Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Mechanical testing Related Abstracts

9 Development of a New Method for T-Joint Specimens Testing under Shear Loading

Authors: Radek Doubrava, Roman Růžek


Nonstandard tests are necessary for analyses and verification of new developed structural and technological solutions with application of composite materials. One of the most critical primary structural parts of a typical aerospace structure is T-joint. This structural element is loaded mainly in shear, bending, peel and tension. The paper is focused on the shear loading simulations. The aim of the work is to obtain a representative uniform distribution of shear loads along T-joint during the mechanical testing is. A new design of T-joint test procedure, numerical simulation and optimization of representative boundary conditions are presented. The different conditions and inaccuracies both in simulations and experiments are discussed. The influence of different parameters on stress and strain distributions is demonstrated on T-joint made of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic). A special test rig designed by VZLU (Aerospace Research and Test Establishment) for T-shear test procedure is presented.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Methodology, Composite, Mechanical testing, shear, t-joint

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8 Mechanical Behavior of Corroded RC Beams Strengthened by NSM CFRP Rods

Authors: Belal Almassri, Amjad Kreit, Firas Al Mahmoud, Raoul François


Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete leads to several major defects. Firstly, a reduction in the crosssectional area of the reinforcement and in its ductility results in premature bar failure. Secondly, the expansion of the corrosion products causes concrete cracking and steel–concrete bond deterioration and also affects the bending stiffness of the reinforced concrete members, causing a reduction in the overall load-bearing capacity of the reinforced concrete beams. This paper investigates the validity of a repair technique using Near Surface Mounted (NSM) carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) rods to restore the mechanical performance of corrosion-damaged RC beams. In the NSM technique, the CFRP rods are placed inside pre-cut grooves and are bonded to the concrete with epoxy adhesive. Experimental results were obtained on two beams: a corroded beam that had been exposed to natural corrosion for 25 years and a control beam, (both are 3 m long) repaired in bending only. Each beam was repaired with one 6-mm-diameter NSM CFRP rod. The beams were tested in a three-point bending test up to failure. Overall stiffness and crack maps were studied before and after the repair. Ultimate capacity, ductility and failure mode were also reviewed. Finally some comparisons were made between repaired and non-repaired beams in order to assess the effectiveness of the NSM technique. The experimental results showed that the NSM technique improved the overall characteristics (ultimate load capacity and stiffness) of the control and corroded beams and allowed sufficient ductility to be restored to the repaired corroded elements, thus restoring the safety margin, despite the non-classical mode of failure that occurred in the corroded beam, with the separation of the concrete cover due to corrosion products.

Keywords: Corrosion, Mechanical testing, Strength, Carbon Fibre

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7 Mechanical Testing on Bioplastics Obtained from Banana and Potato Peels in the City of Bogotá, Colombia

Authors: Alexander García Mariaca, Juan Eduardo Rolon Rios, Fredy Alejandro Orjuela


For banana and potato wastes, their peels are processed in order to make animal food with the condition that those wastes must not have started the decomposition process. One alternative to taking advantage of those wastes is to obtain a bioplastic based on starch from banana and potato shells. These products are 100% biodegradables, and researchers have been studying them for different applications, helping in the reduction of organic wastes and ordinary plastic wastes. Without petroleum affecting the prices of bioplastics, bioplastics market has a growing tendency and it is seen that it can keep this tendency in the medium term up to 350%. In this work, it will be shown the results for elasticity module and percent elongation for bioplastics obtained from a mixture of starch of bananas and potatoes peels, with glycerol as plasticizer. The experimental variables were the plasticizer percentage and the mixture between banana starch and potato starch. The results show that the bioplastics obtained can be used in different applications such as plastic bags or sorbets, verifying their admissible degradation percentages for each one of these applications. The results also show that they agree with the data found in the literature due to the fact that mixtures with a major amount of potato starch had the best mechanical properties because of the potato starch characteristics.

Keywords: Bioplastics, Mechanical testing, Mechanical Properties, fruit waste

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6 Non Destructive Testing for Evaluation of Defects and Interfaces in Metal Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrids

Authors: H.-G. Herrmann, M. Schwarz, J. Summa, F. Grossmann


In this work, different non-destructive testing methods for the characterization of defects and interfaces are presented. It is shown that, by means of active thermography, defects in the interface and in the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) itself can be detected and determined. The bonding of metal and thermoplastic can be characterized very well by ultrasonic testing with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). Mechanical testing is combined with passive thermography to correlate mechanical values with the defect-size. There is also a comparison between active and passive thermography. Mechanical testing shows the influence of different defects. Furthermore, a correlation of defect-size and loading to rupture was performed.


