Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Mechanics Related Abstracts

7 Combining Laws of Mechanics and Hydrostatics in Non Inertial Reference Frames

Authors: M. Blokh


Method of combined teaching laws of classical mechanics and hydrostatics in non-inertial reference frames for undergraduate students is proposed. Pressure distribution in a liquid (or gas) moving with acceleration is considered. Combined effect of hydrostatic force and force of inertia on a body immersed in a liquid can lead to paradoxical results, in a motion of pendulum in particular. The body motion under Stokes force influence and forces in rotating reference frames are investigated as well. Problems and difficulties in student perceptions are analyzed.

Keywords: Teaching, Mechanics, Hydrodynamics, non-inertial reference frames

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6 Mechanical Properties of Biological Tissues

Authors: Young June Yoon


We will present four different topics in estimating the mechanical properties of biological tissues. First we elucidate the viscoelastic behavior of collagen molecules whose diameter is a couple of nanometers. By using the molecular dynamics simulation, we observed the viscoelastic behavior in different pulling velocity. Second, the protein layer, so called ‘sheath’ in enamel microstructure reduces the stress concentration in enamel minerals. We examined the result by using the finite element methods. Third, the anisotropic elastic constants of dentin are estimated by micromechanical analysis and estimated results are close to the experimentally measured data. Last, new formulation between the fabric tensor and the wave velocity is established for calcaneus by employing the poroelasticity. This formulation can be simply used for future experiments.

Keywords: Mechanics, Wave propagation, Mechanical Properties, Tissues

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5 Revising the Student Experiment Materials and Practices at the National University of Laos

Authors: Toshio Nagata, Syhalath Xaphakdy, Saykham Phommathat, Pavy Souwannavong, Vilayvanh Srithilat, Phoxay Sengdala, Bounaom Phetarnousone, Boualay Siharath, Xaya Chemcheng


The National University of Laos (NUOL) invited a group of volunteers from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) to revise the physics experiments to utilize the materials that were already available to students. The intension was to review and revise the materials regularly utilized in physics class. The project had access to limited materials and a small budget for the class in the unit; however, by developing experimental textbooks related to mechanics, electricity, and wave and vibration, the group found a way to apply them in the classroom and enhance the students teaching activities. The aim was to introduce a way to incorporate the materials and practices in the classroom to enhance the students learning and teaching skills, particularly when they graduate and begin working as high school teachers.

Keywords: Mechanics, Electricity, NUOL, JICA, physics experiment materials, small budget

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4 Adjustments of Mechanical and Hydraulic Properties of Wood Formed under Environmental Stresses

Authors: B. Niez, B. Moulia, J. Dlouha, E. Badel


Trees adjust their development to the environmental conditions they experience. Storms events of last decades showed that acclimation of trees to mechanical stresses due to wind is a very important process that allows the trees to sustain for long years. In the future, trees will experience new wind patterns, namely, more often strong winds and fewer daily moderate winds. Moreover, these patterns will go along with drought periods that may interact with the capacity of trees to adjust their growth to mechanical stresses due to wind. It is necessary to understand the mechanisms of wood functional acclimations to environmental conditions in order to predict their behaviour and in order to give foresters and breeders the relevant tools to adapt their forest management. This work aims to study how trees adjust the mechanical and hydraulic functions of their wood to environmental stresses and how this acclimation may be beneficial for the tree to resist to future stresses. In this work, young poplars were grown under controlled climatic conditions that include permanent environmental stress (daily mechanical stress of the stem by bending and/or hydric stress). Then, the properties of wood formed under these stressed conditions were characterized. First, hydraulic conductivity and sensibility to cavitation were measured at the tissue level in order to evaluate the changes in water transport capacity. Secondly, bending tests and Charpy impact tests were carried out at the millimetric scale to locally measure mechanical parameters such as elastic modulus, elastic limit or rupture energy. These experimental data allow evaluating the impacts of mechanical and water stress on the wood material. At the stem level, they will be merged in an integrative model in order to evaluate the beneficial aspect of wood acclimation for trees.

