Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

mechanical milling Related Abstracts

5 Mechanochemical Synthesis of Al2O3/Mo Nanocomposite Powders from Molybdenum Oxide

Authors: Behrooz Ghasemi, Bahram Sharijian

Abstract:

Al2O3/Mo nanocomposite powders were successfully synthesized by mechanical milling through mechanochemical reaction between MoO3 and Al. The structural evolutions of powder particles during mechanical milling were studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that Al2O3-Mo was completely obtained after 5 hr of milling. The crystallite sizes of Al2O3 and Mo after milling for 20 hr were about 45 nm and 23 nm, respectively. With longer milling time, the intensities of Al2O3 and Mo peaks decreased and became broad due to the decrease in crystallite size. Morphological features of powders were influenced by the milling time. The resulting Al2O3- Mo nanocomposite powder exhibited an average particle size of 200 nm after 20 hr of milling. Also nanocomposite powder after 10 hr milling had relatively equiaxed shape with uniformly distributed Mo phase in Al2O3 matrix.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Al2O3/Mo, mechanochemical, mechanical milling

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4 Synthesis of Nanosized Amorphous Alumina Particles and Their Use in Electroless Ni-P Coatings

Authors: Preeti Makkar, R. C. Agarwala, Vijaya Agarwala

Abstract:

The present study focuses on the preparation of Al2O3 nanoparticles by top down approach i.e. mechanical milling using high energy planetary ball mill at 250 rpm for 40h. The milled Al2O3 nanoparticles are then used as the second phase to develop electroless (EL) Ni-P- Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings on mild steel substrate. An alkaline bath was used with a suspension of Al2O3 particles (4 g/L) for the synthesis of Ni-P-Al2O3 nanocomposite coating. The surface morphology, size range and phase analysis of as-prepared Al2O3 particles and the coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The coatings were heat treated at 400°C for 1h in argon atmosphere and the hardness of the nanocomposite coatings was investigated with respect to Ni-P before and after heat treatment. The results showed that as milled Al2O3 nanoparticles exhibit irregular shaped and size ranges around 40-45 nm. The Al2O3 particles are uniformly distributed in Ni-P matrix. The microhardness of the coatings is found to be significantly improved after heat treatment (1126 VHN).

Keywords: nanocomposite, Microhardness, mechanical milling, Electroless (EL), Ni-P-Al2O3

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3 Producing of Amorphous-Nanocrystalline Composite Powders

Authors: K. Tomolya, D. Janovszky, A. Sycheva, M. Sveda, A. Roosz

Abstract:

CuZrAl amorphous alloys have attracted high interest due to unique physical and mechanical properties, which can be enhanced by adding of Ni and Ti elements. It is known that this properties can be enhanced by crystallization of amorphous alloys creating nanocrystallines in the matrix. The present work intends to produce nanosized crystalline parti-cle reinforced amorphous matrix composite powders by crystallization of amorphous powders. As the first step the amorphous powders were synthe-tized by ball-milling of crystalline powders. (Cu49Zr45Al6) 80Ni10Ti10 and (Cu49Zr44Al7) 80Ni10Ti10 (at%) alloys were ball-milled for 12 hours in order to reach the fully amorphous structure. The impact en-ergy of the balls during milling causes the change of the structure in the powders. Scanning electron microscopical (SEM) images shows that the phases mixed first and then changed into a fully amorphous matrix. Furthermore, nanosized particles in the amorphous matrix were crystallized by heat treatment of the amorphous powders that was confirmed by TEM measurement. It was of importance to define the tem-perature when the amorphous phase starts to crystal-lize. Amorphous alloys have a special heating curve and characteristic temperatures, which can be meas-ured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A typical DSC curve of an amorphous alloy exhibits an endothermic event characteristic of the equilibrium glass transition (Tg) and a distinct undercooled liquid region, followed by one or two exothermic events corresponding to crystallization processes (Tp). After measuring the DSC traces of the amorphous powders, the annealing temperatures should be determined between Tx and Tp. In our experiments several temperatures from the annealing temperature range were selected and de-pendency of crystallized nanoparticles fraction on their hardness was investigated.

Keywords: Composite, Powder, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical milling, amorphous structure, transmission electronmocroscopy (TEM)

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2 Nanostructure Formation and Characterization of Eco-Friendly Banana Peels Nanosorbent

Authors: Opeyemi Atiba-Oyewo, Maurice S. Onya, Christian Wolkersdorfer

Abstract:

Nanostructure formation and characterization of eco-friendly banana peels nanosorbent are thoroughly described in this paper. The transformation of material during mechanical milling to enhance certain properties such as changes in microstructure and surface area to solve the current problems involving water pollution and water quality were studied. The mechanical milling was employed using planetary continuous milling machine and ethanol as process control agent, the sample were taken at time interval between 10 h to 30 h to examine the structural changes. The samples were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer Emmett and teller (BET). Results revealed that the three typical structures with different grain-size, lattice strain and shapes were observed, and the deformation mechanisms in these structures were found to be different, further particles fracturing results to surface area increment which was confirmed by Brunauer Emmett and teller (BET) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows high densities of dislocations in large crystallites, implying that dislocation slip is the dominant deformation mechanism. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the morphological properties of the materials at different milling time, nanostructure of the particles and fibres were confirmed by Transmission electron microscopy and FT-IR identified the functional groups responsible for its capacity to coordinate and remove metal ions, such as the carboxylic and amine groups at absorption bands of 1730 and 889 cm-1, respectively. However, the choice of this sorbent material for the sorption of any contaminants will depend on the composition of the effluent to be treated.

Keywords: eco-friendly, mechanical milling, banana peels, nanosorbent, nanostructure water quality

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1 Characterization and Nanostructure Formation of Banana Peels Nanosorbent with Its Application

Authors: Maurice S. Onyango, Opeyemi Atiba-Oyewo, Christian Wolkersdorfer

Abstract:

Characterization and nanostructure formation of banana peels as sorbent material are described in this paper. The transformation of this agricultural waste via mechanical milling to enhance its properties such as changed in microstructure and surface area for water pollution control and other applications were studied. Mechanical milling was employed using planetary continuous milling machine with ethanol as a milling solvent and the samples were taken at time intervals between 10 h to 30 h to examine the structural changes. The samples were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer Emmett and teller (BET). Results revealed three typical structures with different deformation mechanisms and the grain-sizes within the range of (71-12 nm), nanostructure of the particles and fibres. The particle size decreased from 65µm to 15 nm as the milling progressed for a period of 30 h. The morphological properties of the materials indicated that the particle shapes becomes regular and uniform as the milling progresses. Furthermore, particles fracturing resulted in surface area increment from 1.0694-4.5547 m2/g. The functional groups responsible for the banana peels capacity to coordinate and remove metal ions, such as the carboxylic and amine groups were identified at absorption bands of 1730 and 889 cm-1, respectively. However, the choice of this sorbent material for the sorption or any application will depend on the composition of the pollutant to be eradicated.

Keywords: Characterization, Water Quality, nanostructure, eco-friendly, mechanical milling, banana peels, nanosorbent

Procedia PDF Downloads 138