Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Mechanisms Related Abstracts

9 Characterization of New Sources of Maize (Zea mays L.) Resistance to Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Infestation in Stored Maize

Authors: L. C. Nwosu, C. O. Adedire, M. O. Ashamo, E. O. Ogunwolu


The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is a notorious pest of stored maize (Zea mays L.). The development of resistant maize varieties to manage weevils is a major breeding objective. The study investigated the parameters and mechanisms that confer resistance on a maize variety to S. zeamais infestation using twenty elite maize varieties. Detailed morphological, physical and chemical studies were conducted on whole-maize grain and the grain pericarp. Resistance was assessed at 33, 56, and 90 days post infestation using weevil mortality rate, weevil survival rate, percent grain damage, percent grain weight loss, weight of grain powder, oviposition rate and index of susceptibility as indices rated on a scale developed by the present study and on Dobie’s modified scale. Linear regression models that can predict maize grain damage in relation to the duration of storage were developed and applied. The resistant varieties identified particularly 2000 SYNEE-WSTR and TZBRELD3C5 with very high degree of resistance should be used singly or best in an integrated pest management system for the control of S. zeamais infestation in stored maize. Though increases in the physical properties of grain hardness, weight, length, and width increased varietal resistance, it was found that the bases of resistance were increased chemical attributes of phenolic acid, trypsin inhibitor and crude fibre while the bases of susceptibility were increased protein, starch, magnesium, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, manganese, iron, cobalt and zinc, the role of potassium requiring further investigation. Characters that conferred resistance on the test varieties were found distributed in the pericarp and the endosperm of the grains. Increases in grain phenolic acid, crude fibre, and trypsin inhibitor adversely and significantly affected the bionomics of the weevil on further assessment. The flat side of a maize grain at the point of penetration was significantly preferred by the weevil. Why the south area of the flattened side of a maize grain was significantly preferred by the weevil is clearly unknown, even though grain-face-type seemed to be a contributor in the study. The preference shown to the south area of the grain flat side has implications for seed viability. The study identified antibiosis, preference, antixenosis, and host evasion as the mechanisms of maize post harvest resistance to Sitophilus zeamais infestation.

Keywords: Mechanisms, parameters, preference, maize weevil, resistant

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8 Diversity, Phyto Beneficial Activities and Agrobiotechnolody of Plant Growth Promoting Bacillus and Paenibacillus

Authors: Cheba Ben Amar


Bacillus and Paenibacillus are Gram-positive aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) and most abundant in the rhizosphere, they mediated plant growth promotion and disease protection by several complex and interrelated processes involving direct and indirect mechanisms that include nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, siderophores production, phytohormones production and plant diseases control. In addition to their multiple PGPR properties, high secretory capacity, spore forming ability and spore resistance to unfavorable conditions enabling their extended commercial applications for long shelf-life. Due to these unique advantages, Bacillus species were the most an ideal candidate for developing efficient PGPR products such as biopesticides, fungicides and fertilizers. This review list all studied and reported plant growth promoting Bacillus species and strains, discuss their capacities to enhance plant growth and protection with special focusing on the most frequent species Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus ,B. megaterium, B. amyloliquefaciens , B. licheniformis and B. sphaericus, furthermore we recapitulate the beneficial activities and mechanisms of several species and strains of the genus Paenibacillus involved in plant growth stimulation and plant disease control.

Keywords: Mechanisms, Agrobiotechnology, Disease Control, bacillus, PGPR, paenibacillus, beneficial activities, growth promotion

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7 Mechanisms in Regulating Language Practices in Electronics Engineering: A Program Plan for Outcomes-Based Education

Authors: Analiza Acuña-Villacorte


The underlying principle behind the harmonization in international education does not solely aim for the comparability but also the compatibility of outputs produced. The international standard in the different professions particularly in engineering defines the required graduate attributes to attain suitable qualifications and recognitions. This study described the language practices of the Electronics Engineering students of Bulacan State University, Philippines who will be deployed for their internship program. The purpose of the study was achieved by determining the language proficiency of the students in terms of speaking, listening, reading, and writing, and checking the adherence of the University to the commitment of intensifying community building for the Association of Southeast Asian Nation Vision 2020. The analysis of variance of the variables defined the significance between the causal variables and dependent variables. Thus, this study identified the mechanism that would regulate language practices in the Electronics Engineering program.

