Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Mechanism Related Abstracts

20 Functional Aspects of Carbonic Anhydrase

Authors: Seung Pil Pack, Bashistha Kumar Kanth


Carbonic anhydrase is ubiquitously distributed in organisms, and is fundamental to many eukaryotic biological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, CO2 and ion transport, calcification and acid–base balance. However, CA occurs across the spectrum of prokaryotic metabolism in both the archaea and bacteria domains and many individual species contain more than one class. In this review, various roles of CA involved in cellular mechanism are presented to find out the CA functions applicable for industrial use.

Keywords: Mechanism, CO2 sequestration, Carbonic Anhydrase, respiration

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19 Reflections on Mechanism of Foreign Teachers’ Administration in Colleges and Universities in China

Authors: YangHui


Foreign teachers play an important role in the process of internationalization of higher education in China. Based on the method of literature analysis, firstly study the contents about the mechanism of the foreign teachers’ administration in our country, then secondly analyze the main barriers of the foreign teacher’s administration mechanism. Finally, it is suggested that the international exchange department in universities should constantly improve the employment mechanism, training mechanism, appraisal mechanism and incentive mechanism to promote the internationalization of higher education.

Keywords: Mechanism, China, internationalization of higher education, administration of foreign teachers, colleges and universities

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18 Mechanisms of Ginger Bioactive Compounds Extract Using Soxhlet and Accelerated Water Extraction

Authors: M. N. Azian, A. N. Ilia Anisa, Y. Iwai


The mechanism for extraction bioactive compounds from plant matrix is essential for optimizing the extraction process. As a benchmark technique, a soxhlet extraction has been utilized for discussing the mechanism and compared with an accelerated water extraction. The trends of both techniques show that the process involves extraction and degradation. The highest yields of 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol in soxhlet extraction were 13.948, 7.12, 10.312 and 2.306 mg/g, respectively. The optimum 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol extracted by the accelerated water extraction at 140oC were 68.97±3.95 mg/g at 3min, 18.98±3.04 mg/g at 5min, 5.167±2.35 mg/g at 3min and 14.57±6.27 mg/g at 3min, respectively. The effect of temperature at 3mins shows that the concentration of 6-shogaol increased rapidly as decreasing the recovery of 6-gingerol.

Keywords: Mechanism, ginger bioactive compounds, soxhlet extraction, accelerated water extraction

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17 Lignin Pyrolysis to Value-Added Chemicals: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Binod Shrestha, Sandrine Hoppe, Thierry Ghislain, Phillipe Marchal, Nicolas Brosse, Anthony Dufour


The thermochemical conversion of lignin has received an increasing interest in the frame of different biorefinery concepts for the production of chemicals or energy. It is needed to better understand the physical and chemical conversion of lignin for feeder and reactor designs. In-situ rheology reveals the viscoelastic behaviour of lignin upon thermal conversion. The softening, re-solidification (char formation), swelling and shrinking behaviours are quantified during pyrolysis in real-time [1]. The in-situ rheology of an alkali lignin (Protobind 1000) was conducted in high torque controlled strain rheometer from 35°C to 400°C with a heating rate of 5°C.min-1. The swelling, through glass phase transition overlapped with depolymerization, and solidification (crosslinking and “char” formation) are two main phenomena observed during lignin pyrolysis. The onset of temperatures for softening and solidification for this lignin has been found to be 141°C and 248°C respectively. An ex-situ characterization of lignin/char residues obtained at different temperatures after quenching in the rheometer gives a clear understanding of the pathway of lignin degradation. The lignin residues were sampled from the mid-point temperatures of the softening range and solidification range to study the chemical transformations undergoing. Elemental analysis, FTIR and solid state NMR were conducted after quenching the solid residues (lignin/char). The quenched solid was also extracted by suitable solvent and followed by acetylation and GPC-UV analysis. The combination of 13C NMR and GPC-UV reveals the depolymerization followed by crosslinking of lignin/char. NMR and FTIR provide the evolution of functional moieties upon temperature. Physical and chemical mechanisms occurring during lignin pyrolysis are accounted in this study. Thanks to all these complementary methods.

