Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Media Related Abstracts

73 Growth of New Media Advertising

Authors: Palwinder Bhatia

Abstract:

As all know new media is a broad term in media studies that emerged in the latter part of the 20th century which refers to on-demand access to content any time, anywhere, on any digital device, as well as interactive user feedback, creative participation and community formation around the media content. The role of new media in advertisement is impeccable these days. It becomes the cheap and best way of advertising. Another important promise of new media is the democratization of the creation, publishing, distribution and consumption of media content. New media brings a revolution in about every field. It makes bridge between customer and companies. World make a global village with the only help of new media. Advertising helps in shaping the consumer behavior and effect on consumer psychology, sociology, social anthropology and economics. People do comments and like the particular brands on the networking sites which create mesmerism impact on the behavior of customer. Recent study did by Times of India shows that 64% of Facebook users have liked a brand on Facebook.

Keywords: Media, Culture, Film, Visual, Advertisement

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72 The Documentary Analysis of Meta-Analysis Research in Violence of Media

Authors: Proud Arunrangsiwed

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The part of “future direction” in the findings of meta-analysis could provide the great direction to conduct the future studies. This study, “The Documentary Analysis of Meta-Analysis Research in Violence of Media” would conclude “future directions” out of 10 meta-analysis papers. The purposes of this research are to find an appropriate research design or an appropriate methodology for the future research related to the topic, “violence of media”. Further research needs to explore by longitudinal and experimental design, and also needs to have a careful consideration about age effects, time spent effects, enjoyment effects, and ordinary lifestyle of each media consumer.

Keywords: Media, Violence, Meta-analysis, aggressive, future direction

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71 The Environmental Effects of Amalgam Tooth Fillings

Authors: Abdulsalam I. Rafida, Abdulhmid M. Alkout, Abdultif M. Alroba

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This study investigates the heavy metal content in the saliva of persons with amalgam tooth fillings. For this purpose, samples of saliva have been collected based on two factors i.e. the number of amalgam fillings in the mouth (one, two or three fillings), and the time factor i.e. the time since the fillings have been in place (less than a year and more than a year). Samples of saliva have also been collected from persons with no amalgam tooth fillings for control. The samples that have been collected so far, have been examined for the basic heavy metal content featuring amalgam, which include mercury (Hg) and silver (Ag). However, all the above mentioned elements have been detected in the samples of saliva of the persons with amalgam tooth fillings, though with varying amounts depending on the number of fillings. Thus, for persons with only one filling the average quantities were found to be 0.00061 ppm and 0.033 ppm for Hg and Ag respectively. On the other hand for persons with two fillings the average quantities were found to be 0.0012 ppm and 0.029 ppm for each of the two elements respectively. However, in order to understand the chemical reactions associated with amalgam tooth fillings in the mouth, the material have been treated outside the mouth using some nutrient media. Those media included drinking water, fizzy drinks and hot tea. All three media have been found to contain the three elements after amalgam treatment. Yet, the fizzy drink medium was found to contain the highest levels of those elements.

Keywords: Media, Mercury, Silver, amalgam, fizzy drinks

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70 Translation of Scientific and Technological Terms into Hausa Language: A Guide to Hausa Language Translator in an Electronic Media (Radio)

Authors: Surajo Ladan

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There is no doubt nowadays, the media plays a crucial role in the development of languages. Media practitioners influence and set our linguistic norms to a greater extent. Their strategic position makes them influential than school teachers as linguistic pacesetters and models. This is so because of the direct access to the general public that media enjoys being public, oriented and at the same time being patronized by the public, the media is regarded as an authority as far as language use is concerned. In the modern world, listening to the news has become part and parcel of our daily lives. Easy communication has made the world a global village. Contact between countries and people are increasing daily. In Nigeria and indeed the whole of West Africa, radio is the most widely spread out of the three types of media (radio, television, and print). This is because of its (radio) cheapness and less cumbersome and flexibility. Therefore, the positive or negative effect of radio on the lives of a typical Nigerian or African cannot be over emphasized. Hausa language, on the other hand, is one of the most widely spoken languages in West Africa and, of course, the lingua franca in the Northern part of Nigeria and Southern Niger. The language has been in use to a large extent by almost all the popular foreign media houses of BBC, VOA, Deutsche Welle Radio, Radio France International, Radio China, etc. The many people in Nigeria and West Africa depend so much on the news in this language. In fact even government programmes, mobilization, education and sensitization of the populace are done in this language through the broadcast media. It is against this background, for effective and efficient work of this nature it requires the services of a trained translator for the purpose of translating scientific and technological terms. The main thrust of this paper was necessitated for the fact that no nation develops using foreign or borrowed language. This is in lined with UNESCO declaration of 1953 where it says 'the best Language of Instruction (LOI) is the vernacular or the Mother Tongue (MT) of the learner'. This idea is in the right direction especially nowadays that the developing nations have come to terms with realities that their destiny is really in their own hands, not in the hands of the so-called developed nations.