Keywords: Mechanics, Hydraulics, Wood, environmental stresses, acclimation

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3 Exploring the Difficulties of Acceleration Concept from the Perspective of Historical Textual Analysis

Authors: Yun-Ju Chiu, Feng-Yi Chen


Kinematics is the beginning to learn mechanics in physics course. The concept of acceleration plays an important role in learning kinematics. Teachers usually instruct the conception through the formulas and graphs of kinematics and the well-known law F = ma. However, over the past few decades, a lot of researchers reveal numerous students’ difficulties in learning acceleration. One of these difficulties is that students frequently confuse acceleration with velocity and force. Why is the concept of acceleration so difficult to learn? The aim of this study is to understand the conceptual evolution of acceleration through the historical textual analysis. Text analysis and one-to-one interviews with high school students and teachers are used in this study. This study finds the history of science constructed from textbooks is usually quite different from the real evolution of history. For example, most teachers and students believe that the best-known law F = ma was written down by Newton. The expression of the second law is not F = ma in Newton’s best-known book Principia in 1687. Even after more than one hundred years, a famous Cambridge textbook titled An Elementary Treatise on Mechanics by Whewell of Trinity College did not express this law as F = ma. At that time of Whewell, the early mid-nineteenth century Britain, the concept of acceleration was not only ambiguous but also confused with the concept of force. The process of learning the concept of acceleration is analogous to its conceptual development in history. The study from the perspective of historical textual analysis will promote the understanding of the concept learning difficulties, the development of professional physics teaching, and the improvement of the context of physics textbooks.

Keywords: Mechanics, textbooks, history of science, acceleration, misconception

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2 Computational Fluid Dynamic Investigation into the Relationship between Pressure and Velocity Distributions within a Microfluidic Feedback Oscillator

Authors: Zara L. Sheady


Fluidic oscillators are being utilised in an increasing number of applications in a wide variety of areas; these include on-board vehicle cleaning systems, flow separation control on aircraft and in fluidic circuitry. With this increased use, there is a further understanding required for the mechanics of the fluidics of the fluidic oscillator and why they work in the manner that they do. ANSYS CFX has been utilized to visualise the pressure and velocity within a microfluidic feedback oscillator. The images demonstrate how the pressure vortices build within the oscillator at the points where the velocity is diverted from linear motion through the oscillator. With an enhanced understanding of the pressure and velocity distributions within a fluidic oscillator, it will enable users of microfluidics to more greatly tailor fluidic nozzles to their specification.

Keywords: Mechanics, Relationship, Control, Pressure, velocity, ANSYS CFX, fluidic oscillators

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1 Adaptive Balancing for Low Speed Rotating Systems

Authors: Gurkan Karakaya, Caner Turker, Mete Anakli


Optical performance of vision systems such as a camera, is evaluated by using specially designed test equipment. This test equipment has a two-axis precise rotary stage (gimbal), which is used to orient Unit Under Test (UUT) accurately during tests. During the tests, the center of mass of the gimbal swing arm and UUT are positioned out of the rotating axis. Therefore, the off-axis payload creates a counter moment to the rotation direction. The elevation axis motor of the gimbal has to apply higher torque to drive and stabilize the system. Therefore, a balancing system is designed to reduce the applied moment on the elevation axis motor. In literature, systems such as robot arm manipulators, table lamps, and Dobsonian telescopes are balanced with the help of springs. However, these systems are balanced only for their working space. In this work, the system will be balanced for a full turn, 360 degrees. On the other hand, in this application, the acting moment on the electrical motor will be changed by different UUT and fixtures. Moreover, the preload on spring is changed with the help of a four-bar mechanism. There will be two possible methods for preloading the spring, which will be introduced, and the optimization of the balancing system will be carried out to minimize all moments created by off-axis weight.

Keywords: Mechanics, Adaptive, balancing, Gimbal, spring

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