Keywords: Rheology, pyrolysis, Mechanism, Valorization, Spectroscopic Methods, Solidification, bio-chemicals, softening, cross linking

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16 Models of Environmental, Crack Propagation of Some Aluminium Alloys (7xxx)

Authors: H. A. Jawan


This review describes the models of environmental-related crack propagation of aluminum alloys (7xxx) during the last few decades. Acknowledge on effects of different factors on the susceptibility to SCC permits to propose valuable mechanisms on crack advancement. The reliable mechanism of cracking give a possibility to propose the optimum chemical composition and thermal treatment conditions resulting in microstructure the most suitable for real environmental condition and stress state.

Keywords: Environmental, Microstructure, Mechanism, propagation

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15 Models of Environmental: Cracker Propagation of Some Aluminum Alloys (7xxx)

Authors: H. Jawan


This review describes the models of environmental-related crack propagation of aluminum alloys (7xxx) during the last few decades. Acknowledge on effects of different factors on the susceptibility to SCC permits to propose valuable mechanisms on crack advancement. The reliable mechanism of cracking give a possibility to propose the optimum chemical composition and thermal treatment conditions resulting in microstructure the most suitable for real environmental condition and stress state.

Keywords: Environmental, Microstructure, Mechanism, propagation

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14 A Novel Peptide Showing Universal Effect against Multiple Viruses in Vitro and in Vivo

Authors: Ke Zhang, Hanjun Zhao, Bojian Zheng


Background: So far, there is no universal antiviral agent which can inhibit multiple viral infections. More and more drug-resistant viral strains emerge after the antiviral drug application for treatment. Defensins are the front line of host innate immunity and have broad spectrum antibacterial and antiviral effects. However, there is limited data to show if these defensins have good antiviral activity in vivo and what the antiviral mechanism is. Subjects: To investigate a peptide with widespread antivirus activity in vitro and in vivo and illustrate the antiviral mechanism. Methods: Antiviral peptide library designed from mouse beta defensins was synthesized by the company. Recombinant beta defensin was obtained from E. coli. Antiviral activity in vitro was assayed by plaque assay, qPCR. Antiviral activity in vivo was detected by animal challenge with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus. The antiviral mechanism was assayed by western blot, ELISA, and qPCR. Conclusions: We identify a new peptide which has widespread effects against multiple viruses (H1N1, H5N1, H7N9, MERS-CoV) in vitro and has efficient antivirus activity in vivo. This peptide inhibits viral entry into target cells and subsequently blocks viral replication. The in vivo study of the antiviral peptide against other viral infections and the investigation of its more detail antiviral mechanism are ongoing.

Keywords: Mechanism, defensin, antiviral peptide, Influenza A virus

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13 Young’s Modulus Variability: Influence on Masonry Vault Behavior

Authors: Abdelmounaim Zanaz, Sylvie Yotte, Fazia Fouchal, Alaa Chateauneuf


This paper presents a methodology for probabilistic assessment of bearing capacity and prediction of failure mechanism of masonry vaults at the ultimate state with consideration of the natural variability of Young’s modulus of stones. First, the computation model is explained. The failure mode is the most reported mode, i.e. the four-hinge mechanism. Based on this assumption, the study of a vault composed of 16 segments is presented. The Young’s modulus of the segments is considered as random variable defined by a mean value and a coefficient of variation CV. A relationship linking the vault bearing capacity to the modulus variation of voussoirs is proposed. The failure mechanisms, in addition to that observed in the deterministic case, are identified for each CV value as well as their probability of occurrence. The results show that the mechanism observed in the deterministic case has decreasing probability of occurrence in terms of CV, while the number of other mechanisms and their probability of occurrence increase with the coefficient of variation of Young’s modulus. This means that if a significant change in the Young modulus of the segments is proven, taken it into account in computations becomes mandatory, both for determining the vault bearing capacity and for predicting its failure mechanism.