Keywords: Media, Language, Scientific, Radio, Translation, Technological

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69 Effect of Media Reputation on Financial Performance and Abnormal Returns of Corporate Social Responsibility Winner

Authors: Yu-Chen Wei, Dan-Leng Wang

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This study examines whether the reputation from media press affect the financial performance and market abnormal returns around the announcement of corporate social responsibility (CSR) award in the Taiwan Stock Market. The differences between this study and prior literatures are that the media reputation of media coverage and net optimism are constructed by using content analyses. The empirical results show the corporation which won CSR awards could promote financial performance next year. The media coverage and net optimism related to CSR winner are higher than the non-CSR companies prior and after the CSR award is announced, and the differences are significant, but the difference would decrease when the day was closing to announcement. We propose that non-CSR companies may try to manipulate media press to increase the coverage and positive image received by investors compared to the CSR winners. The cumulative real returns and abnormal returns of CSR winners did not significantly higher than the non-CSR samples however the leading returns of CSR winners would higher after the award announcement two months. The comparisons of performances between CSR and non-CSR companies could be the consideration of portfolio management for mutual funds and investors.

Keywords: Media, Corporate Social Responsibility, Reputation Management, Financial Performance, abnormal returns

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68 Powerful Media: Reflection of Professional Audience

Authors: Hamide Farshad, Mohammadreza Javidi Abdollah Zadeh Aval

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As a result of the growing penetration of the media into human life, a new role under the title of "audience" is defined in the social life .A kind of role which is dramatically changed since its formation. This article aims to define the audience position in the new media equations which is concluded to the transformation of the media role. By using the Library and Attributive method to study the history, the evolutionary outlook to the audience and the recognition of the audience and the media relation in the new media context is studied. It was perceived in past that public communication would result in receiving the audience. But after the emergence of the interactional media and transformation in the audience social life, a new kind of public communication is formed, and also the imaginary picture of the audience is replaced by the audience impact on the communication process. Part of this impact can be seen in the form of feedback which is one of the public communication elements. In public communication, the audience feedback is completely accepted. But in many cases, and along with the audience feedback, the media changes its direction; this direction shift is known as media feedback. At this state, the media and the audience are both doers and consistently change their positions in an interaction. With the greater number of the audience and the media, this process has taken a new role, and the role of this doer is sometimes taken by an audience while influencing another audience, or a media while influencing another media. In this article, this multiple public communication process is shown through representing a model under the title of ”The bilateral influence of the audience and the media.” Based on this model, the audience and the media power are not the two sides of a coin, and as a result, by accepting these two as the doers, the bilateral power of the audience and the media will be complementary to each other. Also more, the compatibility between the media and the audience is analyzed in the bilateral and interactional relation hypothesis, and by analyzing the action law hypothesis, the dos and don’ts of this role are defined, and media is obliged to know and accept them in order to be able to survive. They also have a determining role in the strategic studies of a media.

Keywords: Media, Interaction, effect, audience, action laws

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67 The Yak of Thailand: Folk Icons Transcending Culture, Religion, and Media

Authors: David M. Lucas, Charles W. Jarrett

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In the culture of Thailand, the Yak serve as a mediated icon representing strength, power, and mystical protection not only for the Buddha, but for population of worshipers. Originating from the forests of China, the Yak continue to stand guard at the gates of Buddhist temples. The Yak represents Thai culture in the hearts of Thai people. This paper presents a qualitative study regarding the curious mix of media, culture, and religion that projects the Yak of Thailand as a larger than life message throughout the political, cultural, and religious spheres. The gate guardians, or gods as they are sometimes called, appear throughout the religious temples of Asian cultures. However, the Asian cultures demonstrate differences in artistic renditions (or presentations) of such sentinels. Thailand gate guards (the Yak) stand in front of many Buddhist temples, and these iconic figures display unique features with varied symbolic significance. The temple (or wat), plays a vital role in every community; and, for many people, Thailand’s temples are the country’s most endearing sights. The authors applied folk-nography as a methodology to illustrate the importance of the Thai Yak in serving as meaningful icons that transcend not only time, but the culture, religion, and mass media. The Yak represent mythical, religious, artistic, cultural, and militaristic significance for the Thai people. Data collection included interviews, focus groups, and natural observations. This paper summarizes the perceptions of the Thai people concerning their gate sentries and the relationship, communication, connection, and the enduring respect that Thai people hold for their guardians of the gates.

Keywords: Communication, Image, Media, Culture, Protection, Religion, Yak, folknography, icon

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66 Ethical Enhancement Strategies for Development of Mass Media Profession Conducted for the Ethical Promotion of Undergraduate Students in Communication Science

Authors: Supranee Wattanasin

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This research study was a qualitative documentary research by using an in-depth interview with many experts in the field who has both knowledge and experience to provide information to create a strategic plan to enhance the students’ ethics. The findings revealed that there were five areas that require an attention. The five areas included honesty, accurate fact, human right, speed, and responsibility. The development of the strategic plan to enhance the ethics for students who major in communication arts can be concluded as follows. First, the government, private, and religion sectors need to come up together and set up the activities to promote the ethical standard in schools, universities, and organizations. Second, it is important to cultivate the knowledge that ethics is important of the professional jobs, especially in the mass communication and media. Third, the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy should be brought to explain to students in order for them to have some immunity to the negative attitude such as drinking alcohol, gambling, cut classes, and cheating at exams. Fourth, experts in the field of ethics should be found to provide more knowledge to students and allow students to participate in activities that will increase their experience and knowledge of the real world problem.