Keywords: Mechanisms, Communicative Competence, language practices, outcomes-based education

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6 Mechanisms of Action in Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) in People with Physical and/or Psychological Conditions: A Systematic Review

Authors: Modi Alsubaie, Chris Dickens, Barnaby Dunn, Willem Kuyken, Rebecca Abbott, Tina Keil, William Henley


Background: Recently, there has been an increased interest in studying the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for people with psychological and physical problems. However, the mechanisms of action in these interventions that lead to beneficial physical and psychological outcomes have yet to be clearly identified. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to review, systematically, the evidence to date on the mechanisms of action in mindfulness interventions in populations with physical and/or psychological conditions. Method: Searches of seven databases (PsycINFO, Medline (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, were undertaken in June 2014 and July 2015. We evaluated to what extent the studies we identified met the criteria suggested by Kazdin for establishing mechanisms of action within a psychological treatment (2007, 2009). Results: We identified four trials examining mechanisms of mindfulness interventions in those with comorbid psychological and physical health problems and 14 in those with psychological conditions. These studies examined a diverse range of potential mechanisms, including mindfulness and rumination. Of these candidate mechanisms, the most consistent finding was that greater self-reported change in mindfulness mediated superior clinical outcomes. However, very few studies fully met the Kazdin criteria for examining treatment mechanisms. Conclusion: There was evidence that global changes in mindfulness are linked to better outcomes. This evidence pertained more to interventions targeting psychological rather than physical health conditions. While there is promising evidence that MBCT/MBSR intervention effects are mediated by hypothesised mechanisms, there is a lack of methodological rigour in the field of testing mechanisms of action for both MBCT and MBSR, which precludes definitive conclusions.

Keywords: Mechanisms, systematic review, MBCT, MBSR, physical conditions, psychological conditions

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5 Numerical Analysis of a Mechanism for the Morphology in the Extrados of an Airfoil

Authors: E. R. Jimenez Barron, M. Castillo Morales, D. F. Ramírez Morales


The study of the morphology (shape change) in wings leads to the optimization of aerodynamic characteristics in an aircraft, so for the development and implementation of a change in the structure and shape of an airfoil, in this case the extrados, helps to increase the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft at different operating velocities, according to the required mission profile. A previous work on morphology is continued where the 'initial' profile is the NACA 4415 and as a new profile 'objective' the FUSION. The objective of this work is the dimensioning of the elements of the mechanism used to achieve the required changes. We consulted the different materials used in the aeronautics industry, as well as new materials in this area that could contribute to the good performance of the mechanism without negatively affecting the aerodynamics. These results allow evaluating the performance of a wing with variable extrados with respect to the defined morphology.

Keywords: Mechanisms, Numerical Analysis, morphing airfoil, morphing wings

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4 Issues and Challenges for Plantation Agriculture in Cameron Highlands: Interpretations from Socio-Anthropological Viewpoints

Authors: A. H. M. Zehadul Karim


Cameron Highlands (4°28’N, 101°23’E) is an attractive mountainous region with steep slopes located in the state of Pahang, Malaysia stretching between 1070 and 1830m above sea level with a total land area of 71,218ha. It is one of the few places in Malaysia that has a tropical highland climate as the mean annual temperature of it is 18 °C (64 °F) thus making the atmosphere perfect for specialized agriculture. Being ecologically suitable, Cameron Highlands has recently been identified as a very strategic farming area, producing multifarious vegetables, flowers and tea with a commercial motive of marketing them to Singapore and all over the urban areas of Malaysia to meet the domestic and international demands. The main intricacies of this plantation agriculture are fully dependent on the policies formulated by a group of emerging entrepreneurs who employ foreign labourers to make these agricultural activities a success in the agrarian sector in Malaysia. Based on the socio-anthropological perspective, the paper entirely relies on empirical field data generated by interviewing 10 farm owners and 200 foreign workers to find out the intricacies of this plantation agriculture which makes the research innovative and pragmatically significant. The paper deals with important issues relating to this productive plantation agriculture of Cameron Highlands and as such, narrates the various exceptional and holistic skills adopted for this type of farming.