Keywords: Probability, Masonry, variability, Mechanism, vault

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12 Electrochemical Study of Copper–Tin Alloy Nucleation Mechanisms onto Different Substrates

Authors: Meriem Hamla, Mohamed Benaicha, Sabrine Derbal


In the present work, several materials such as M/glass (M = Pt, Mo) were investigated to test their suitability for studying the early nucleation stages and growth of copper-tin clusters. It was found that most of these materials stand as good substrates to be used in the study of the nucleation and growth of electrodeposited Cu-Sn alloys from aqueous solution containing CuCl2, SnCl2 as electroactive species and Na3C6H5O7 as complexing agent. Among these substrates, Pt shows instantaneous models followed by 3D diffusion-limited growth. On the other hand, the electrodeposited copper-tin thin films onto Mo substrate followed progressive nucleation. The deposition mechanism of the Cu-Sn films has been studied using stationary electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetery (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The structural, morphological and compositional of characterization have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDAX techniques respectively.

Keywords: Mechanism, electrodeposition, nucleation, CuSn

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11 Mechanism to Optimize Landing Distance in Order to Minimize Tyre Wear during Braking

Authors: N. D. Hiripitiya, H. V. H. De Soysa, H. S. U. Thrimavithana, B. R. Epitawala, K. A. D. D. Kuruppu, D. J. K. Lokupathirage


This research was based on developing a mechanism in order to optimize the landing distance. Short distance braking and long distance braking may cause several issues for the aircraft including tyre wearing. The worst case occurs with short distance landing. The issues related to short distance landing were identified after conducting interviews with pilots, aeronautical engineers and technicians. A model was constructed in order to optimize the landing distance. The device started to function at the point where the main wheels of the aircraft touchdown the runway. It was found that implementing this device to the aircraft benefits to optimize the landing distance. This could lead to rectifying several issues occurred due to improper braking distances.

Keywords: Aircraft, Mechanism, optimize landing distance, runway

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10 A Unified Model for Orotidine Monophosphate Synthesis: Target for Inhibition of Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: N. Naga Subrahmanyeswara Rao, Parag Arvind Deshpande


Understanding nucleotide synthesis reaction of any organism is beneficial to know the growth of it as in Mycobacterium tuberculosis to design anti TB drug. One of the reactions of de novo pathway which takes place in all organisms was considered. The reaction takes places between phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate and orotate catalyzed by orotate phosphoribosyl transferase and divalent metal ion gives orotdine monophosphate, a nucleotide. All the reaction steps of three experimentally proposed mechanisms for this reaction were considered to develop kinetic rate expression. The model was validated using the data for four organisms. This model could successfully describe the kinetics for the reported data. The developed model can serve as a reliable model to describe the kinetics in new organisms without the need of mechanistic determination. So an organism-independent model was developed.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, Mechanism, nucleotide, organism

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9 Health Benefit and Mechanism from Green Open Space: A Pathway to Connect Health to Design and Planning

Authors: Rui Li, Ming Ma


In the highly urbanized district, green open space is playing an important role in human’s health and wellbeing as a physical, aesthetic and natural environment resources. The aim of this paper is to close this gap through providing a comprehensive, qualitative meta-analysis of existing studies related to this issue. A systematic scoping of current quantitative research is conducted which mostly focused on cross-sectional survey and experimental studies. Health benefits from contact with green open space could be categorized into physical health, psychological health and social wellbeing. Mechanism for the health related to green open space could be clearly identified with the regard to natural restoration, physical activities and social capital. These results indicate a multiple pathways framework between the health benefits and mechanism. In order to support design and planning, the most evident relationship was picked up that people could psychologically benefit from green open space through outdoors physical activities. Additionally, three design and planning strategies are put forward. Various and multi-level contacts with green open space would be considered as an explanation of the pathway results and tie to bridge the health to design and planning. There is a need to carry out long-term research emphasizing on causal relationship between health and green open space through excluding cofounding factors such as self-selection.