Keywords: Media, Strategy, Communication Arts, Mass Communication, Ethics

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65 A Study of Student Satisfaction of the University TV Station

Authors: Prapoj Na Bangchang

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This research aimed to study the satisfaction of university students on the Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University television station. The sample were 250 undergraduate students from Year 1 to Year 4. The tool used to collect data was a questionnaire. Statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean and standard deviation. The results showed that student satisfaction on the University's television station location received high score, followed by the number of devices, and the content presented received the lowest score. Most students want the content of the programs to be improved especially entertainment content, followed by sports content.

Keywords: Media, broadcasting, student satisfaction, university TV channel

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64 Conceptualizing Clashing Values in the Field of Media Ethics

Authors: Saadia Izzeldin Malik

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Lack of ethics is the crisis of the 21-century. Today’s global world is filled with economic, political, environmental, media/communication, and social crises that all generated by the eroding fabric of ethics and moral values that guide human’s decisions in all aspects of live. Our global world is guided by liberal western democratic principles and liberal capitalist economic principles that define and reinforce each other. In economic terms, capitalism has turned world economic systems into one market place of ideas and products controlled by big multinational corporations that not only determine the conditions and terms of commodity production and commodity exchange between countries, but also transform the political economy of media systems around the globe. The citizen (read the consumer) today is the target of persuasion by all types of media at a time when her/his interests should be, ethically and in principle, the basic significant factor in the selection of media content. It is very important in this juncture of clashing media values –professional and commercial- and wide spread ethical lapses of media organizations and media professionals to think of a perspective to theorize these conflicting values within a broader framework of media ethics. Thus, the aim of this paper is to, epistemologically, bring to the center a perspective on media ethics as a basis for reconciliation of clashing values of the media. The paper focuses on conflicting ethical values in current media debate; namely ownership of media vs. press freedom, individual right for privacy vs. public right to know, and global western consumerism values vs. media values. The paper concludes that a framework to reconcile conflicting values of media ethics should focus on the “individual” journalist and his/her moral development as well as focus on maintaining ethical principles of the media as an institution with a primary social responsibility for the “public” it serves.

Keywords: Media, Ethics, Social Responsibility, Journalism, Global, conflicting values

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63 The "Street Less Traveled": Body Image and Its Relationship with Eating Attitudes, Influence of Media and Self-Esteem among College Students

Authors: Aditya Soni, Nimesh Parikh, R. A. Thakrar

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Background: A cross-sectional study looked to focus body image satisfaction, heretofore under investigated arena in our setting. This study additionally examined the relationship of body mass index, influence of media and self-esteem. Our second objective was to assess whether there was any relationship between body image dissatisfaction and gender. Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI), influence of media, self-esteem and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Convenience sampling was used to select participants of both genders aged from 17 to 32 on a sample size of 303 participants. Results : The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with Body mass index (P<0.001), eating attitude (P<0.001), influence of media (P<0.001) and self-esteem (P<0.001). Students with low weight had a significantly higher prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students had a significantly higher prevalence of dissatisfaction (P<0.001). Females showed more concern about body image as compared to males. Conclusions: Generally, this study reveals that the eating attitude, influence of the media and self-esteem is significantly related to the body image. On an empowering note, this level needs to be saved for overall mental and sound advancement of people. Proactive preventive measures could be started in foundations on identity improvement, acknowledgement of self and individual contrasts while keeping up ideal weight and dynamic life style.

Keywords: Media, Body image, body mass index, self-esteem

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62 Migratory Diaspora: The Media and the Human Element