Keywords: Mechanisms, issues and challenges, Cameron Highlands Malaysia, plantation agriculture

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3 Obesity and Cancer: Current Scientific Evidence and Policy Implications

Authors: Martin Wiseman, Rachel Thompson, Panagiota Mitrou, Kate Allen


Since 1997 World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) International and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) have been at the forefront of synthesising and interpreting the accumulated scientific literature on the link between diet, nutrition, physical activity and cancer, and deriving evidence-based Cancer Prevention Recommendations. The 2007 WCRF/AICR 2nd Expert Report was a landmark in the analysis of evidence linking diet, body weight and physical activity to cancer and led to the establishment of the Continuous Update Project (CUP). In 2018, as part of the CUP, WCRF/AICR will publish a new synthesis of the current evidence and update the Cancer Prevention Recommendations. This will ensure that everyone - from policymakers and health professionals to members of the public - has access to the most up-to-date information on how to reduce the risk of developing cancer. Overweight and obesity play a significant role in cancer risk, and rates of both are increasing in many parts of the world. This session will give an overview of new evidence relating obesity to cancer since the 2007 report. For example, since the 2007 Report, the number of cancers for which obesity is judged to be a contributory cause has increased from seven to eleven. The session will also shed light on the well-established mechanisms underpinning obesity and cancer links. Additionally, the session will provide an overview of diet and physical activity related factors that promote positive energy imbalance, leading to overweight and obesity. Finally, the session will highlight how policy can be used to address overweight and obesity at a population level, using WCRF International’s NOURISHING Framework. NOURISHING formalises a comprehensive package of policies to promote healthy diets and reduce obesity and non-communicable diseases; it is a tool for policymakers to identify where action is needed and assess if an approach is sufficiently comprehensive. The framework brings together ten policy areas across three domains: food environment, food system, and behaviour change communication. The framework is accompanied by a regularly updated database providing an extensive overview of implemented government policy actions from around the world. In conclusion, the session will provide an overview of obesity and cancer, highlighting the links seen in the epidemiology and exploring the mechanisms underpinning these, as well as the influences that help determine overweight and obesity. Finally, the session will illustrate policy approaches that can be taken to reduce overweight and obesity worldwide.

Keywords: Cancer, Nutrition, Obesity, Mechanisms, Policy, Overweight

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2 The Impact of the Great Irish Famine on Irish Mass Migration to the United States at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

Authors: Gayane Vardanyan, Gaia Narciso, Battista Severgnini


This paper investigates the long-run impact of the Great Irish Famine on emigration from Ireland at the turn of the twentieth century. To do it we combine the 1901 and the 1911 Irish Census data sets with the Ellis Island Administrative Records on Irish migrants to the United States. We find that the migrants were more likely to be Catholic, literate, unmarried, young and Gaelic speaking compared to the ones that stay. Running individual level specifications, our preliminary findings suggest that being born in a place where the Famine was more severe increases the probability of becoming a migrant in the long-run. We also intend to explore the mechanisms through which this impact occurs.

Keywords: Mechanisms, Great Famine, mass migration, long-run impact

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1 Inverse Dynamics of the Mould Base of Blow Molding Machines

Authors: Vigen Arakelian


This paper deals with the study of devices for displacement of the mould base of blow-molding machines. The displacement of the mould in the studied case is carried out by a linear actuator, which ensures the descent of the mould base and by extension springs, which return the letter in the initial position. The aim of this paper is to study the inverse dynamics of the device for displacement of the mould base of blow-molding machines and to determine its optimum parameters for higher rate of production. In the other words, it is necessary to solve the inverse dynamic problem to find the equation of motion linking applied forces with displacements. This makes it possible to determine the stiffness coefficient of the spring to turn the mold base back to the initial position for a given time. The obtained results are illustrated by a numerical example. It is shown that applying a spring with stiffness returns the mould base of the blow molding machine into the initial position in 0.1 sec.

Keywords: Design, Mechanisms, Dynamics, blow-molding machines

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