Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Mechanical Strength Related Abstracts

19 The Use of Seashell by-Products in Pervious Concrete Pavers

Authors: Dang Hanh Nguyen, Nassim Sebaibi, Mohamed Boutouil, Lydia Leleyter, Fabienne Baraud

Abstract:

Pervious concrete is a green alternative to conventional pavements with minimal fine aggregate and a high void content. Pervious concrete allows water to infiltrate through the pavement, thereby reducing the runoff and the requirement for stormwater management systems. Seashell By-Products (SBP) are produced in an important quantity in France and are considered as waste. This work investigated to use SBP in pervious concrete and produce an even more environmentally friendly product, Pervious Concrete Pavers. The research methodology involved substituting the coarse aggregate in the previous concrete mix design with 20%, 40% and 60% SBP. The testing showed that pervious concrete containing less than 40% SBP had strengths, permeability and void content which are comparable to the pervious concrete containing with only natural aggregate. The samples that contained 40% SBP or higher had a significant loss in strength and an increase in permeability and a void content from the control mix pervious concrete. On the basis of the results in this research, it was found that the natural aggregate can be substituted by SBP without affecting the delicate balance of a pervious concrete mix. Additional, it is recommended that the optimum replacement percentage for SBP in pervious concrete is 40 % direct replacement of natural coarse aggregate while maintaining the structural performance and drainage capabilities of the pervious concrete.

Keywords: Permeability, Mechanical Strength, seashell by-products, pervious concrete pavers

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18 Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Limestone in the Quarry of Meftah (Algeria)

Authors: Khaled Benyounes

Abstract:

Determination of the rock mechanical properties such as unconfined compressive strength UCS, Young’s modulus E, and tensile strength by the Brazilian test Rtb is considered to be the most important component in drilling and mining engineering project. Research related to establishing correlation between strength and physical parameters of rocks has always been of interest to mining and reservoir engineering. For this, many rock blocks of limestone were collected from the quarry located in Meftah (Algeria), the cores were crafted in the laboratory using a core drill. This work examines the relationships between mechanical properties and some physical properties of limestone. Many empirical equations are established between UCS and physical properties of limestone (such as dry bulk density, velocity of P-waves, dynamic Young’s modulus, alteration index, and total porosity). Other correlations, UCS - tensile strength, dynamic Young’s modulus - static Young’s modulus have been find. Based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, we were able to establish mathematical relationships that will allow estimating the cohesion and internal friction angle from UCS and indirect tensile strength. Results from this study can be useful for mining industry for resolve range of geomechanical problems such as slope stability.

Keywords: Mechanical Strength, porosity, limestone, Young’s modulus

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17 Behavior of Polymeric Mortars: An Analysis from the Point of View of Application in Severe Conditions

Authors: J. P. Gorninski, J. M. L. Reis

Abstract:

This present work was aimed to develop polymeric mortars having as binder two polyester resins namely isophtalic and orthophtalic polyester. The inorganic phase was composed by medium-size river sand and fly ash fíller, a by-product of the burning of coal in power plants. The compositions in this study are high performance mortars and were assessed by mechanical properties, through compressive strength and flexural strength, by durability strength when exposed to the cyclical variation of temperature from -400C to +300C and by the chemical aggression test. The composites displayed good performance when exposed to cyclical temperature variations and chemical solutions. The mechanical strength values reached the 100 MPa, the flexural strength yielded values of about twenty percent of mechanical strength.