Keywords: Mechanism, Planning and Design, health benefit, urban green open space, pathway framework

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8 Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Some Amino Acids by Peroxodisulphate

Authors: Abdelmahmod Saad


In this study two amino acids were chosen (DL.alanine,DL.serine) to determine their effect on dissociation of S2O8-2 ino. As the reaction was very slow, Ag+ ino was used as a catalyst. The kinetics measurement showed that the reactions in both cases were found in the first order with respect to S2O8-2, half order with respect to Ag+ and zero order with respect to substrates. Mechanisms were proposed for these reactions according to the determined orders. The energy of activation (AE) was determined for each reaction, and was found to by 30.50 k JmoI-1 in case of DL. Serine and 24.40 k JmoI-1 in case of DL.alanine.

Keywords: Amino Acids, Mechanism, Oxidation, peroxodisulphate

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7 Aiding Water Flow in Irrigation Technology with a Pedal Operated Manual Pump

Authors: Isaac Ali Kwasu, Aje Tokan


The research was set to design a manually pedal operated water pump to aid water flow technology for irrigation activities for rural farmers. The development was carried out first by a prototype design to guide the fabrication. All items needed for the fabrication were used for the final product. The machine is operated manually by pedaling. This engages all the parts of the machine into active motion. Energy is generated and transfer finally to the pumping unit which is wired with plastic pipes. The pumping unit which is wired with PVC pipes, both linked to the water source and the reservoir respectively. The (rpm) revolution per minute of the machine is approximated at 3130 depending on the pedaling speed of the user. The machine does not have gear arrangement yet can give high (rpm) for effective performance. The pumping performance of the machine is 125 liters in one minute and can sustain small scale irrigation farming activities and to supplement water management system to sustain crop growth.

Keywords: Development, irrigation, Fabrication, Machine, steel, Mechanism, Pipe, prototype, chain, pump, manual, flywheel, sprocket, pulley, v belt, hub

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6 The Mechanism Study of Degradative Solvent Extraction of Biomass by Liquid Membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: W. Ketren, J. Wannapeera, Z. Heishun, A. Ryuichi, K. Toshiteru, M. Kouichi, O. Hideaki


Degradative solvent extraction is the method developed for biomass upgrading by dewatering and fractionation of biomass under the mild condition. However, the conversion mechanism of the degradative solvent extraction method has not been fully understood so far. The rice straw was treated in 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at a different solvent-treatment temperature varied from 250 to 350 oC with the residence time for 60 min. The liquid membrane-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technique is applied to study the processing mechanism in-depth without separation of the solvent. It has been found that the strength of the oxygen-hydrogen stretching  (3600-3100 cm-1) decreased slightly with increasing temperature in the range of 300-350 oC. The decrease of the hydroxyl group in the solvent soluble suggested dehydration reaction taking place between 300 and 350 oC. FTIR spectra in the carbonyl stretching region (1800-1600 cm-1) revealed the presence of esters groups, carboxylic acid and ketonic groups in the solvent-soluble of biomass. The carboxylic acid increased in the range of 200 to 250 oC and then decreased. The prevailing of aromatic groups showed that the aromatization took place during extraction at above 250 oC. From 300 to 350 oC, the carbonyl functional groups in the solvent-soluble noticeably decreased. The removal of the carboxylic acid and the decrease of esters into the form of carbon dioxide indicated that the decarboxylation reaction occurred during the extraction process.