Authors: Peter R. Alfieri

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The principal aim of this research and presentation is to give global and personal perspective of the migratory diaspora and how it is perceived by a substantial majority that relies on the media’s portrayal of migratory movements. Since its Greek origins the word “diaspora” has taken on several connotations, but none has surpassed its use in regard to the human element; because since before the dawn of history, man has had to struggle for survival. That survival was a struggle against the elements and other natural enemies, but none as tenacious and relentless as other men. Many have used the term diaspora to describe the spread of certain ethnic groups resulting in new generations in new places; but has the human diaspora been as haphazard as that of spores? The quest for survival has spawned migrations that are not quite that simple, even though it has several similarities to plant spores or dandelion seeds flying throughout the atmosphere. Man kind has constantly migrated in search of food, shelter, and safety. When they were able to find food and shelter, they would inform others who would venture to the new place. Information, whether through word of mouth, written material, or visual communications, has been a moving force in man’s life; and it spurred migrants in their quest for better environments. Today we pride ourselves in being able to communicate instantly with anyone anywhere in the world, and we are privileged to see most of what is happening in the world thanks to the highly developed modern media. Is Media a “wind/force” instrumental in propelling the diaspora throughout the world? The media has been the tool that has incentive many migratory, but unfortunately it is also the means responsible for many misconceptions regarding migrants and their hosts. Has the Media presented an unbiased view of the migrant or has it been the means that generated negative or prejudiced views of the migrant and, perhaps, the host environment? Some examples were easily seen in 19th century the United States where they advertised the following, “Help needed, Irish need not apply”. How do immigrants circumvent latent barriers that are not as obvious as the ones just mentioned? Some immigrants return home and have children that decide to emigrate. It is a perpetual cycle in the search for self-improvement. The stories that are brought back might be inspiration for the new generation of emigrants. Poverty, hunger, and political turmoil spur most migrations. The majority learn from others or through the media about certain destinations that will provide one or several opportunities to improve their existence. Many of those migrants suffer untold hardships to succeed. When they succeed, they provide a great incentive for their children to obtain an education or skill that will insure them a better life. Although the new environment may contribute greatly to a successful career, most immigrants do not forget their own struggle. They see the media’s portrayal of other migrants from all over the globe. Some try to communicate to others the true feelings of despair felt by immigrants, because they are all brothers and sisters in the perennial struggle for a better life. “HOPE” for a better life drives the immigrant toward the unknown and it has helped overcome the obstacles that present themselves challenging every newcomer. Hope and perseverance strengthen the resolve of the migrant in his struggle to survive.

Keywords: Education, Migration, Media, heath, obstacles

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61 Media (Il) Literacy: An Evaluation of the Curriculum and Implementation of the Department of Education's Special Program in Journalism

Authors: Sarah Isabelle S. Torres

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This study evaluated the curriculum and implementation of the Special Program in Journalism (SPJ). By conducting surveys, focus group discussions, and interviews and by analyzing the school publication of five national high schools, the researcher found out that SPJ is ineffective in instilling media literacy to the students. Media Literacy will help the students understand how media operates, thus, they will be able to produce outputs that are socially relevant, critical, and in-depth. For one, the curriculum includes lessons and activities that are mostly technical in nature. There are no theoretical topics such as ethics, history of the press, or media ownership. Second, most of the SPJ teachers have little background on Journalism and they are not trained enough to teach the program effectively. Third, most of the students are not really inclined in Journalism and do not see themselves as media practitioners in the future. Lastly, the Department of Education’s budget for the program is far from what the curriculum needs. All of these lead to the low Media Literacy levels of the students. SPJ, therefore, has to be reevaluated and amended. In conclusion, Media Literacy should be added in the curriculum so the students will not only be equipped with technical skills but with theoretical knowledge, as well.

Keywords: Education, Media, Journalism, Media literacy

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60 Systematic Process for Constructing an Augmented Reality Display Platform

Authors: Alfred Chen, Cheng Chieh Hsu, Yu-Pin Ma, Meng-Jie Lin, Fu Pai Chiu, Yi-Yan Sie

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In this study, it is attempted to construct an augmented reality display platform (ARDP), and its objectives are two facets, i.e. 1) providing a creative display mode for museums/historical heritages and 2) providing a benchmark for human-computer interaction professionals to build an augmented reality display platform. A general augmented reality theory has been explored in the very beginning and afterwards a systematic process model is proposed. There are three major core tasks to be done for the platform, i.e. 1) constructing the physical interactive table, 2) designing the media, and 3) designing the media carrier. In order to describe how the platform manipulates, the authors have introduced Tainan Confucius Temple, a cultural heritage in Taiwan, as a case study. As a result, a systematic process with thirteen steps has been developed and it aims at providing a rational method for constructing the platform.

Keywords: Media, Human-Computer Interaction, media carrier, augmented reality display platform

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59 (Mis) Communication across the Borders: Politics, Media, and Public Opinion in Turkey

Authors: Banu Baybars Hawks

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To date, academic attention in social sciences remains inadequate with regard to research and analysis of public opinion in Turkey. Most of the existing research has assessed the public opinion during political election periods. Therefore, it is of great interest to find out what the public thinks about current issues in Turkey, and how to interpret the results to be able to reveal whether they may have any reflections on social, political, and cultural structure of the country. Accordingly, the current study seeks to fill the gap in the social sciences literature in English regarding Turkey’s social and political stand which may be perceived to be very different by other nations. Without timely feedback from public surveys, various programs for improving different services and institutions functioning in the country might not achieve their expected goal, nor can decisions about which programs to implement be made rationally. Additionally, the information gathered may not only yield important insights into public’s opinion regarding current agenda in Turkey, but also into the correlates shaping public policies. Agenda-setting studies including agenda-building, agenda melding, reversed agenda-setting and information diffusion studies will be used to explain the roles of factors and actors in the formation of public opinion in Turkey. Knowing the importance of public agenda in the agenda setting and building process, this paper aims to reveal the social and political tendencies of the Turkish public. For that purpose, a survey will be carried out in December of 2014 to determine the social and political trends in Turkey for that same year. The subjects for the study, which utilize a questionairre in one-on-one interviews, will include 1,000 individuals aged 18 years and older from 26 cities representing general population. A stratified random sampling frame will be used. The topics covered by the survey include: The most important current problem in Turkey; the Economy; Terror; Approaches to the Kurdish Issue; Evaluations of the Government and Opposition Parties; Evaluations of Institutional Efficiency; Foreign Policy; the Judicial System/Constitution; Democracy and the Media; and, Social Relations/Life in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 21st century, Turkey has been undergoing a rapid transformation. The reflections of the changes can be seen in all areas from economics to politics. It is my hope that findings of this study may shed light on the important aspects of institutions, variables setting the agenda, and formation process of public opinion in Turkey.

