Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Media literacy Related Abstracts

12 Comics as an Intermediary for Media Literacy Education

Authors: Ryan C. Zlomek


The value of using comics in the literacy classroom has been explored since the 1930s. At that point in time researchers had begun to implement comics into daily lesson plans and, in some instances, had started the development process for comics-supported curriculum. In the mid-1950s, this type of research was cut short due to the work of psychiatrist Frederic Wertham whose research seemingly discovered a correlation between comic readership and juvenile delinquency. Since Wertham’s allegations the comics medium has had a hard time finding its way back to education. Now, over fifty years later, the definition of literacy is in mid-transition as the world has become more visually-oriented and students require the ability to interpret images as often as words. Through this transition, comics has found a place in the field of literacy education research as the shift focuses from traditional print to multimodal and media literacies. Comics are now believed to be an effective resource in bridging the gap between these different types of literacies. This paper seeks to better understand what students learn from the process of reading comics and how those skills line up with the core principles of media literacy education in the United States. In the first section, comics are defined to determine the exact medium that is being examined. The different conventions that the medium utilizes are also discussed. In the second section, the comics reading process is explored through a dissection of the ways a reader interacts with the page, panel, gutter, and different comic conventions found within a traditional graphic narrative. The concepts of intersubjective acts and visualization are attributed to the comics reading process as readers draw in real world knowledge to decode meaning. In the next section, the learning processes that comics encourage are explored parallel to the core principles of media literacy education. Each principle is explained and the extent to which comics can act as an intermediary for this type of education is theorized. In the final section, the author examines comics use in his computer science and technology classroom. He lays out different theories he utilizes from Scott McCloud’s text Understanding Comics and how he uses them to break down media literacy strategies with his students. The article concludes with examples of how comics has positively impacted classrooms around the United States. It is stated that integrating comics into the classroom will not solve all issues related to literacy education but, rather, that comics can be a powerful multimodal resource for educators looking for new mediums to explore with their students.

Keywords: Mass Communication, Media literacy, metacognition, Comics, graphics novels

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11 Media (Il) Literacy: An Evaluation of the Curriculum and Implementation of the Department of Education's Special Program in Journalism

Authors: Sarah Isabelle S. Torres


This study evaluated the curriculum and implementation of the Special Program in Journalism (SPJ). By conducting surveys, focus group discussions, and interviews and by analyzing the school publication of five national high schools, the researcher found out that SPJ is ineffective in instilling media literacy to the students. Media Literacy will help the students understand how media operates, thus, they will be able to produce outputs that are socially relevant, critical, and in-depth. For one, the curriculum includes lessons and activities that are mostly technical in nature. There are no theoretical topics such as ethics, history of the press, or media ownership. Second, most of the SPJ teachers have little background on Journalism and they are not trained enough to teach the program effectively. Third, most of the students are not really inclined in Journalism and do not see themselves as media practitioners in the future. Lastly, the Department of Education’s budget for the program is far from what the curriculum needs. All of these lead to the low Media Literacy levels of the students. SPJ, therefore, has to be reevaluated and amended. In conclusion, Media Literacy should be added in the curriculum so the students will not only be equipped with technical skills but with theoretical knowledge, as well.

Keywords: Education, Media, Journalism, Media literacy

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10 Vantage Point–Visual Culture, Popular Media, and Contemporary Educational Practice

Authors: Elvin Karaaslan Klose


In the field of Visual Culture, Art Education students are given the opportunity to discuss topics of interest that are closer to their own social life and media consumption habits. In contrast to the established corpus of literature and sources about Art History, educators are challenged to find topics and examples from Popular Culture and Contemporary Art that provide familiarity, depth and inspiration for students’ future practice, both as educators as well as artists. In order to establish a welcoming and fruitful discussion environment at the beginning of an introductory Visual Culture Education course with fourth year Art Education students, the class watched and subsequently discussed the movie “Vantage Point”. Using the descriptive method and content analysis; video recordings, discussion transcripts and learning diaries were summarized to highlight students’ critical points of view towards commonly experienced but rarely reflected on topics of Popular and Visual Culture. As an introduction into more theory-based forms of discussion, watching and intensely discussing a movie has proven useful by proving a combination of a familiar media type with an unfamiliar educational context. Resulting areas of interest have served as a starting point for later research, discussion and artistic production in the scope of an introductory Visual Culture Education course.