Keywords: Mechanism, biomass waste, upgrading, degradative solvent extraction

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5 African Traditional Method of Social Control Mechanism: A Sociological Review of Native Charms in Farm Security in Ayetoro Community, Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Adebisi A. Sunday, Babajide Adeokin


The persistent rise in farm theft in rural region of Nigeria is attributed to the lack of adequate and effective policing in the regions; thus, this brought about the inevitable introduction of native charms on farmlands as a means of fortification of harvests against theft in Ayetoro community. The use of charm by farmers as security on farmlands is a traditional crime control mechanism that is largely based on unwritten laws which greatly influenced the lives of people, and their attitudes toward the society. This research presents a qualitative sociological study on how native charms are deployed by farmers for protection against theft. The study investigated the various types of charms that are employed as security measures among farmers in Ayetoro community and the rationale behind the use of these mechanisms as farm security. The study utilized qualitative method to gather data in the research process. Under the qualitative method, in-depth interview method was adopted to generate a robust and detailed data from the respondents. Also the data generated were analysed qualitatively using thematic content analysis and simple description which was preceded by transcription of data from the recorder. It was revealed that amidst numerous charms known, two major charms are used on farmlands as a measure of social control in Ayetoro community, Ogun state South West Nigeria. Furthermore, the result of this study showed that, the desire for safekeeping of harvest from pilferers and the heavy punishments dispense on offenders by native charms are the reasons why farmers deploy charms on their farms. In addition, findings revealed that the adoption of these charms for protection has improved yields among farmers in the community because the safety of harvest has been made possible by virtue of the presence of various charms in the farm lands. Therefore, based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that such measures should be recognized in mainstream social control mechanisms in the fight against crime in Nigeria and the rest of the world. Lastly, native charms could be installed in all social and cooperate organisation and position of authority to prevent theft of valuables and things hold with utmost importance.

Keywords: Mechanism, Ayetoro, farm theft, native charms, Pilferer

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4 Mechanism of Performance of Soil-Cement Columns under Shallow Foundations in Liquefiable Soil

Authors: Zaheer Ahmed Almani, Agha Faisal Habib Pathan, Aneel Kumar Hindu


In this study, the effects of ground reinforcement with stiff soil-cement columns on liquefiable ground and on the shallow foundation of structure were investigated. The modelling and analysis of shallow foundation of the structure founded on the composite reinforced ground were carried out with finite difference FLAC commercial software. The results showed that stiff columns were not effective to the redistribute the shear stresses in the composite ground, thus, were not effective to reduce shear stress and shear strain on the soil between the columns. The excessive pore pressure increase which is dependent on volumetric strain (contractive) tendency of loose sand upon shearing, was not reduced to a significant level that liquefaction potential could be remediated. Thus, mechanism of performance with reduction of pore pressure and consequent liquefaction was not predicted in numerical analysis. Nonetheless, the columns were effective to resist the load of structure in compression and reduced the liquefaction-induced large settlements of structure to tolerable limits when provided adjacent and beneath the pad of shallow foundation.

Keywords: Earthquake, Liquefaction, Mechanism, soil-cement columns

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3 The State Support to the Tourism Policy Formation Mechanism in Black Sea Basin Countries (Azerbaijan, Turkey, Russia, Georgia) and Its Impact on Sustainable Tourism Development

Authors: A. Bahar Ganiyeva, M. Sabuhi Tanriverdiyev


The article analyzes state support and policy mechanisms aimed at driving tourism as one of the vibrant and rapidly developing economies. State programs and long-range strategic roadmaps and previous programs execution, results and their impact on the particular countries economy have been raised during the research. This theme provides a useful framework for discussions with a wider range of stakeholders as the implications arising are of importance both for academics and practitioners engaged in hospitality and tourism development and research. The impact that tourism has on sustainable regional development in emerging markets is highly substantial. For Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia, and Russia, with their rich natural resources and cultural heritage, tourism can be an important basis for economic expansion, and a way to form an acceptable image of the countries as safe, open, hospitable, and complex.