Keywords: Government, Turkey, Media, Freedom, Public Opinion, Information Diffusion, agenda setting

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58 Quantification of the Variables of the Information Model for the Use of School Terminology from 1884 to 2014 in Dalmatia

Authors: Vinko Vidučić, Tanja Brešan Ančić, Marijana Tomelić Ćurlin

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Prior to quantifying the variables of the information model for using school terminology in Croatia's region of Dalmatia from 1884 to 2014, the most relevant model variables had to be determined: historical circumstances, standard of living, education system, linguistic situation, and media. The research findings show that there was no significant transfer of the 1884 school terms into 1949 usage; likewise, the 1949 school terms were not widely used in 2014. On the other hand, the research revealed that the meaning of school terms changed over the decades. The quantification of the variables will serve as the groundwork for creating an information model for using school terminology in Dalmatia from 1884 to 2014 and for defining direct growth rates in further research.

Keywords: Media, education system, historical circumstances, linguistic situation, school terminology, standard of living

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57 Role of Television in Constructing Gender for Young Women

Authors: Bhavna Negi

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Several studies highlight the significance of media in constructing realities around us. According to Forbes magazine the demand of televisions has increased several times in the developing nations. A recent survey reveals that 112 million Indian households have a television, with 61 percent accessing cable. The space and visibility of television has enormously grown over the last decade in Indian homes. This small box has indeed taken a large place in their daily routines. The multi channel viewing and TRPs puzzle the Indian audience. This medium creates and constructs social images and roles which form internal representation about societal functioing. According to National Council of Applied Economic Research about twenty seven percent Indian literate youth watches TV for recreation. The present study finds about the role of television and its impact on young college going women with reference to family based serials shown on television. It is interesting to see how young women perceive the popular family soaps and define norms, roles and spaces for a woman and a man. The paper further examines the subtle messages given to young women through television serials. It draws insights into the relationship between the contemporary Indian women and the images conceptualized and communicated on television.

Keywords: Gender, Media, Women, Social Roles

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56 Sustainability Education among the Malaysian Media

Authors: Mohamad Saifudin Mohamad Saleh

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This paper provides a discussion of the importance of sustainability education among the Malaysian media. Without doubt, media play a crucial role in promoting the sustainable or so called “eco-system” society for a better future. Since 2002, the role of media as one of the vital stakeholders particularly in educating the society in three main areas of sustainable education including on environment, economy and society has been clearly highlights on the World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) that was held in Johannesburg. In this paper, six media practitioners from two local Malaysia newspapers organization were interviewed by the researcher in order to identify their understanding about sustainability education; their perception about the pivotal role in sustainability education and the challenges faced by them in the process of educating society about sustainability issues. The findings of this study showed that most of Malaysian media practitioners have displayed clear understanding about sustainability education and they also realize their huge responsibility for not only informing but also educating society in having a sustainable lifestyle. The ultimate challenge in sustainability education faced by the media is to make the public really understand the importance of sustainable lifestyle. Overall, from this study, it is hoped to provide more possible direction in sustainability education not only among the Malaysian media but also all media in the entire world, particularly the developing and Southeast Asian countries.

Keywords: Media, Malaysia, sustainability education

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55 Media Regulation and Public Sphere in the Digital Age: An Analysis in the Light of Constructive Democracy

Authors: Carlos Marden Cabral Coutinho, Jose Luis Bolzan de Morais

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The article proposed intends to analyze the possibility (and conditions) of a media regulation law in a democratic rule of law in the twenty-first century. To do so, will be presented initially the idea of the public sphere (by Jürgen Habermas), showing how it is presented as an interface between the citizen and the state (or the private and public) and how important is it in a deliberative democracy. Based on this paradigm, the traditional perception of the role of public information (such as system functional element) and on the possibility of media regulation will be exposed, due to the public nature of their activity. A critical argument will then be displayed from two different perspectives: a) the formal function of the current media information, considering that the digital age has fragmented the information access; b) the concept of a constructive democracy, which reduces the need for representation, changing the strategic importance of the public sphere. The question to be addressed (based on the comparative law) is if the regulation is justified in a polycentric democracy, especially when it operates under the digital age (with immediate and virtual communication). The proposal is to be presented in the sense that even in a twenty-first century the media in a democratic rule of law still has an extremely important role and may be subject to regulation, but this should be on terms very different (and narrower) from those usually defended.

