Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Mechanical Related Abstracts

10 Study of the Green Composite Jute/Epoxy

Authors: A. Mir, C. Aribi, B. Bezzazi


Work presented is interested in the characterization of the quasistatic mechanical properties and in fatigue of a composite laminated in jute/epoxy. The natural fibers offer promising prospects thanks to their interesting specific properties, because of their low density, but also with their bio deterioration. Several scientific studies highlighted the good mechanical resistance of the vegetable fiber composites reinforced, even after several recycling. Because of the environmental standards which become increasingly severe, one attends the emergence of eco-materials at the base of natural fibers such as flax, bamboo, hemp, sisal, jute. The fatigue tests on elementary vegetable fibers show an increase of about 60% of the rigidity of elementary fibers of hemp subjected to cyclic loading. In this study, the test-tubes manufactured by the method infusion have sequences of stacking of 0/90° and ± 45° for the shearing and tensile tests. The quasistatic tests reveal a variability of the mechanical properties of about 8%. The tensile fatigue tests were carried out for levels of constraints equivalent to half of the ultimate values of the composite. Once the fatigue tests carried out for well-defined values of cycles, a series of static tests of traction type highlights the influence of the number of cycles on the quasi static mechanical behavior of the laminate jute/epoxy.

Keywords: Mechanical, Dynamic Behavior, Static, epoxy resin, jute

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9 Cold Metal Transfer Welding of Dissimilar Thickness 6061-T6 to 5182-O Aluminum Alloys

Authors: A. Elrefaei


The possibility of having sheets with different thicknesses and materials in one assembly facilitates the optimal material distribution within the final product and reduces the weight of the structure. Ability of joining process to assembly these different material combinations is always a challenge to the designer. In this study, 0.6 mm thick 6061-T6 and 2 mm thick 5182-O were robot CMT welded using ER5356 and ER4043 filler metals. The thermal effect of welding resulted in a loss of hardness in the 6061 HAZ. Joints welded by ER5356 filler metal were much higher in fracture load than joints welded by ER4043 and the elongation of joints welded by ER5356 was almost double its corresponding joints welded by ER4043 filler. Owing to the big difference in formability and thickness of base metals, the fracture in forming test occurred in the softened 6061 HAZ out from the weld centerline.

Keywords: Mechanical, welding, Aluminum, CMT

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8 Comparative Study of Mechanical and Physiological Gait Efficiency Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Authors: Amira A. A. Abdallah, Radwa E. Sweif


Background: Evaluation of gait efficiency is used to examine energy consumption especially in patients with movement disorders. Hypothesis/Purpose: This study compared the physiological and mechanical measures of gait efficiency between patients with ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and healthy controls and correlated among these measures. Methods: Seventeen patients with ACLR and sixteen healthy controls with mean ± SD age 23.06±4.76 vs 24.85±6.47 years, height 173.93±6.54 vs 175.64±7.37cm, and weight 74.25±12.1 vs 76.52±10.14 kg, respectively, participated in the study. The patients were operated on six months prior to testing. They should have completed their accelerated rehabilitation program during this period. A 3D motion analysis system was used for collecting the mechanical measures (Biomechanical Efficiency Quotient (BEQ), the maximum degree of knee internal rotation during stance phase and speed of walking). The physiological measures (Physiological Cost Index (PCI) and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE)) were collected after performing the 6- minute walking test. Results: MANOVA showed that the maximum degree of knee internal rotation, PCI, and RPE increased and the speed decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the patients compared with the controls with no significant difference for the BEQ. Finally, there were significant (p<0.05) positive correlations between each of the PCI & RPE and each of the BEQ, speed of walking and the maximum degree of knee internal rotation in each group. Conclusion: It was concluded that there are alterations in both mechanical and physiological measures of gait efficiency in patients with ACLR after being rehabilitated, clarifying the need for performing additional endurance as well as knee stability training programs. Moreover, the positive correlations indicate that using either of the mechanical or physiological measures for evaluating gait efficiency is acceptable.