Keywords: Visual Culture, Art Education, Media literacy, Critical Pedagogy

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9 Photography as a Medium Of Communication within the Campaign for Raising Awarenes of Controlled Consumption of Television Contents

Authors: Jelena Kovačević Vorgučin, Sibila Petenji Arbutina


The postmodern age brings a rapid development of technology which inevitably leads to man's need to adapt to modern lifestyle. On the one hand, technological achievements have made human life easier, but there are numerous risks involved. Moreover, man's awareness and perception is changing and adapting unconsciously to the world we live in, while communication in the 21st century is predominantly based on the consumption of images. This paper presents sociological aspects of a community which is confined due to turbulent political-economic circumstances and its impact on the development of media literacy in Serbia. Previous researches led to the conclusion that the media culture is on an extremely low level, and that it can have a strong influence on the general development of the society, starting from the youngest segment of the population. Our aim is to use the conceptual authorial photographs inspired by the obtained research results to emphasize the importance that the impact of visual art has in delivering the message, its role in education and in raising awareness of universal social problems. The paper presents a number of stages involved in the conceptual project which is designed to last over a longer period of time in order to facilitate dissemination of information. First, a survey was carried out in several preschool institutions. This resulted in obtaining the necessary information on the habitual use of the medium of television in children and their carers-parents. The second stage focused on the relationship between the parent and the child in TV consumption. Further, an overview of the visual part of the project was made, which consisted of photographs in various dimensions, ranging from miniature to large dimensions, and following various exhibition principles in both gallery and alternative spaces. This stage of the project placed particular emphasis on the non-standard exhibiting formats and alternative exhibition principles which are increasingly present in all kinds of visual art aimed at achieving a higher level of information noticing and memorizing. The motif on the authorial photographs is children's portraits taken while they are watching different television contents, with emphasis on their emotional response. The importance of the medium of TV is particularly emphasized due to the fact that its consumption is the highest, even though there are newer and more advanced information-technological achievements. The already realized part of the project was used for an analysis of the results in the last stage of the project, which led to the conclusion that the response to the entire visual expression campaign was extremely positive, and action as such very useful indeed. The results obtained speak in favour of widening and continuation of the project, both on a greater number of sites locally as well as in other communities in Serbia with the aim of guiding people towards meaningful consumption of the television medium.

Keywords: Media literacy, alternative space exhibiting, children and TV, conceptual portrait photography

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8 The Emergence of Information and Communication Technologies Acting as a Challenge for Media Literacy

Authors: Manisha Singh, Geetu Gahlawat


In the recent years, the concept of media literacy is being extended from its traditional focus on print and audio-visual media to encompass the internet and other new media within academic and policy discourses. This article throws revolves around three significant queries which are to be dealt by the academia, general public and the policy-makers: What is media literacy? How is it changing? And what is the significance of media literacy? At the beginning of the article, the definition 'media literacy' is the ability to access, analyse, evaluate and create messages across a variety of contexts are given and then this is further being tested in connection with the internet and other information and communication technologies.Having advocated this skills-based approach to media literacy in relation to the internet, the article identifies some outstanding issues for new media literacy crucial to any policy of promoting media literacy among the population. The outcome is better understanding of media literacy and also the impact of ICT on media literacy by the public as well as media literate people.

Keywords: Education, Internet, ICT, Media literacy

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7 The Management of Media Literacy Development for Thai Students

Authors: Supranee Wattanasin


The purpose of this research was to enhance student’s media literacy. The process was divided into 4 periods: the first phase was to hold the meeting for 100 representatives from various institutions in Thailand; the second phase allowed them to design activities to be used in their institutions; the third implemented activities to reach other target groups; and the last phase was to summarize results. It was found that the participants had clear understanding on media literacy. They knew well about the media. In other words, they knew the difference between creative media and bad ones. Students could use analytical process when searching for information. Thus, the project enabled the students to use analytical thinking skills in designing new activities. Therefore, they could creatively integrate Thai folk song with short movies and cartoons. To increase students’ media literacy, there should be chances for them to gain first-hand experience.