Keywords: Media, Public Sphere, Digital Age, constructive democracy

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54 Women as Catalysts for the Rehabilitation of the Traditional System of Governance in Nigeria

Authors: Inalegwu Stephany Akipu

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Before the advent of Colonialists on the shores of Nigeria between the 16th and 17th Centuries, there existed the traditional systems of governance which was successful with Women as active participants. However, the current state of politics in Nigeria reveals an obvious absence of women in the Country’s governance. Being that the economy rests on the quality of leaders and their constructive contribution to the plight of the masses, it becomes pertinent to exhaust all the avenues that may be open to good governance-women inclusive. It is against this backdrop that this paper attempts to compare the machinery that were in place in pre-colonial Nigerian governance that aided the womenfolk to successfully reign or assist in leadership with the seeming lack of interest by women in present times. Factors that militate against the women will also be highlighted. Furthermore, suggestions are made on how to revive these successful traditional systems of governance. The paper concludes by emphasising the role of women as the needed catalysts for this aforementioned rehabilitation of traditional systems and the impact of media in achieving this feat.

Keywords: Governance, Media, Rehabilitation, Catalysts

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53 The Gezi Park Protests in the Columns

Authors: Süleyman Hakan Yilmaz, Yasemin Gülsen Yilmaz

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The Gezi Park protests of 2013 have significantly changed the Turkish agenda and its effects have been felt historically. The protests, which rapidly spread throughout the country, were triggered by the proposal to recreate the Ottoman Army Barracks to function as a shopping mall on Gezi Park located in Istanbul’s Taksim neighbourhood despite the oppositions of several NGOs and when trees were cut in the park for this purpose. Once the news that construction vehicles entered the park on May 27 spread on social media, activists moved into the park to stop the demolition, against whom the police used disproportioned force. With this police intervention and the then prime-minister Tayyip Erdoğan's insistent statements about the construction plans, the protests turned into anti-government demonstrations, which then spread to the rest of the country, mainly in big cities like Ankara and Izmir. According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs’ June 23rd reports, 2.5 million people joined the demonstrations in 79 provinces, that is all of them, except for the provinces of Bayburt and Bingöl, while even more people shared their opinions via social networks. As a result of these events, 8 civilians and 2 security personnel lost their lives, namely police chief Mustafa Sarı, police officer Ahmet Küçükdağ, citizens Mehmet Ayvalıtaş, Abdullah Cömert, Ethem Sarısülük, Ali İsmail Korkmaz, Ahmet Atakan, Berkin Elvan, Burak Can Karamanoğlu, Mehmet İstif, and Elif Çermik, and 8163 more were injured. Besides being a turning point in Turkish history, the Gezi Park protests also had broad repercussions in both in Turkish and in global media, which focused on Turkey throughout the events. Our study conducts content analysis of three Turkish reporting newspapers with varying ideological standpoints, Hürriyet, Cumhuriyet ve Yeni Şafak, in order to reveal their basic approach to columns casting in context of the Gezi Park protests. Columns content relating to the Gezi protests were treated and analysed for this purpose. The aim of this study is to understand the social effects of the Gezi Park protests through media samples with varying political attitudes towards news casting.

Keywords: Media, Columns, Gezi Park, news casting

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52 Body Mass Hurts Adolescent Girls More than Thin-Ideal Images

Authors: Javaid Marium, Ahmad Iftikhar

Abstract:

This study was aimed to identify factors that affect negative mood and body image dissatisfaction in women. positive and negative affect, self esteem, body image satisfaction and figure rating scale was administered to 97 female undergraduate students. This served as a base line data for correlation analysis in the first instance. One week later participants who volunteered to appear in the second phase of the study (N=47) were shown thin- ideal images as an intervention and soon after they completed positive and negative affect schedule and body image states scale again as a post test. Results indicated body mass as a strong negative predictor of body image dis/satisfaction, self esteem was a moderate predictor and mood was not a significant predictor. The participants whose actual body shape was markedly discrepant with the ideally desired body shape had significantly low level of body image satisfaction (p < .001) than those with low discrepancy. Similar results were found for self esteem (p < .004). Both self esteem and body mass predicted body satisfaction about equally and significantly. However, on viewing thin-ideal images, the participants of different body weight showed no change in their body image satisfaction than before. Only the overweight participants were significantly affected on negative mood as a short term reaction after viewing the thin ideal images. Comparing the three groups based on their body mass, one-way ANOVA revealed significant difference on negative mood as well as body image satisfaction. This reveals body mass as a potent and stable factor that consistently and strongly affected body satisfaction not the transient portrayal of thin ideal images.

