Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Mechanical Engineering Related Abstracts

9 Novel Use of a Quality Assurance Tool for Integrating Technology to HSE

Authors: Ragi Poyyara, Ashish Khaparde, V. Vivek


The Product Development Process (PDP) in the technology group plays a very important role in the launch of any product. While a manufacturing process encourages the use of certain measures to reduce Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) risks on the shop floor, the PDP concentrates on the use of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) to develop a flawless design. Furthermore, PDP distributes and coordinates activities between different departments such as marketing, purchasing, and manufacturing. However, it is seldom realized that PDP makes a significant contribution to developing a product that reduces HSE risks by encouraging the Technology group to use effective GD&T. The GD&T is a precise communication tool that uses a set of symbols, rules, and definitions to mathematically define parts to be manufactured. It is a quality assurance method widely used in the oil and gas sector. Traditionally it is used to ensure the interchangeability of a part without affecting its form, fit, and function. Parts that do not meet these requirements are rejected during quality audits. This paper discusses how the Technology group integrates this quality assurance tool into the PDP and how the tool plays a major role in helping the HSE department in its goal towards eliminating HSE incidents. The PDP involves a thorough risk assessment and establishes a method to address those risks during the design stage. An illustration shows how GD&T helped reduce safety risks by ergonomically improving assembling operations. A brief discussion explains how tolerances provided on a part help prevent finger injury. This tool has equipped Technology to produce fixtures, which are used daily in operations as well as manufacturing. By applying GD&T to create good fits, HSE risks are mitigated for operating personnel. Both customers and service providers benefit from reduced safety risks.

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, HSE risks, product development process, geometric dimensioning and tolerances

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8 Research of Possibilities to Influence the Metal Cross-Section Deformation during Cold Rolling with the Help of Local Deformation Zone Creation

Authors: A. Pesin, D. Pustovoytov, M. Sverdlik, A. Kolesnik


Rolling disturbances often arise which might lead to defects such as nonflatness, warpage, corrugation, etc. Numerous methods of compensation for such disturbances are well known. However, most of them preserve the initial form of transverse flow of the strip, such as convex, concave or asymmetric (for example, sphenoid). Sometimes, the form inherited (especially asymmetric) is undesirable. Technical solutions have been developed which include providing conditions for transverse metal flow in deformation zone. It should be noted that greater reduction is followed by transverse flow increase, while less reduction causes a corresponding decrease in metal flow for differently deformed metal lengths to remain approximately the same and in order to avoid the defects mentioned above. One of the solutions suggests sequential strip deforming from rectangular cross-section profile with periodical rectangular grooves back into rectangular profile again. The work was carried out in DEFORM 3D program complex. Experimental rolling was performed on laboratory mill 150. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results demonstrated good correlation.

Keywords: Applied Mechanics, Mechanical Engineering, FEM, cross-section deformation

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7 An Architecture Framework for Design of Assembly Expert System

Authors: Chee Fai Tan, L. S. Wahidin, S. N. Khalil


Nowadays, manufacturing cost is one of the important factors that will affect the product cost as well as company profit. There are many methods that have been used to reduce the manufacturing cost in order for a company to stay competitive. One of the factors that effect manufacturing cost is the time. Expert system can be used as a method to reduce the manufacturing time. The purpose of the expert system is to diagnose and solve the problem of design of assembly. The paper describes an architecture framework for design of assembly expert system that focuses on commercial vehicle seat manufacturing industry.

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, Expert System, design of assembly, vehicle seat

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6 Process of Dimensioning Small Type Annular Combustors

Authors: Saleh B. Mohamed, Mohamed H. Elhsnawi, Mesbah M. Salem


Current and future applications of small gas turbine engines annular type combustors have requirements presenting difficult disputes to the combustor designer. Reduced cost and fuel consumption and improved durability and reliability as well as higher temperatures and pressures for such application are forecast. Coupled with these performance requirements, irrespective of the engine size, is the demand to control the pollutant emissions, namely the oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, smoke and unburned hydrocarbons. These technical and environmental challenges have made the design of small size combustion system a very hard task. Thus, the main target of this work is to generalize a calculation method of annular type combustors for small gas turbine engines that enables to understand the fundamental concepts of the coupled processes and to identify the proper procedure that formulates and solves the problems in combustion fields in as much simplified and accurate manner as possible. The combustion chamber in task is designed with central vaporizing unit and to deliver 516.3 KW of power. The geometrical constraints are 142 mm & 140 mm overall length and casing diameter, respectively, while the airflow rate is 0.8 kg/sec and the fuel flow rate is 0.012 kg/sec. The relevant design equations are programmed by using MathCAD language for ease and speed up of the calculation process.

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, small engine design, design of gas turbine, annular type combustors

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5 Drastic Increase of Wave Dissipation within Metastructures Having Negative Stiffness Inclusions

Authors: V. Polenta, D. Chronopoulos, I. Antoniadis, V. Spitas, D. Koulocheris


A concept of a simple linear oscillator, incorporating a negative stiffness element is demonstrated to exhibit extraordinary damping properties. This oscillator shares the same overall (static) stiffness, the same mass and the same damping element with a reference classical linear SDOF oscillator. However, it differs from the original SDOF oscillator by appropriately redistributing the component spring stiffness elements and by re-allocating the damping element. Despite the fact that the proposed oscillator incorporates a negative stiffness element, it is designed to be both statically and dynamically stable. Once such an oscillator is optimally designed, it is shown to exhibit an extraordinary apparent damping ratio, which is even several orders of magnitude higher than that of the original SDOF system, especially in cases where the original damping of the SDOF system is low. This damping behavior is not a result of a novel additional extraordinary energy dissipation mechanism, but a result of the phase difference between the positive and the negative stiffness elastic forces, which is in turn a consequence of the proper re-distribution of the stiffness and the damper elements. This fact ensures that an adequate level of elastic forces exists throughout the entire frequency range, able to counteract the inertial and the excitation forces. Next, Acoustic or Phononic Meta-materials are considered, in which one atom is replaced by the concept of the above simple linear oscillator. The results indicate that not only the damping of the meta-material verifies and exceeds the one expected from the so-called "meta-damping" behavior, but also that the band gap of the meta-material can be significantly increased.