Keywords: Mechanical, Physiological, ACL reconstruction, gait efficiency

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7 Theoretical Modeling of Mechanical Properties of Eco-Friendly Composites Derived from Sugar Palm

Authors: J. Sahari, S. M. Sapuan


Eco-friendly composites have been successfully prepared by using sugar palm tree as a sources. The effect of fibre content on mechanical properties of (SPF/SPS) biocomposites have been done and the experimentally tensile properties (tensile strength and modulus) of biocomposites have been compared with the existing theories of reinforcement. The biocomposites were prepared with different amounts of fibres (i.e. 10%, 20% and 30% by weight percent). The mechanical properties of plasticized SPS improved with the incorporation of fibres. Both approaches (experimental and theoretical) show that the young’s modulus of the biocomposites is consistently increased when the sugar palm fibre (SPF) are placed into the sugar palm starch matrix (SPS). Surface morphological study through scanning electron microscopy showed homogeneous distribution of fibres and matrix with good adhesion which play an important role in improving the mechanical properties of biocomposites. The observed deviations between the experimental and theoretical values are explained by the simplifying model assumptions applied for the configuration of the composites, in particular the sugar palm starch composites.

Keywords: Experimental, Mechanical, Theoretical, biocomposite, eco-friendly

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6 Influence of Processing Regime and Contaminants on the Properties of Postconsumer Thermoplastics

Authors: Fares Alsewailem


Material recycling of thermoplastic waste offers practical solution for municipal solid waste reduction. Post-consumer plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), and polystyrene (PS) may be separated from each other by physical methods such as density difference and hence processed as single plastic, however one should be cautious about the contaminants presence in the waste stream inform of paper, glue, etc. since these articles even in trace amount may deteriorate properties of the recycled plastics especially the mechanical properties. furthermore, melt processing methods used to recycle thermoplastics such as extrusion and compression molding may induce degradation of some of the recycled plastics such as PET and PS. In this research, it is shown that care should be taken when processing recycled plastics by melt processing means in two directions, first contaminants should be extremely minimized, and secondly melt processing steps should also be minimum.

Keywords: Mechanical, Recycling, PET, HDPE

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5 Melaleuca alternifolia Fibre Composites: Effect of Different Type of Fibre on Mechanical and Physical Properties

Authors: Sahari Japar, M. A. Maleque, Rodney Jammy


The fabrication of melaleuca alternifolia fibre reinforced thermoplastic starch composites was successfully done. This paper aims to show the effect of melaleuca alternifolia fibres on mechanical and physical properties of composites by using starch as a matrix. The fibres were extracted from three different part i.e. tea tree trunk (TTT), tea tree bunch (TTB) and tea tree leaf (TTL) and combined with tapioca starch by casting method. All composites showed superior mechanical properties in comparison to TS. The addition of 5% (v/v) fibres as a filler to TS led to the improvement in young’s modulus by 350% for TTB/TS, 282% for TTT/TS and 220% for TTL/TS. The tensile strength also increased to 34.39% for TTL/TS, 82.80% for TTB/TS and 203.18% for TTT/TS respectively. The trend can be correlated to the amount of cellulose in the fibres. For physical properties, it can be seen that, with the addition of fibres, the water absorption and swelling of composites decreased. The addition of melaleuca alternifolia fibre improved mechanical and physical properties of thermoplastic starch composites.

Keywords: Mechanical, Physical, Starch, fibre, melaleuca alternifolia

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4 Thermomechanical Coupled Analysis of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Square Tube: A Finite Element Study

Authors: M. Ali, K. Alam, E. Ohioma


This paper presents a numerical investigation on the behavior of fiber reinforced polymer composite tubes (FRP) under thermomechanical coupled loading using finite element software ABAQUS and a special add-on subroutine, CZone. Three cases were explored; pure mechanical loading, pure thermal loading, and coupled thermomechanical loading. The failure index (Tsai-Wu) under all three loading cases was assessed for all plies in the tube walls. The simulation results under pure mechanical loading showed that composite tube failed at a tensile load of 3.1 kN. However, with the superposition of thermal load on mechanical load on the composite tube, the failure index of the previously failed plies in tube walls reduced significantly causing the tube to fail at 6 kN. This showed 93% improvement in the load carrying capacity of the composite tube in present study. The increase in load carrying capacity was attributed to the stress effects of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) on the laminate as well as the inter-lamina stresses induced due to the composite stack layup.