Keywords: Media, self esteem, body image satisfaction, thin-ideal images, mood affects

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51 Protection of Minor's Privacy in Bosnian Herzegovinian Media (Legal Regulation and Current Media Reporting)

Authors: Ilija Musa

Abstract:

Positive legal regulation of juvenile privacy protection, current state of showing a child in BH media and possibilities of a child’s privacy protection by more adequate media legislature which should be arranged in accordance to recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Privacy of the minors in Bosnian-Herzegovinian media is insufficiently legally arranged. Due to the fact that there is no law on media area arrangement at the state level, electronic media are under jurisdiction of Communications regulatory agency, which at least partially, regulated the sector of radio and television broadcasting by adequate protection of child’s privacy. However, print and online media are under jurisdiction of non-governmental association Print and online media council in B&H which is not authorized to punish violators of this body’s Codex, what points out the necessity of passing the unique media law which would enable sanctioning the child’s privacy violation. The analysis of media content, which is a common violation of the child's privacy, analysis of positive legislation which regulates the media, confirmed the working hypothesis by which the minor’s protection policy in BH media is not protected at the appropriate level. Taking this into consideration, in the conclusion of this article the author gives recommendations for the regulation of legal protection of minor’s privacy in BH media.

Keywords: Media, Children, Legislation, Privacy Protection, Bosnia Herzegovina

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50 Guidelines for Cooperation between Police and the Media with an Approach to Prevent Juvenile Delinquency

Authors: Mehdi Moghimi, Akbar Salimi

Abstract:

Goal: Today, the cooperative and systemic work is of importance and guarantees higher efficiency. This research was done with the aim of understanding the guidelines for co-op between police and the national media in order to reduce the juvenile delinquency. Method: This research is applied in terms of goal and of a compound type, which was done through a descriptive-analytical methodology. The data were collected through field surveys and documents. The statistical population included the professors of a higher education center in the area of education affairs, where as many as 36 people were randomly selected. The data collection procedure was by way of interview and researcher made questionnaire. Findings and results: Problems caused by the national media in the area of adolescents are categorized in three levels of production, broadcasting and consumption and elimination and reduction of the problems entail a set of estimations and predictions and also some education which the police forces has the capability to operationalize them. Thus, three hypotheses were defined and by conducting t and Friedman tests, all three hypotheses were confirmed and their rating was identified.

Keywords: Management, Media, Delinquency, adolscents

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49 New Media Impact on Newspaper Readership

Authors: Umar Lawal Maradun

Abstract:

Newspapers are very important sources of information and are trusted by majority of populations in America, Latin America, Europe and many parts of the world. In the mid-1950s newspapers were at the forefront of providing people with information. However, in the 1970s television took over, while in the 1980s cable satellites became popular and in the 1990s the Internet and World Wide Web became major sources of media content and also major threats to the print media form. This paper looks at how newspaper readership has been affected by new media technology, especially the Internet. It uses empirical data by reviewing available literature within the context of change that is likely to threaten conventional media. It discovers that there is a growing decline in newspaper readership as a result of widespread use of the Internet. The decline in readership has been discovered to be a global phenomenon. The paper suggests strategies for the survival and revenue generation for print-based newspapers.

Keywords: Internet, Media, Newspaper, press

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
48 Contextualizing Communication through Culture and Social Structure: An Exploration of Media Life

Authors: Jyoti Ranjan Sahoo

Abstract:

Communication is a social phenomenon which mediates to our everyday life and it creates, maintains, builds, circulates, and propagates for a common identity the society. The symbolic forms of communication such as aural, sounds, oral expressions, signs, and language as means of communication are being used in everyday life in helping to identify as construction of social reality. These symbolic forms of communication are treated as the social process in everyday life. Therefore, there is an intrinsic relationship between communication and culture to understand media life for village communities. Similarly, the interface of communication with social life is reflected upon it’s formulation of the notions of social structure and culture. It has been observed that there is an overlapping and new phenomenonal change of media life among marginalized communities in general and village communities in particular. Therefore, this paper is an outcome of decadal stock of literature and an empirical investigation on understanding of communication in a tribal village in India. It has examined the idea of American scientist Edward T. Hall “the culture is communication, and the communication is culture” in village society on understanding media life. Thus, the Harold Innis’s theoretical idea of “communication” has been critically examined in these contexts since author tries to explore and understand the inter-disciplinarity on understanding media life through communication and culture which is embedded in socio-cultural life bearing on epistemological and ontological implications. The paper tries to explore and understand the inter-disciplinary and historical trajectories of communication embedded with other social science disciplines; and also tries to map these studies relevant for the future directions and engagement which would have bearing on epistemological and ontological implications in the field of media and communication.

Keywords: Communication, Media, Culture, History, Oral, tradition

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47 Media Usage, Citizenship Norms, and Political Participation of Transition to Democracy in Indonesia

Authors: Najmuddin Najmuddin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine whether media usage and change of citizenship norms influence political participation. The focus of this study is to examine citizenship norms in the context of the development of information, and communication technology and how it will impact political participation in the context of Indonesia's transition to democracy. The study use survey method. The main theoretical framework is media and political participation. The results of this study reveal that gender, age and educational background of the respondents did not influence significantly media usage and citizenship norms. The Results also show that educational background is not a factor that distinguishes media usage but it becomes differentiating factor in citizenship norms. The results further show that the media usage has a significant correlation with citizenship norms and citizenship norms has a significant relationship with political participation. In addition, media usage and citizenship norms impact significantly to political participation. The sub-dimensions of citizenship norms (compliance, duty, and engaged citizen) provides a significant contribution to the sub-dimensions of political participation (traditional political participation, modern political participation, civic political participation). Based on the findings it can be concluded that the political euphoria in the era of transition to democracy has changed pattern media usage and citizenship norms of among the young generation.