Keywords: Mechanical testing, thermography, EMAT, defect evaluation

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5 An Analysis of Packaging Materials for an Energy-Efficient Wrapping System

Authors: John Sweeney, Martin Leeming, Raj Thaker, Cristina L. Tuinea-Bobe


Shrink wrapping is widely used as a method for secondary packaging to assemble individual items, such as cans or other consumer products, into single packages. This method involves conveying the packages into heated tunnels and so has the disadvantages that it is energy-intensive, and, in the case of aerosol products, potentially hazardous. We are developing an automated packaging system that uses stretch wrapping to address both these problems, by using a mechanical rather than a thermal process. In this study, we present a comparative study of shrink wrapping and stretch wrapping materials to assess the relative capability of candidate stretch wrap polymer film in terms of mechanical response. The stretch wrap materials are of oriented polymer and therefore elastically anisotropic. We are developing material constitutive models that include both anisotropy and nonlinearity. These material models are to be incorporated into computer simulations of the automated stretch wrapping system. We present results showing the validity of these models and the feasibility of applying them in the simulations.

Keywords: Polymer, Mechanical testing, constitutive model, wrapping system

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4 Computational Modeling of Load Limits of Carbon Fibre Composite Laminates Subjected to Low-Velocity Impact Utilizing Convolution-Based Fast Fourier Data Filtering Algorithms

Authors: Umar Farooq, Farhat Imtiaz


In this work, we developed a computational model to predict ply level failure in impacted composite laminates. Data obtained from physical testing from flat and round nose impacts of 8-, 16-, 24-ply laminates were considered. Routine inspections of the tested laminates were carried out to approximate ply by ply inflicted damage incurred. Plots consisting of load–time, load–deflection, and energy–time history were drawn to approximate the inflicted damages. Impact test generated unwanted data logged due to restrictions on testing and logging systems were also filtered. Conventional filters (built-in, statistical, and numerical) reliably predicted load thresholds for relatively thin laminates such as eight and sixteen ply panels. However, for relatively thick laminates such as twenty-four ply laminates impacted by flat nose impact generated clipped data which can just be de-noised using oscillatory algorithms. The literature search reveals that modern oscillatory data filtering and extrapolation algorithms have scarcely been utilized. This investigation reports applications of filtering and extrapolation of the clipped data utilising fast Fourier Convolution algorithm to predict load thresholds. Some of the results were related to the impact-induced damage areas identified with Ultrasonic C-scans and found to be in acceptable agreement. Based on consistent findings, utilizing of modern data filtering and extrapolation algorithms to data logged by the existing machines has efficiently enhanced data interpretations without resorting to extra resources. The algorithms could be useful for impact-induced damage approximations of similar cases.

Keywords: Mechanical testing, fibre reinforced laminates, fast Fourier algorithms, data filtering and extrapolation

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3 Optimisation of Nitrogen as a Protective Gas via the Alternating Shielding Gas Technique in the Gas Metal Arc Welding Process

Authors: M. P. E. E Silva, A. M. Galloway, A. I. Toumpis


An increasing concern exists in the welding industry in terms of faster joining processes. Methods such as the alternation between shielding gases such Ar, CO₂ and He have been able to provide improved penetration of the joint, reduced heat transfer to the workpiece, and increased travel speeds of the welding torch. Nitrogen as a shielding gas is not desirable due to its reactive behavior within the arc plasma, being absorbed by the molten pool during the welding process. Below certain amounts, nitrogen is not harmful. However, the nitrogen threshold is reduced during the solidification of the joint, and if its subsequent desorption is not completed on time, gas entrapment and blowhole formation may occur. The present study expanded the use of the alternating shielding gas method in the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process by alternately supplying Ar/5%N₂ and He. Improvements were introduced in terms of joint strength and grain refinement. Microstructural characterization findings showed porosity-free welds with reduced inclusion formation while mechanical tests such as tensile and bend tests confirmed the reinforcement of the joint by the addition of nitrogen. Additionally, significant reductions of the final distortion of the workpiece were found after the welding procedure as well as decreased heat affected zones and temperatures of the weld.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Mechanical testing, porosity, grain refinement, GMAW, alternating shielding gas method

