Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

mechanical tests Related Abstracts

4 Production of Polyurethane Foams from Bark Wastes

Authors: Bruno Esteves, Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, Liliana Rodrigues, Idalina Domingos, José Ferreira, Luís Teixeira de Lemos


Currently, the polyurethanes industry is dependent on fossil resources to obtain their basic raw materials (polyols and isocyanate), as these are obtained from petroleum products. The aim of this work was to use biopolyols from liquefied Pseudotsuga (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) barks for the production of polyurethane foams and optimize the process. Liquefaction was done with glycerol catalyzed by KOH. Foams were produced following different formulations and using biopolyols from both barks. Subsequently, the foams were characterized according to their mechanical properties and the reaction of the foam formation was monitored by FTIR-ATR. The results show that it is possible to produce polyurethane foams using bio-based polyols and the liquefaction conditions are very important because they influence the characteristics of biopolyols and, consequently the characteristics of the foams. However, the process has to be further optimized so that it can obtain better quality foams.

Keywords: Renewable Resources, polyurethane foam, Bio-based polyol, mechanical tests, Pseudotsuga bark, Turkey oak bark

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3 Strength Performance and Microstructure Characteristics of Natural Bonded Fiber Composites from Malaysian Bamboo

Authors: Shahril Anuar Bahari, Mohd Azrie Mohd Kepli, Mohd Ariff Jamaludin, Kamarulzaman Nordin, Mohamad Jani Saad


Formaldehyde release from wood-based panel composites can be very toxicity and may increase the risk of human health as well as environmental problems. A new bio-composites product without synthetic adhesive or resin is possible to be developed in order to reduce these problems. Apart from formaldehyde release, adhesive is also considered to be expensive, especially in the manufacturing of composite products. Natural bonded composites can be termed as a panel product composed with any type of cellulosic materials without the addition of synthetic resins. It is composed with chemical content activation in the cellulosic materials. Pulp and paper making method (chemical pulping) was used as a general guide in the composites manufacturing. This method will also generally reduce the manufacturing cost and the risk of formaldehyde emission and has potential to be used as an alternative technology in fiber composites industries. In this study, the natural bonded bamboo fiber composite was produced from virgin Malaysian bamboo fiber (Bambusa vulgaris). The bamboo culms were chipped and digested into fiber using this pulping method. The black liquor collected from the pulping process was used as a natural binding agent in the composition. Then the fibers were mixed and blended with black liquor without any resin addition. The amount of black liquor used per composite board was 20%, with approximately 37% solid content. The composites were fabricated using a hot press machine at two different board densities, 850 and 950 kg/m³, with two sets of hot pressing time, 25 and 35 minutes. Samples of the composites from different densities and hot pressing times were tested in flexural strength and internal bonding (IB) for strength performance according to British Standard. Modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) was determined in flexural test, while tensile force perpendicular to the surface was recorded in IB test. Results show that the strength performance of the composites with 850 kg/m³ density were significantly higher than 950 kg/m³ density, especially for samples from 25 minutes hot pressing time. Strength performance of composites from 25 minutes hot pressing time were generally greater than 35 minutes. Results show that the maximum mean values of strength performance were recorded from composites with 850 kg/m³ density and 25 minutes pressing time. The maximum mean values for MOE, MOR and IB were 3251.84, 16.88 and 0.27 MPa, respectively. Only MOE result has conformed to high density fiberboard (HDF) standard (2700 MPa) in British Standard for Fiberboard Specification, BS EN 622-5: 2006. Microstructure characteristics of composites can also be related to the strength performance of the composites, in which, the observed fiber damage in composites from 950 kg/m³ density and overheat of black liquor led to the low strength properties, especially in IB test.

Keywords: black liquor, mechanical tests, bamboo fiber, natural bonded, microstructure observations

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2 Experimental Characterisation of Composite Panels for Railway Flooring

Authors: S. Dias, A. Coelho, F. Pedro, A. Tadeu, J. António, Ó. López


Railway transportation is considered the most economical and sustainable way to travel. However, future mobility brings important challenges to railway operators. The main target is to develop solutions that stimulate sustainable mobility. The research and innovation goals for this domain are efficient solutions, ensuring an increased level of safety and reliability, improved resource efficiency, high availability of the means (train), and satisfied passengers with the travel comfort level. These requirements are in line with the European Strategic Agenda for the 2020 rail sector, promoted by the European Rail Research Advisory Council (ERRAC). All these aspects involve redesigning current equipment and, in particular, the interior of the carriages. Recent studies have shown that two of the most important requirements for passengers are reasonable ticket prices and comfortable interiors. Passengers tend to use their travel time to rest or to work, so train interiors and their systems need to incorporate features that meet these requirements. Among the various systems that integrate train interiors, the flooring system is one of the systems with the greatest impact on passenger safety and comfort. It is also one of the systems that takes more time to install on the train, and which contributes seriously to the weight (mass) of all interior systems. Additionally, it presents a strong impact on manufacturing costs. The design of railway floor, in the development phase, is usually made relying on a design software that allows to draw and calculate several solutions in a short period of time. After obtaining the best solution, considering the goals previously defined, experimental data is always necessary and required. This experimental phase has such great significance, that its outcome can provoke the revision of the designed solution. This paper presents the methodology and some of the results of an experimental characterisation of composite panels for railway application. The mechanical tests were made for unaged specimens and for specimens that suffered some type of aging, i.e. heat, cold and humidity cycles or freezing/thawing cycles. These conditionings aim to simulate not only the time effect, but also the impact of severe environmental conditions. Both full solutions and separated components/materials were tested. For the full solution, (panel) these were: four-point bending tests, tensile shear strength, tensile strength perpendicular to the plane, determination of the spreading of water, and impact tests. For individual characterisation of the components, more specifically for the covering, the following tests were made: determination of the tensile stress-strain properties, determination of flexibility, determination of tear strength, peel test, tensile shear strength test, adhesion resistance test and dimensional stability. The main conclusions were that experimental characterisation brings a huge contribution to understand the behaviour of the materials both individually and assembled. This knowledge contributes to the increase the quality and improvements of premium solutions. This research work was framed within the POCI-01-0247-FEDER-003474 (coMMUTe) Project funded by Portugal 2020 through the COMPETE 2020.

Keywords: Durability, Experimental Characterization, mechanical tests, railway flooring system

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1 Experimentation and Analysis of Reinforced Basalt and Carbon Fibres Composite Laminate Mechanical Properties

Authors: Vara Prasad Vemu


The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties and water absorption capacity of carbon and basalt fibers mixed with matrix epoxy. At present, there is demand for nature friendly products. Basalt reinforced composites developed recently, and these mineral amorphous fibres are a valid alternative to carbon fibres for their lower cost and to glass fibres for their strength. The present paper describes briefly on basalt and carbon fibres (uni-directional) which are used as reinforcement materials for composites. The matrix epoxy (LY 556-HY 951) is taken into account to assess its influence on the evaluated parameters. In order to use reinforced composites for structural applications, it is necessary to perform a mechanical characterization. With this aim experiments like tensile strength, flexural strength, hardness and water absorption are performed. Later the mechanical properties obtained from experiments are compared with ANSYS software results.

Keywords: reinforcement, Carbon Fibre, ANSYS, mechanical tests, basalt fibre, uni-directional, water absorption test

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