Keywords: Sustainability, Mechanical Strength, polymer mortar, cyclical temperatures, chemical strength

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16 Recycling of Aggregates from Construction Demolition Wastes in Concrete: Study of Physical and Mechanical Properties

Authors: B. Safi, M. Saidi, M. Samar, F. Ait Medjber

Abstract:

This work is focused on the study of valuation of recycled concrete aggregates, by measuring certain properties of concrete in the fresh and hardened state. In this study, rheological tests and physic-mechanical characterization on concretes and mortars were conducted with recycled concrete whose geometric properties were identified aggregates. Mortars were elaborated with recycled fine aggregate (0/5mm) and concretes were manufactured using recycled coarse aggregates (5/12.5 mm and 12.5/20 mm). First, a study of the mortars was conducted to determine the effectiveness of adjuvant polycarboxylate superplasticizer on the workability of these and their action deflocculating of the fine recycled sand. The rheological behavior of mortars based on fine aggregate recycled was characterized. The results confirm that the mortars composed of different fractions of recycled sand (0/5) have a better mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strength) compared to normal mortar. Also, the mechanical strengths of concretes made with recycled aggregates (5/12.5 mm and 12.5/20 mm), are comparable to those of conventional concrete with conventional aggregates, provided that the implementation can be improved by the addition of a superplasticizer.

Keywords: Concrete, Mechanical Strength, workability, demolition wastes, recycled coarse aggregate, porosity/water absorption

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15 Influence of Physical Properties on Estimation of Mechanical Strength of Limestone

Authors: Khaled Benyounes

Abstract:

Determination of the rock mechanical properties such as unconfined compressive strength UCS, Young’s modulus E, and tensile strength by the Brazilian test Rtb is considered to be the most important component in drilling and mining engineering project. Research related to establishing correlation between strength and physical parameters of rocks has always been of interest to mining and reservoir engineering. For this, many rock blocks of limestone were collected from the quarry located in Meftah(Algeria), the cores were crafted in the laboratory using a core drill. This work examines the relationships between mechanical properties and some physical properties of limestone. Many empirical equations are established between UCS and physical properties of limestone (such as dry bulk density, velocity of P-waves, dynamic Young’s modulus, alteration index, and total porosity). Others correlations UCS-tensile strength, dynamic Young’s modulus-static Young’s modulus have been find. Based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, we were able to establish mathematical relationships that will allow estimating the cohesion and internal friction angle from UCS and indirect tensile strength. Results from this study can be useful for mining industry for resolve range of geomechanical problems such as slope stability.

Keywords: Mechanical Strength, porosity, limestone, Young’s modulus

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14 Study of the Performances of an Environmental Concrete Based on Recycled Aggregates and Marble Waste Fillers Addition

Authors: Larbi Belagraa, Miloud Beddar, Abderrazak Bouzid

Abstract:

The needs of the construction sector still increasing for concrete. However, the shortage of natural resources of aggregate could be a problem for the concrete industry, in addition to the negative impact on the environment due to the demolition wastes. Recycling aggregate from construction and demolition (C&D) waste presents a major interest for users and researchers of concrete since this constituent can occupies more than 70% of concrete volume. The aim of the study here in is to assess the effect of sulfate resistant cement combined with the local mineral addition of marble waste fillers on the mechanical behavior of a recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). Physical and mechanical properties of RAC including the density, the flexural and the compressive strength were studied. The non destructive test methods (pulse-velocity, rebound hammer) were performed . The results obtained were compared to crushed aggregate concrete (CAC) using the normal compressive testing machine test method. The optimal content of 5% marble fillers showed an improvement for both used test methods (compression, flexion and NDT). Non-destructive methods (ultrasonic and rebound hammer test) can be used to assess the strength of RAC, but a correction coefficient is required to obtain a similar value to the compressive strength given by the compression tests. The study emphasizes that these waste materials can be successfully and economically utilized as additional inert filler in RAC formulation within similar performances compared to a conventional concrete.

Keywords: Mechanical Strength, marble waste fillers, natural aggregate, non-destructive testing (NDT), recycled aggregate concrete

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13 Characterization of Cement Mortar Based on Fine Quartz

Authors: K. Arroudj, M. Lanez, M. N. Oudjit

Abstract:

The introduction of siliceous mineral additions in cement production allows, in addition to the ecological and economic gain, improvement of concrete performance. This improvement is mainly due to the fixing of Portlandite, released during the hydration of cement, by fine siliceous, forming denser calcium silicate hydrates and therefore a more compact cementitious matrix. This research is part of the valuation of the Dune Sand (DS) in the cement industry in Algeria. The high silica content of DS motivated us to study its effect, at ground state, on the properties of mortars in fresh and hardened state. For this purpose, cement pastes and mortars based on ground dune sand (fine quartz) has been analyzed with a replacement to cement of 15%, 20% and 25%. This substitution has reduced the amount of heat of hydration and avoids any risk of initial cracking. In addition, the grinding of the dune sand provides amorphous thin populations adsorbed at the surface of the crystal particles of quartz. Which gives to ground quartz pozzolanic character. This character results an improvement of mechanical strength of mortar (66 MPa in the presence of 25% of ground quartz).

Keywords: Mechanical Strength, quartz, mineralogical structure, pozzolanic reactivity

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12 Microstructural Interactions of Ag and Sc Alloying Additions during Casting and Artificial Ageing to a T6 Temper in a A356 Aluminium Alloy

Authors: Dimitrios Bakavos, Dimitrios Tsivoulas, Chaowalit Limmaneevichitr

Abstract:

Aluminium cast alloys, of the Al-Si system, are widely used for shape castings. Their microstructures can be further improved on one hand, by alloying modification and on the other, by optimised artificial ageing. In this project four hypoeutectic Al-alloys, the A356, A356+ Ag, A356+Sc, and A356+Ag+Sc have been studied. The interactions of Ag and Sc during solidification and artificial ageing at 170°C to a T6 temper have been investigated in details. The evolution of the eutectic microstructure is studied by thermal analysis and interrupted solidification. The ageing kinetics of the alloys has been identified by hardness measurements. The precipitate phases, number density, and chemical composition has been analysed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EDS analysis. Furthermore, the SHT effect onto the Si eutectic particles for the four alloys has been investigated by means of optical microscopy, image analysis, and the UTS strength has been compared with the UTS of the alloys after casting. The results suggest that the Ag additions, significantly enhance the ageing kinetics of the A356 alloy. The formation of β” precipitates were kinetically accelerated and an increase of 8% and 5% in peak hardness strength has been observed compared to the base A356 and A356-Sc alloy. The EDS analysis demonstrates that Ag is present on the β” precipitate composition. After prolonged ageing 100 hours at 170°C, the A356-Ag exhibits 17% higher hardness strength compared to the other three alloys. During solidification, Sc additions change the macroscopic eutectic growth mode to the propagation of a defined eutectic front from the mold walls opposite to the heat flux direction. In contrast, Ag has no significance effect on the solidification mode revealing a macroscopic eutectic growth similar to A356 base alloy. However, the mechanical strength of the as cast A356-Ag, A356-Sc, and A356+Ag+Sc additions has increased by 5, 30, and 35 MPa, respectively. The outcome is a tribute to the refining of the eutectic Si that takes place which it is strong in the A356-Sc alloy and more profound when silver and scandium has been combined. Moreover after SHT the Al alloy with the highest mechanical strength, is the one with Ag additions, in contrast to the as-cast condition where the Sc and Sc+Ag alloy was the strongest. The increase of strength is mainly attributed to the dissolution of grain boundary precipitates the increase of the solute content into the matrix, the spherodisation, and coarsening of the eutectic Si. Therefore, we could safely conclude for an A356 hypoeutectic alloy additions of: Ag exhibits a refining effect on the Si eutectic which is improved when is combined with Sc. In addition Ag enhance, the ageing kinetics increases the hardness and retains its strength at prolonged artificial ageing in a Al-7Si 0.3Mg hypoeutectic alloy. Finally the addition of Sc is beneficial due to the refinement of the α-Al grain and modification-refinement of the eutectic Si increasing the strength of the as-cast product.