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2 Influence of Temperature and Immersion on the Behavior of a Polymer Composite

Authors: Quentin C.P. Bourgogne, Vanessa Bouchart, Pierre Chevrier, Emmanuel Dattoli


This study presents an experimental and theoretical work conducted on a PolyPhenylene Sulfide reinforced with 40%wt of short glass fibers (PPS GF40) and its matrix. Thermoplastics are widely used in the automotive industry to lightweight automotive parts. The replacement of metallic parts by thermoplastics is reaching under-the-hood parts, near the engine. In this area, the parts are subjected to high temperatures and are immersed in cooling liquid. This liquid is composed of water and glycol and can affect the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this work was thus to quantify the evolution of mechanical properties of the thermoplastic composite, as a function of temperature and liquid aging effects, in order to develop a reliable design of parts. An experimental campaign in the tensile mode was carried out at different temperatures and for various glycol proportions in the cooling liquid, for monotonic and cyclic loadings on a neat and a reinforced PPS. The results of these tests allowed to highlight some of the main physical phenomena occurring during these solicitations under tough hydro-thermal conditions. Indeed, the performed tests showed that temperature and liquid cooling aging can affect the mechanical behavior of the material in several ways. The more the cooling liquid contains water, the more the mechanical behavior is affected. It was observed that PPS showed a higher sensitivity to absorption than to chemical aggressiveness of the cooling liquid, explaining this dominant sensitivity. Two kinds of behaviors were noted: an elasto-plastic type under the glass transition temperature and a visco-pseudo-plastic one above it. It was also shown that viscosity is the leading phenomenon above the glass transition temperature for the PPS and could also be important under this temperature, mostly under cyclic conditions and when the stress rate is low. Finally, it was observed that soliciting this composite at high temperatures is decreasing the advantages of the presence of fibers. A new phenomenological model was then built to take into account these experimental observations. This new model allowed the prediction of the evolution of mechanical properties as a function of the loading environment, with a reduced number of parameters compared to precedent studies. It was also shown that the presented approach enables the description and the prediction of the mechanical response with very good accuracy (2% of average error at worst), over a wide range of hydrothermal conditions. A temperature-humidity equivalence principle was underlined for the PPS, allowing the consideration of aging effects within the proposed model. Then, a limit of improvement of the reachable accuracy was determinate for all models using this set of data by the application of an artificial intelligence-based model allowing a comparison between artificial intelligence-based models and phenomenological based ones.

Keywords: Aging, Mechanical testing, polymer matrix composites, Analytical Modeling, thermomechanical, sequential model

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1 The Effect of Composite Hybridization on the Back Face Deformation of Armor Plates

Authors: Attef Kouadria, Yehya Bouteghrine, Amar Manaa, Tarek Mouats, Djalel Eddine Tria, Hamid Abdelhafid Ghouti


Personal protection systems have been used in several forms for centuries. The need for light-weight composite structures has been in great demand due to their weight and high mechanical properties ratios in comparison to heavy and cumbersome steel plates. In this regard, lighter ceramic plates with a backing plate made of high strength polymeric fibers, mostly aramids, are widely used for protection against ballistic threats. This study aims to improve the ballistic performance of ceramic/composite plates subjected to ballistic impact by reducing the back face deformation (BFD) measured after each test. A new hybridization technique was developed in this investigation to increase the energy absorption capabilities of the backing plates. The hybridization consists of combining different types of aramid fabrics with different linear densities of aramid fibers (Dtex) and areal densities with an epoxy resin to form the backing plate. Therefore, several composite structures architectures were prepared and tested. For better understanding the effect of the hybridization, a serial of tensile, compression, and shear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of the homogeneous composite materials prepared from different fabrics. It was found that the hybridization allows the backing plate to combine between the mechanical properties of the used fabrics. Aramid fabrics with higher Dtex were found to increase the mechanical strength of the backing plate, while those with lower Dtex found to enhance the lateral wave dispersion ratio due to their lower areal density. Therefore, the back face deformation was significantly reduced in comparison to a homogeneous composite plate.

Keywords: Composite, Mechanical testing, Ballistic Impact, aramid fabric, body armor, back face deformation

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