Keywords: Tourism, hospitality, Sustainable Tourism, Economy, Growth, Policy Formation, Mechanism, destination, strategic roadmap, state support, state program

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2 An Impregnated Active Layer Mode of Solution Combustion Synthesis as a Tool for the Solution Combustion Mechanism Investigation

Authors: Zhanna Yermekova, Sergey Roslyakov


Solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is the unique method which multiple times has proved itself as an effective and efficient approach for the versatile synthesis of a variety of materials. It has significant advantages such as relatively simple handling process, high rates of product synthesis, mixing of the precursors on a molecular level, and fabrication of the nanoproducts as a result. Nowadays, an overwhelming majority of solution combustion investigations performed through the volume combustion synthesis (VCS) where the entire liquid precursor is heated until the combustion self-initiates throughout the volume. Less amount of the experiments devoted to the steady-state self-propagating mode of SCS. Under the beforementioned regime, the precursor solution is dried until the gel-like media, and later on, the gel substance is locally ignited. In such a case, a combustion wave propagates in a self-sustaining mode as in conventional solid combustion synthesis. Even less attention is given to the impregnated active layer (IAL) mode of solution combustion. An IAL approach to the synthesis is implying that the solution combustion of the precursors should be initiated on the surface of the third chemical or inside the third substance. This work is aiming to emphasize an underestimated role of the impregnated active layer mode of the solution combustion synthesis for the fundamental studies of the combustion mechanisms. It also serves the purpose of popularizing the technical terms and clarifying the difference between them. In order to do so, the solution combustion synthesis of γ-FeNi (PDF#47-1417) alloy has been accomplished within short (seconds) one-step reaction of metal precursors with hexamethylenetetramine (HTMA) fuel. An idea of the special role of the Ni in a process of alloy formation was suggested and confirmed with the particularly organized set of experiments. The first set of experiments were conducted in a conventional steady-state self-propagating mode of SCS. An alloy was synthesized as a single monophasic product. In two other experiments, the synthesis was divided into two independent processes which are possible under the IAL mode of solution combustion. The sequence of the process was changed according to the equations which are describing an Experiment A and B below: Experiment A: Step 1. Fe(NO₃)₃*9H₂O + HMTA = FeO + gas products; Step 2. FeO + Ni(NO₃)₂*6H₂O + HMTA = Ni + FeO + gas products; Experiment B: Step 1. Ni(NO₃)₂*6H₂O + HMTA = Ni + gas products; Step 2. Ni + Fe(NO₃)₃*9H₂O + HMTA = Fe₃Ni₂+ traces (Ni + FeO). Based on the IAL experiment results, one can see that combustion of the Fe(NO₃)₃9H₂O on the surface of the Ni is leading to the alloy formation while presence of the already formed FeO does not affect the Ni(NO₃)₂*6H₂O + HMTA reaction in any way and Ni is the main product of the synthesis.

Keywords: alloy, Mechanism, solution combustion synthesis, hexamethylenetetramine, impregnated active layer mode

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1 Further Study of Mechanism of Contrasting Charge Transport Properties for Phenyl and Thienyl Substituent Organic Semiconductors

Authors: Yanan Zhu


Based on the previous work about the influence mechanism of the mobility difference of phenyl and thienyl substituent semiconductors, we have made further exploration towards to design high-performance organic thin-film transistors. The substituent groups effect plays a significant role in materials properties and device performance as well. For the theoretical study, simulation of materials property and crystal packing can supply scientific guidance for materials synthesis in experiments. This time, we have taken the computational methods to design a new material substituent with furan groups, which are the potential to be used in organic thin-film transistors and organic single-crystal transistors. The reorganization energy has been calculated and much lower than 2,6-diphenyl anthracene (DPAnt), which performs large mobility as more than 30 cm²V⁻¹s⁻¹. Moreover, the other important parameter, charge transfer integral is larger than DPAnt, which suggested the furan substituent material may get a much better charge transport data. On the whole, the mechanism investigation based on phenyl and thienyl assisted in designing novel materials with furan substituent, which is predicted to be an outperformed organic field-effect transistors.

Keywords: Mobility, Mechanism, theoretical calculation, organic transistors

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