Keywords: Ageing, Casting, Mechanical Strength, precipitates

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11 Effect of Powder Shape on Physical Properties of Porous Coatings

Authors: M. Moayeri, A. Kaflou

Abstract:

Decreasing the size of heat exchangers in industries is favorable due to a reduction in the initial costs and maintenance. This can be achieved generally by increasing the heat transfer coefficient, which can be done by increasing tube surface by passive methods named “porous coat”. Since these coatings are often in contact with the fluid, mechanical strength of coatings should be considered as main concept beside permeability and porosity in design, especially in high velocity services. Powder shape affected mechanical property more than other factors. So in this study, the Copper powder with three different shapes (spherical, dendritic and irregular) was coated on Cu-Ni base metal with thickness of ~300µm in a reduction atmosphere (5% H2-N2) and programmable furnace. The morphology and physical properties of coatings, such as porosity, permeability and mechanical strength were investigated. Results show although irregular particle have maximum porosity and permeability but strength level close to spherical powder, in addition, mentioned particle has low production cost, so for creating porous coats in high velocity services these powder recommended.

Keywords: Permeability, Mechanical Strength, porosity, porous coat

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10 Performance of Self-Compacting Mortars Containing Foam Glass Granulate

Authors: Brahim Safi, Djamila Aboutaleb, Mohammed Saidi, Abdelbaki Benmounah, Fahima Benbrahim

Abstract:

The inorganic wastes are currently used in the manufacture of concretes as mineral additions by cement substitution or as fine/coarse aggregates by replacing traditional aggregates. In this respect, this study aims to valorize the mineral wastes in particular glass wastes to produce granulated foam glass (as fine aggregates). Granulated foam glasses (GFG) were prepared from the glass powder (glass cullet) and foaming agent (limestone) according to applied manufacturing of GFG (at a heat treatment 850 ° C for 20min). After, self-compacting mortars were elaborated with fine aggregate (sand) and other variant mortars with granulated foam glass at volume ratio (0, 30, 50 and 100 %). Rheological characterization tests (fluidity) and physic-mechanical (density, porosity /absorption of water and mechanical tests) were carried out on studied mortars. The results obtained show that a slightly decreasing of compressive strength of mortars having lightness very important for building construction.

Keywords: Density, Mechanical Strength, mortar, lightweight aggregate, fluidity, glass wastes

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9 Development of Light-Weight Refractory Bricks

Authors: Liaqat Ali, Furqan Ahmad

Abstract:

The heat losses should be controlled during the high temperature processes from energy conservation point of view. For this purpose, refractories with low thermal conductivity, high porosity and good mechanical strength along with low price are desirable. In this work, various combinations of naturally occurring, locally available, cheap raw materials, namely, clay, rice husk and saw dust were used. Locally produced insulating firebricks (IFBs) cannot be used at higher than a few hundred °C and possess low strength as well. Various process parameters were studied and the refractories with desirable properties were produced, which can be used up to 1200 °C.

Keywords: Thermal Conductivity, Mechanical Strength, refractory bricks, firebricks

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8 Fabrication of 3D Scaffold Consisting of Spiral-Like Micro-Sized PCL Struts and Selectively Deposited Nanofibers as a Tissue Regenerative Material

Authors: Jaeyoon Lee, MyungGu Yeo, JongHan Ha, Gi-Hoon Yang, SeungHyun Ahn, Hyeongjin Lee, HoJun Jeon, YongBok Kim, Minseong Kim, GeunHyung Kim

Abstract:

Tissue engineering scaffolds must be biocompatible and biodegradable, provide adequate mechanical strength and cell attachment site for proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, the scaffold morphology (such as pore size, porosity and pore interconnectivity) plays an important role. The electrospinning process has been widely used to fabricate micro/nano-sized fibres. Electrospinning allows for the fabrication of non-woven meshes containing micro- to nano-sized fibers providing high surface-to-volume area for cell attachment. Due to its advantageous characteristics, electrospinning is a useful method for skin, cartilage, bone, and nerve regeneration. In this study, we fabricated PCL scaffolds (SP) consisting of spiral-like struts using 3D melt-plotting system and micro/nanofibers using direct electrospinning writing. By altering the conditions of the conventional melt-plotting method, spiral-like struts were generated. Then, micro/nanofibers were deposited selectively. The control scaffold composed of perpendicular PCL struts was fabricated using the conventional melt-plotting method to compare the cellular activities. The effect on the attached cells (osteoblast-like cells (MG63)) was evaluated depending on the bending instability of the struts. The SP scaffolds showed enhanced biological properties such as initial cell attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that the SP scaffolds has potential as a bioengineered substitute for soft and hard tissue regeneration.

