the cerebral ventricle and an inserted ventricular catheter connected to the ICP monitoring system. The bag simulating the ventricle can also be changed for others containing bloody or infected simulated cerebrospinal fluid. On the mannequin's ear, there is a blue point indicating the right place to set the "zero point" for accurate pressure reading. The educational program includes four steps: 1st - Students receive a script on ICP measurement for reading before training; 2nd - Students watch a video about the subject created in the Simulation Center demonstrating each step of the ICP monitoring and the proper care, such as: correct positioning of the patient, anatomical structures to establish the zero point for ICP measurement and a secure range of ICP; 3rd - Students train the procedure in the model. Teachers help students during training; 4th - Student assessment based on a checklist form. Feedback and correction of wrong actions. Results: Students expressed interest in learning ICP monitoring. Tests concerning the hit rate are still being performed. ICP's final results and video will be shown at the event. Conclusion: The study of intracranial pressure measurement based on an experimental model consists of an effective and controlled method of learning and research, more appropriate for teaching neurointensive care practices. Assessment based on a checklist form helps teachers keep track of student learning progress. This project offers medical students a safe method to develop intensive neurological monitoring skills for clinical assessment of patients with neurological disorders.

Keywords: Simulation, Neurology, Medical Education, intracranial pressure

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2 A Short Dermatoscopy Training Increases Diagnostic Performance in Medical Students

Authors: Magdalena Chrabąszcz, Teresa Wolniewicz, Cezary Maciejewski, Joanna Czuwara

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BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy is a clinical tool known to improve the early detection of melanoma and other malignancies of the skin. Over the past few years melanoma has grown into a disease of socio-economic importance due to the increasing incidence and persistently high mortality rates. Early diagnosis remains the best method to reduce melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer– related mortality and morbidity. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive technique that consists of viewing pigmented skin lesions through a hand-held lens. This simple procedure increases melanoma diagnostic accuracy by up to 35%. Dermoscopy is currently the standard for clinical differential diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma and for qualifying lesion for the excision biopsy. Like any clinical tool, training is required for effective use. The introduction of small and handy dermoscopes contributed significantly to the switch of dermatoscopy toward a first-level useful tool. Non-dermatologist physicians are well positioned for opportunistic melanoma detection; however, education in the skin cancer examination is limited during medical school and traditionally lecture-based. AIM: The aim of this randomized study was to determine whether the adjunct of dermoscopy to the standard fourth year medical curriculum improves the ability of medical students to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions and assess acceptability and satisfaction with the intervention. METHODS: We performed a prospective study in 2 cohorts of fourth-year medical students at Medical University of Warsaw. Groups having dermatology course, were randomly assigned to:  cohort A: with limited access to dermatoscopy from their teacher only – 1 dermatoscope for 15 people  Cohort B: with a full access to use dermatoscopy during their clinical classes:1 dermatoscope for 4 people available constantly plus 15-minute dermoscopy tutorial. Students in both study arms got an image-based test of 10 lesions to assess ability to differentiate benign from malignant lesions and postintervention survey collecting minimal background information, attitudes about the skin cancer examination and course satisfaction. RESULTS: The cohort B had higher scores than the cohort A in recognition of nonmelanocytic (P < 0.05) and melanocytic (P <0.05) lesions. Medical students who have a possibility to use dermatoscope by themselves have also a higher satisfaction rates after the dermatology course than the group with limited access to this diagnostic tool. Moreover according to our results they were more motivated to learn dermatoscopy and use it in their future everyday clinical practice. LIMITATIONS: There were limited participants. Further study of the application on clinical practice is still needed. CONCLUSION: Although the use of dermatoscope in dermatology as a specialty is widely accepted, sufficiently validated clinical tools for the examination of potentially malignant skin lesions are lacking in general practice. Introducing medical students to dermoscopy in their fourth year curricula of medical school may improve their ability to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. It can can also encourage students to use dermatoscopy in their future practice which can significantly improve early recognition of malignant lesions and thus decrease melanoma mortality.

Keywords: Medical Education, Skin Cancer, Dermatoscopy, Early detection of melanoma

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1 Realistic Simulation Methodology in Brazil’s New Medical Education Curriculum: Potentialities

Authors: Cleto J. Sauer Jr.

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Introduction: Brazil's new national curriculum guidelines (NCG) for medical education were published in 2014, presenting active learning methodologies as a cornerstone. Simulation was initially applied for aviation pilots' training and is currently applied in health sciences. The high-fidelity simulator replicates human body anatomy in detail, also reproducing physiological functions, and its use is increasing in medical schools. Realistic Simulation (RS) has pedagogical aspects that are aligned with Brazil's NCG teaching concepts. The main objective of this study is to carry on a narrative review on RS's aspects that are aligned with Brazil’s new NCG teaching concepts. Methodology: Narrative review, with search in three databases (PubMed, Embase, and BVS) of studies published between 2010 and 2020. Results: After systematized search, 49 studies were selected and divided into four thematic groups. RS is aligned with new Brazilian medical curriculum as it is an active learning methodology, providing greater patient safety, uniform teaching, and student's emotional skills enhancement. RS is based on reflective learning, a teaching concept developed for adult’s education. Conclusion: RS is a methodology aligned with NCG teaching concepts and has potential to assist in the implementation of new Brazilian medical school’s curriculum. It is an immersive and interactive methodology, which provides reflective learning in a safe environment for students and patients.

Keywords: Curriculum, Medical Education, realistic simulation, high-fidelity simulator

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