Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

mechanical treatment Related Abstracts

3 Elaboration and Characterization of PVDF/TiO2 Nanocomposites

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, D. Benachour, S. Kridi

Abstract:

The aim of present work is to characterize the PVDF/TiO2 blends as nanocomposites, and study the effect of TiO2 on properties of different compositions and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the method used for filler treatment. Nanocomposite samples were synthesized by molten route in an internal mixer. The TiO2 nanoparticles were treated with stearic acid in order to obtain a good dispersion, and the demonstration of the effectiveness of the treatment on the morphology and roughness of the nanofiller was established by microstructural analysis by FTIR and AFM. The various developed nanocomposite compositions were characterized by different methods; i.e. FTIR, XRD, SEM and optical microscopy. Rheological, dielectric and mechanical studies were also performed. The results showed a remarkable increase in the crystallinity of the PVDF/neat TiO2 nanocomposite containing 1 wt% loading of filler, due to the nucleation effect of TiO2 nanoparticles. A good dispersion was obtained in PVDF/treated TiO2 nanocomposites. The rheological study showed an increase in the fluidity in all developed nanocomposite compositions, involved by the orientation of TiO2 nanoparticles in the flow direction. The dielectric study revealed an increase in electrical conductivity in PVDF/neat TiO2 nanocomposites. However, in PVDF/ treated TiO2 nanocomposites, the electrical conductivity was decreased by the addition of 0.5 and 2 wt% loading of filler.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, TiO2, PVDF, comixing, mechanical treatment

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2 Elaboration and Characterization of PP/TiO2 Composites

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, D. Benachour, S. Kridi

Abstract:

The aim of present work is to characterize the PP/TiO2 blends as composites, and study the effect of TiO2 on properties of different compositions and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the method used for filler treatment. Nanocomposite samples were synthesized by molten route in an internal mixer. The TiO2 nanoparticles were treated with stearic acid in order to obtain a good dispersion, and the demonstration of the effectiveness of the treatment on the morphology and roughness of the nanofiller was established by microstructural analysis by FTIR and AFM. The various developed nanocomposite compositions were characterized by different methods; i.e. FTIR, XRD, SEM and optical microscopy. Rheological, dielectric and mechanical studies were also performed. The results showed a remarkable increase in the impact strength results which increased about 39% compared to neat PP. The rheological study showed an increase in the fluidity in all developed composite compositions, involved by the good dispersion of TiO2 particles.

Keywords: Composites, TiO2, comixing, mechanical treatment

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1 Preliminary Flow Sheet for Recycling of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries

Authors: Mohammad Ali Rajaeifar, Oliver Heidrich

Abstract:

Nowadays, Li-ion batteries are vastly disseminated and the battery market is expected to experience a huge growth during next decade especially in terms of traction batteries. As the automotive industry moving towards the electrification of the powertrain, more raw/critical materials and energy are extracted while on the other hand, concerns are made regarding the scarcity of the materials as well as environmental issues regarding the destiny of the spent batteries. In this regards, recycling could play a vital role in the supply chain, leading reutilization of key battery materials and also reducing environmental burden related to the use of batteries. The aim of this paper is to review the previous and state-of-the-art treatments for recycling of Li-ion batteries. All the treatments method from mechanical, mild-thermal, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical as well as combined methods for recycling of Li-ion batteries were considered in the study. There are various treatment methods that are economical, but they are not environmentally friendly or vice versa. This is due to the fact that the benefits of the Li-ion batteries recycling could be affected by different factors such as the amount of spent batteries available, the quality of the recovered material, the energy and material consumption by the process itself and environmental burdens caused by required logistics. Finally, a preliminary work sheet of possible route for recycling of spent Li-ion batteries was presented through the course of this study. Overall, it is worth quoting that recycling processes generally consumes a great deal of energy and auxiliary materials. Moreover, the collection of spent products from waste streams represents additional environmental efforts. Therefore, developing and optimizing efficient collection and separation technologies is essential to achieve sustainability goals.

Keywords: Recycling, Li-ion batteries, mechanical treatment, hydrometallurgical treatment, mild-thermal treatment, pyrometallurgical treatment

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