Keywords: Electrospinning, Mechanical Strength, cell attachment, melt-plotting

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7 Study of the Thermomechanical Behavior of a Concrete Element

Authors: Douhi Reda Bouabdellah, Khalafi Hamid, Belamri Samir

Abstract:

The desire to improve the safety of nuclear reactor containment has revealed the need for data on the thermo mechanical behavior of concrete in case of accident during which the concrete is exposed to high temperatures. The aim of the present work is to study the influence of high temperature on the behavior of ordinary concrete specimens loaded by an effort of compression. A thermal model is developed by discretization volume elements (CASTEM). The results of different simulations, combined with other findings help to bring a physical phenomenon explanation Thermo mechanical concrete structures, which allowed to obtain the variation of the stresses anywhere in point or node and each subsequent temperature different directions X, Y and Z.

Keywords: Concrete, Mechanical Strength, thermic-gradient, fire resistant, simulation by CASTEM

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6 Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Cement Based Mortars Containing Two Biopolymers

Authors: Z. Abdollahnejad, M. Kheradmand, F. Pacheco-Torgal

Abstract:

The use of bio-based admixtures on construction materials is a recent trend that is gaining momentum. However, to our knowledge, no studies have been reported concerning the use of biopolymers on hybrid cement based mortars. This paper reports experimental results regarding the study of the influence of mix design of 43 hybrid cement mortars containing two different biopolymers on its mechanical performance. The results show that the use of the biopolymer carrageenan is much more effective than the biopolymer xanthan concerning the increase in compressive strength. An optimum biopolymer content was found.

Keywords: Biopolymers, fly ash, Mechanical Strength, waste glass, waste reuse, hybrid cement

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5 Design and Fabrication of a Scaffold with Appropriate Features for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

Authors: S. S. Salehi, A. Shamloo

Abstract:

Poor ability of cartilage tissue when experiencing a damage leads scientists to use tissue engineering as a reliable and effective method for regenerating or replacing damaged tissues. An artificial tissue should have some features such as biocompatibility, biodegradation and, enough mechanical properties like the original tissue. In this work, a composite hydrogel is prepared by using natural and synthetic materials that has high porosity. Mechanical properties of different combinations of polymers such as modulus of elasticity were tested, and a hydrogel with good mechanical properties was selected. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells were also seeded into the pores of the sponge, and the results showed the adhesion and proliferation of cells within the hydrogel after one month. In comparison with previous works, this study offers a new and efficient procedure for the fabrication of cartilage like tissue and further cartilage repair.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cell, Hydrogel, Mechanical Strength, cartilage tissue engineering

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4 Chlorine Pretreatment Effect on Mechanical Properties of Optical Fiber Glass

Authors: Abhinav Srivastava, Hima Harode, Chandan Kumar Saha

Abstract:

The principal ingredient of an optical fiber is quartz glass. The quality of the optical fiber decreases if impure foreign substances are attached to its preform surface. If residual strain inside a preform is significant, it cracks with a small impact during drawing or transporting. Furthermore, damages and unevenness on the surface of an optical fiber base material break the fiber during drawing. The present work signifies that chlorine pre-treatment enhances mechanical properties of the optical fiber glass. FTIR (Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) results show that chlorine gas chemically modifies the structure of silica clad; chlorine is known to soften glass. Metallic impurities on the preform surface likely formed volatile metal chlorides due to chlorine pretreatment at elevated temperature. The chlorine also acts as a drying agent, and therefore the preform surface is anticipated to be water deficient and supposedly avoids particle adhesion on the glass surface. The Weibull analysis of long length tensile strength demarcates a substantial shift in its knee. The higher dynamic fatigue n-value also indicated surface crack healing.