Keywords: Youth, Media literacy, mechanism development, project radio-television

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6 Study on Media Literacy and Its Role in Iranian Society (Case Study: Students of Mahmoudabad City)

Authors: Enayat Davoudi


This paper is about the study of media literacy and its role in Iranian society. Determine the research hypothesis by the use of James Patter theory and us stratification and also culture theory. By the use of traversal method and by the aim of the survey on 375 students in Mahmoudabad which was selected randomly, the data was gathered and analyzed by SPSS software. Coefficient alpha for Crohn Bach is used in order to reach to the justifiability of indexes. The research findings show that the variable like duration, rate and type of media use, the realization of media content, audience goal and motivation, economical and social base and the rate of education has a meaningful relation with media literacy.

Keywords: Media, Media literacy, Iranian society, Mahmoudabad students

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5 Teaching Techno-Criticism to Digital Natives: Participatory Journalism as Pedagogical Practice

Authors: Stephen D. Caldes


Teaching media and digital literacy to “digital natives” presents a unique set of pedagogical obstacles, especially when critique is involved, as these early-adopters tend to deify most technological and/or digital advancements and inventions. Knowing no other way of being, these natives are often reluctant to hear criticisms of the way they receive information, educate themselves, communicate with others, and even become enculturated because critique often connotes generational gaps and/or clandestine efforts to produce neo-Luddites. To digital natives, techno-criticism is more the result of an antiquated, out-of-touch agenda rather than a constructive, progressive praxis. However, the need to cultivate a techno-critical perspective among technology’s premier users has, perhaps, never been more pressing. In an effort to sidestep reluctance and encourage critical thought about where we are in terms of digital technology and where exactly it may be taking us, this essay outlines a new model for teaching techno-criticism to digital natives. Specifically, it recasts the techniques of participatory journalism—helping writers and readers understand subjects outside of their specific historical context—as progressive, interdisciplinary pedagogy. The model arises out of a review of relevant literature and data gathered via literary analysis and participant observation. Given the tenuous relationships between novel digital advancements, individual identity, collective engagement, and, indeed, Truth/fact, shepherding digital natives toward routine practice of “techno-realism” seems of utter importance.

Keywords: Media literacy, digital natives, journalism education, techno-criticism

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4 Media Literacy Development: A Methodology to Systematically Integrate Post-Contemporary Challenges in Early Childhood Education

Authors: Ana Mouta, Ana Paulino


The following text presents the ik.model, a theoretical framework that guided the pedagogical implementation of meaningful educational technology-based projects in formal education worldwide. In this paper, we will focus on how this framework has enabled the development of media literacy projects for early childhood education during the last three years. The methodology that guided educators through the challenge of systematically merging analogic and digital means in dialogic high-quality opportunities of world exploration is explained throughout these lines. The effects of this methodology on early age media literacy development are considered. Also considered is the relevance of this skill in terms of post-contemporary challenges posed to learning.

Keywords: pedagogy, Media literacy, early learning, ik.model

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3 Aggressive Behavior Prevention: The Effect of Peace Education and Media Literacy towards Student's Understanding about Aggression

Authors: Dadang Gunawan, I. Dewa Ketut Kertawidana, Lufthi Noorfitriyani


For the last 5 years, there is the never-ending violent act and increased cases regarding aggressive behavior among high school students in Bogor, Indonesia. Those cases caused harm to many people, even death, and lead to the continuation circle of violence. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of using peace education and media literacy in enhancing student’s understanding about aggression, as an effort to prevent aggressive behavior. In terms of methodology, this research was done by quasi-experiment with one group pretest and post-test design. A number of 38 students who were at risk of aggressive behavior from 3 vocational high school were involved to receive a 10 learning session about peace and media literacy. The aggression questionnaire was used to identify participants, supported by student’s record in school. To collect data, the questionnaire for measuring understanding about aggression has been developed and was used after the validity and reliability of this questionnaire tested. Post-test was carried out after the session ended. Data were analyzed using t-test. The finding result showed that the mean score of student’s understanding of aggression was increased, therefore learning session of peace education and media literacy is significantly effective to enhance student’s understanding of aggression. It also showed a meaningful difference of understanding between male and female student’s whereas female students have a better understanding of aggression.