Keywords: Democracy, Media, Political, Participation, Citizenship, norms

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46 Review of Published Articles on Climate Change and Health in Two Francophone Newspapers: 1990-2015

Authors: Rainer Sauerborn, Avner Bar-Hen, Stefanie Schütte, Mathieu Hemono, Sophie Puig-Malet, Patrick Zylberman, Niamh Herlihi, Antoine Flahault et Anneliese Depoux

Abstract:

Since the IPCC released its first report in 1990, an increasing number of peer-reviewed publications have reported the health risks associated with climate change. Although there is a large body of evidence supporting the association between climate change and poor health outcomes, the media is inconsistent in the attention it pays to the subject matter. This study aims to analyze the modalities and rhetoric in the media concerning the impact of climate change on health in order to better understand its role in information dissemination. A review was conducted of articles published between 1990 and 2015 in the francophone newspapers Le Monde and Jeune Afrique. A detailed search strategy including specific climate and health terminology was used to search the newspapers’ online databases. 1202 articles were identified as having referenced the terms climate change and health. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to narrow the search to articles referencing the effects of climate change on human health and 160 articles were included in the final analysis. Data was extracted and categorized to create a structured database allowing for further investigation and analysis. The review indicated that although 66% of the selected newspaper articles reference scientific evidence of the impact of climate change on human health, the focus on the topic is limited major political events or is circumstances relating to public health crises. Main findings also include that among the many direct and indirect health outcomes, infectious diseases are the main health outcome highlighted in association with climate change. Lastly, the articles suggest that while developed countries have caused most of the greenhouse effect, the global south is more immediately affected. Overall, the reviewed articles reinforce the need for international cooperation in finding a solution to mitigate the effects of climate change on health. The manner in which scientific results are communicated and disseminated, impact individual and collective perceptions of the topic in the public sphere and affect political will to shape policy. The results of this analysis will underline the modalities of the rhetoric of transparency and provide the basis for a perception study of media discourses. This study is part of an interdisciplinary project called 4CHealth that confronts results of the research done on scientific, political and press literature to better understand how the knowledge on climate changes and health circulates within those different fields and whether and how it is translated to real world change.

Keywords: Climate Change, Communication, Media, Health, Rhetoric, Africa, awareness, global south, health impacts

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45 Nimbus Radiance Gate Project: Media Architecture in Sacred Space

Authors: Jorge Duarte de Sá

Abstract:

The project presented in this investigation is part of the multidisciplinary field of Architecture and explores an experience in media architecture, integrated in Arts, Science and Technology. The objective of this work is to create a visual experience comprehending Architecture, Media and Art. It is intended to specifically explore the sacred spaces that are losing social, cultural or religious dynamics and insert new Media technologies to create a new generate momentum, testing tools, techniques and methods of implementation. Given an architectural project methodology, it seems essential that 'the location' should be the starting point for the development of this technological apparatus: the church of Santa Clara in Santarém, Portugal emerged as an experimental space for apparatus, presenting itself as both temple and museum. We also aim to address the concept of rehabilitation through media technologies, directed at interventions that may have an impact on energizing spaces. The idea is emphasized on the rehabilitation of spaces that, one way or another, may gain new dynamics after a media intervention. Thus, we intend to affect the play with a sensitive and spiritual character which endemically, sacred spaces have, by exploring a sensitive aspect of the subject and drawing up new ideas for meditation and spiritual reflection. The work is designed primarily as a visual experience that encompasses the space, the object and the subject. It is a media project supported by a dual structure with two transparent screens operating in a holographic screen which will be projecting two images that complement the translucent overlay film, thus making the merger of two projections. The digitally created content reacts to the presence of observers through infrared cameras, placed strategically. The object revives the memory of the altarpiece as an architectural surface, promoting the expansion of messages through the media technologies.

Keywords: Media, Architecture, Technology, sacred

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44 Media in Architecture-Intervention and Visual Experience in Religious Space

Authors: Jorge Duarte de Sá

Abstract:

The appearance of the new media technologies has opened new fields of intervention in architecture creating a new dynamic communication in the relationship between public and space, where are present technological devices that enable a new sensory experience, aesthetic and even spiritual. This connection makes relevant the idea of rehabilitate architectonic spaces with new media technologies such as sacred spaces. This research aims to create a media project integrated in sacred spaces that combine Architecture, Art and New Technologies, exploring new perspectives and different dynamics in space.

Keywords: Media, Architecture, contemplation, projections, religious spaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 140