Keywords: Mechanical Strength, Weibull analysis, FTIR, optical fiber glass

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3 Effects of Particle Size Distribution on Mechanical Strength and Physical Properties in Engineered Quartz Stone

Authors: Esra Arici, Duygu Olmez, Murat Ozkan, Nurcan Topcu, Furkan Capraz, Gokhan Deniz, Arman Altinyay

Abstract:

Engineered quartz stone is a composite material comprising approximately 90 wt.% fine quartz aggregate with a variety of particle size ranges and `10 wt.% unsaturated polyester resin (UPR). In this study, the objective is to investigate the influence of particle size distribution on mechanical strength and physical properties of the engineered stone slabs. For this purpose, granular quartz with two particle size ranges of 63-200 µm and 100-300 µm were used individually and mixed with a difference in ratios of mixing. The void volume of each granular packing was measured in order to define the amount of filler; quartz powder with the size of less than 38 µm, and UPR required filling inter-particle spaces. Test slabs were prepared using vibration-compression under vacuum. The study reports that both impact strength and flexural strength of samples increased as the mix ratio of the particle size range of 63-200 µm increased. On the other hand, the values of water absorption rate, apparent density and abrasion resistance were not affected by the particle size distribution owing to vacuum compaction. It is found that increasing the mix ratio of the particle size range of 63-200 µm caused the higher porosity. This led to increasing in the amount of the binder paste needed. It is also observed that homogeneity in the slabs was improved with the particle size range of 63-200 µm.

Keywords: Physical Properties, Mechanical Strength, particle size distribution, granular packing, engineered quartz stone, fine quartz aggregate

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2 High Resolution Solid State NMR Structural Study of a Ternary Hydraulic Mixture

Authors: Rym Sassi, Franck Fayon, Mohend Chaouche, Emmanuel Veron, Valerie Montouillout

Abstract:

The chemical phenomena occurring during cement hydration are complex and interdependent, and even after almost two centuries of studies, they are still difficult to solve for complex mixtures combining different hydraulic binders. Powder-XRD has been widely used for characterizing the crystalline phases in both anhydrous and hydrated cement, but only limited information is obtained in the case of strongly disordered and amorphous phases. In contrast, local spectroscopies like solid-state NMR can provide a quantitative description of noncrystalline phases. In this work, the structural modifications occurring during hydration of a fast-setting ternary binder based on white Portland cement, white calcium aluminate cement, and calcium sulfate were investigated using advanced solid-state NMR methods. We particularly focused on the early stage of the hydration up to 28 days, working with samples whose hydration was controlled and stopped. ²⁷Al MQ-MAS as well as {¹H}-²⁷Al and {¹H}-²⁹Si Cross- Polarization MAS NMR techniques were combined to distinguish all of the aluminum and silicon species formed during the hydration. The NMR quantification of the different phases was conducted in parallel with the XRD analyses. The consumption of initial products, as well as the precipitation of hydraulic phases (ettringite, monosulfate, strätlingite, CSH, and CASH), were unambiguously quantified. Finally, the drawing of the consumption and formation of phases was correlated with mechanical strength measurements.

Keywords: Hydration, cement, NMR, Mechanical Strength, hydrates structure

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1 Adhesion Study of Repair Mortar Based in Dune and Crushed Limestone Sand

Authors: Krobba Benharzallah, Kenai Said, Bouhicha Mohamed, Lakhdari Mohammed Fatah, Merah Ahmed

Abstract:

In recent years, great interest has been directed towards the use of local materials and natural resources in building and public works. This is to satisfy the enormous need for these materials and contribute to sustainable development. Among these resources, dune sand and limestone crushed sand, which can be an interesting alternative to the replacement of siliceous alluvial sands for the formulation of a repair mortar. The results found show that the particle size correction of dune sand by limestone sand and the addition of a superplasticizer are very beneficial in terms of adhesion and mechanical strength.

Keywords: Adhesion, Mechanical Strength, dune sand, repair mortar, crushed limestone sand

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