Keywords: Composites, Thermal, Mechanical, square tubes

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3 Influence of Fiber Loading and Surface Treatments on Mechanical Properties of Pineapple Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: Jain Jyoti, Jain Shorab, Sinha Shishir


In the current scenario, development of new biodegradable composites with the reinforcement of some plant derived natural fibers are in major research concern. Abundant quantity of these natural plant derived fibers including sisal, ramp, jute, wheat straw, pine, pineapple, bagasse, etc. can be used exclusively or in combination with other natural or synthetic fibers to augment their specific properties like chemical, mechanical or thermal properties. Among all natural fibers, wheat straw, bagasse, kenaf, pineapple leaf, banana, coir, ramie, flax, etc. pineapple leaf fibers have very good mechanical properties. Being hydrophilic in nature, pineapple leaf fibers have very less affinity towards all types of polymer matrixes. Not much work has been carried out in this area. Surface treatments like alkaline treatment in different concentrations were conducted to improve its compatibility towards hydrophobic polymer matrix. Pineapple leaf fiber epoxy composites have been prepared using hand layup method. Effect of variation in fiber loading up to 20% in epoxy composites has been studied for mechanical properties like tensile strength and flexural strength. Analysis of fiber morphology has also been studied using FTIR, XRD. SEM micrographs have also been studied for fracture surface.

Keywords: Mechanical, Natural Fiber, Composite, pineapple leaf fiber

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2 Mechanical Analysis of Pineapple Leaf Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: Jain Jyoti, Jain Shorab, Sinha Shishir


In the field of material engineering, composites are in great concern for their nonbiodegradability and their cost. In order to reduce its cost and weight, plant derived fibers witnessed miraculous triumph. Plant fibers can be of different types like seed fibers, blast fibers, leaf fibers, etc. Composites can be reinforced with exclusively one type of natural fiber or also can be combined with two or more different types of natural or synthetic fibers to boost up their specific properties. Among all natural fibers, wheat straw, bagasse, kenaf, pineapple leaf, banana, coir, ramie, flax, etc. pineapple leaf fibers have very good mechanical properties. Being hydrophilic in nature, pineapple leaf fibers have very less affinity towards all types of polymer matrixes like HDPE, LDPE, PET, epoxy, etc. Surface treatments like alkaline treatment in different concentrations were conducted to improve its adhesion and compatibility towards hydrophobic polymer matrix i.e. epoxy resin. Pineapple leaf fiber epoxy composites have been prepared using hand layup method. Effect of fiber loading and surface treatments have been studied for different mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength, flexural strength and impact properties of pineapple leaf fiber composites. Analysis of fiber morphology has also been studied using FTIR, XRD. Scanning electron microscopy has also been used to study and compare the morphology of untreated and treated fibers. Also, the fracture surface has been reviewed comparing the reported literature of other eminent researchers of this field.

Keywords: Mechanical, Natural Fiber, Composite, pineapple leaf fiber

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1 Assessment of the Electrical, Mechanical, and Thermal Nociceptive Thresholds for Stimulation and Pain Measurements at the Bovine Hind Limb

Authors: Samaneh Yavari, Christiane Pferrer, Elisabeth Engelke, Alexander Starke, Juergen Rehage


Background: Three nociceptive thresholds of thermal, electrical, and mechanical thresholds commonly use to evaluate the local anesthesia in many species, for instance, cow, horse, cat, dog, rabbit, and so on. Due to the lack of investigations to evaluate and/or validate such those nociceptive thresholds, our plan was the comparison of two-foot local anesthesia methods of Intravenous Regional Anesthesia (IVRA) and our modified four-point Nerve Block Anesthesia (NBA). Materials and Methods: Eight healthy nonpregnant nondairy Holstein Frisian cows in a cross-over study design were selected for this study. All cows divided into two different groups to receive two local anesthesia techniques of IVRA and our modified four-point NBA. Three thermal, electrical, and mechanical force and pinpricks were applied to evaluate the quality of local anesthesia methods before and after local anesthesia application. Results: The statistical evaluation demonstrated that our four-point NBA has a qualification to select as a standard foot local anesthesia. However, the recorded results of our study revealed no significant difference between two groups of local anesthesia techniques of IVRA and modified four-point NBA related to quality and duration of anesthesia stimulated by electrical, mechanical and thermal nociceptive stimuli. Conclusion and discussion: All three nociceptive threshold stimuli of electrical, mechanical and heat nociceptive thresholds can be applied to measure and evaluate the efficacy of foot local anesthesia of dairy cows. However, our study revealed no superiority of those three nociceptive methods to evaluate the duration and quality of bovine foot local anesthesia methods. Veterinarians to investigate the duration and quality of their selected anesthesia method can use any of those heat, mechanical, and electrical methods.

Keywords: Thermal, Mechanical, dairy cow, IVRA, hind limb, electrical threshold, NBA

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