Keywords: Media literacy, Peacebuilding, Aggression, Peace Education, aggressive behavior prevention

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2 Fake News Domination and Threats on Democratic Systems

Authors: Laura Irimies, Cosmin Irimies


The public space all over the world is currently confronted with the aggressive assault of fake news that have lately impacted public agenda setting, collective decisions and social attitudes. Top leaders constantly call out most mainstream news as “fake news” and the public opinion get more confused. "Fake news" are generally defined as false, often sensational, information disseminated under the guise of news reporting and has been declared the word of the year 2017 by Collins Dictionary and it also has been one of the most debated socio-political topics of recent years. Websites which, deliberately or not, publish misleading information are often shared on social media where they essentially increase their reach and influence. According to international reports, the exposure to fake news is an undeniable reality all over the world as the exposure to completely invented information goes up to the 31 percent in the US, and it is even bigger in Eastern Europe countries, such as Hungary (42%) and Romania (38%) or in Mediterranean countries, such as Greece (44%) or Turkey (49%), and lower in Northern and Western Europe countries – Germany (9%), Denmark (9%) or Holland (10%). While the study of fake news (mechanism and effects) is still in its infancy, it has become truly relevant as the phenomenon seems to have a growing impact on democratic systems. Studies conducted by the European Commission show that 83% of respondents out of a total of 26,576 interviewees consider the existence of news that misrepresent reality as a threat for democracy. Studies recently conducted at Arizona State University show that people with higher education can more easily spot fake headlines, but over 30 percent of them can still be trapped by fake information. If we were to refer only to some of the most recent situations in Romania, fake news issues and hidden agenda suspicions related to the massive and extremely violent public demonstrations held on August 10th, 2018 with a strong participation of the Romanian diaspora have been massively reflected by the international media and generated serious debates within the European Commission. Considering the above framework, the study raises four main research questions: 1. Is fake news a problem or just a natural consequence of mainstream media decline and the abundance of sources of information? 2. What are the implications for democracy? 3. Can fake news be controlled without restricting fundamental human rights? 4. How could the public be properly educated to detect fake news? The research uses mostly qualitative but also quantitative methods, content analysis of studies, websites and media content, official reports and interviews. The study will prove the real threat fake news represent and also the need for proper media literacy education and will draw basic guidelines for developing a new and essential skill: that of detecting fake in news in a society overwhelmed by sources of information that constantly roll massive amounts of information increasing the risk of misinformation and leading to inadequate public decisions that could affect democratic stability.

Keywords: Journalism, Media literacy, Fake News, agenda setting democracy

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1 Teacher Agency in Media Literacy: A Qualitative Study of Bolivian Teachers and Their Room to Manoeuvre

Authors: Daniela Lamaison Sepulveda


Critical media literacy teaches people to think analytically about the information they receive through the media. It is heavily influenced by Paulo Freire’s critical pedagogy and the necessity of becoming conscious of one’s reality in order to transform it. This qualitative research examines the case of Bolivia, which experienced dramatic political change after the first indigenous president, Evo Morales, was elected in 2006. In 2010, the government passed an education reform — the Avelino Siñani Elizardo Pérez (ASEP) —that draws heavily on decolonial thought and the Freirean notion of critical consciousness. The extent to which these theories were implemented in practice is evaluated in context of a media literacy project, run by an NGO, that trains secondary school teachers from public schools across Bolivia through yearly workshops ranging from producing media to identifying fake news. This context is examined against the backdrop of the highly contested general elections in October 2019. While there is plenty of literature that outlines the benefits of teaching media literacy in the classroom and different ways to apply it, little research has been done analysing implementation at an institutional level and how to best enable teachers who are motivated to teach the subject. Through semi-structured interviews, document analysis and naturalistic observations, this study aims to identify the struggles faced by teachers who are dedicated to teaching critical media literacy in their classrooms and how they navigate educational spaces while being subject to a demanding national curriculum that supposedly also seeks to promote critical thinking. The interplay between the aspirations of teachers and NGOs in contrast to the top-down discourse and policy of governmental institutions provides for a very enlightening case. By exploring these institutional, cultural, sociopolitical and economic barriers the teachers face, this research attempts to contribute to the debate in media literacy theories concerned with implementing the practice in schools.

Keywords: Education Reform, Media literacy, Critical Pedagogy, Misinformation, Bolivia, teacher agency

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