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, Wave propagation, periodic structures, wave damping

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4 A Systamatic Review on Experimental, FEM Analysis and Simulation of Metal Spinning Process

Authors: Amol M. Jadhav, Sharad S. Chudhari, S. S. Khedkar


This review presents a through survey of research paper work on the experimental analysis, FEM Analysis & simulation of the metal spinning process. In this literature survey all the papers being taken from Elsevier publication and most of the from journal of material processing technology. In a last two decade or so, metal spinning process gradually used as chip less formation for the production of engineering component in a small to medium batch quantities. The review aims to provide include into the experimentation, FEM analysis of various components, simulation of metal spinning process and act as guide for research working on metal spinning processes. The review of existing work has several gaps in current knowledge of metal spinning processes. The evaluation of experiment is thickness strain, the spinning force, the twisting angle, the surface roughness of the conventional & shear metal spinning process; the evaluation of FEM of metal spinning to path definition with sufficient fine mesh to capture behavior of work piece; The evaluation of feed rate of roller, direction of roller,& type of roller stimulated. The metal spinning process has the more flexible to produce a wider range of product shape & to form more challenge material.

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, FEM analysis, metal spinning, simulation of metal spinning

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3 3D Finite Element Analysis for Mechanics of Soil-Tool Interaction

Authors: A. Armin, R. Fotouhi, W. Szyszkowski


This paper is part of a study to develop robots for farming. As such power requirement to operate equipment attach to such robots become an important factor. Soil-tool interaction play major role in power consumption, thus predicting accurately the forces which act on the blade during the farming is prime importance for optimal designing of farm equipment. In this paper a finite element investigation for tillage tools and soil interaction is described by using an inelastic constitutive material law for agriculture application. A 3-dimentional (3D) nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) is developed to examine behavior of a blade with different rake angles moving in a block of soil, and to estimate the blade force. The soil model considered is an elastic-plastic with non-associated Drucker-Prager material model. Special use of contact elements are employed to consider connection between soil-blade and soil-soil surfaces. The FEA results are compared with experiment ones, which show good agreement in accurately predicting draft forces developed on the blade when it moves through the soil. Also, a very good correlation was obtained between FEA results and analytical results from classical soil mechanics theories for straight blades. These comparisons verified the FEA model developed. For analyzing complicated soil-tool interactions and for optimum design of blades, this method will be useful.

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, Finite Element Analysis, soil-blade contact modeling, blade force

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2 Experimental Study to Determine the Effect of Wire Mesh Pore Size on Natural Draft Chimney Performance

Authors: Md. Mizanur Rahman, Chu Chi Ming, Mohd Suffian Bin Misaran


Chimney is an important part of the industries to remove waste heat from the processes side to the atmosphere. The increased demand of energy helps to restart to think about the efficiency of chimney as well as to find out a valid option to replace forced draft chimney system from industries. In this study natural draft chimney model is air flow rate; exit air temperature and pressure losses are studied through modification with wire mesh screen and compare the results with without wire mesh screen chimney model. The heat load is varies from 0.1 kW to 1kW and three different wire mesh screens that have pore size 0.15 mm2, 0.40 mm2 and 4.0 mm2 respectively are used. The experimental results show that natural draft chimney model with wire mesh screens significantly restored the flow losses compared to the system without wire mesh screen. The natural draft chimney model with 0.40 mm2 pore size wire mesh screen can minimize the draft losses better than others and able to enhance velocity about 54 % exit air temperature about 41% and pressure loss decreased by about 20%. Therefore, it can be decided that the wire mesh screens significantly minimize the draft losses in the natural draft chimney and 0.40 mm2 pore size screen will be a suitable option.

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, natural draft dhimney, wire mesh screen, natural draft flow

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1 Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Microchannel with Thin Obstacles

Authors: Malorzata Kmiotek, Anna Kucaba-Pietal, Robert Smusz


Due to the miniaturisation process, in many technical devices, microchannels are used in cooling systems. Because of the small size of microchannels, the flow inside is laminar, which caused a slow heat exchange. In order to intensify the heat exchange, the flow must be disturbed, for example, by introducing obstacles. We present results on the influence of a thin obstacle, placed on microchannel wall, on the fluid and heat flow in the aspect of their use by constructors of heat exchangers. The obstacle is called 'thin' when its geometrical parameter (o=w/h, w- width, h - height of the obstacle) satisfies inequality: o < 0.5. In this work, we report numerical results on heat and mass transfer in the microchannels of 400 micrometer height (H - height of the microchannel), where thin obstacles are immersed on the walls, to disturb the flow. The Reynolds number of the flow in microchannel varies between 20 and 200 and is typical for the flow in micro heat exchangers. The equations describing the fluid and heat flows in microchannels were solved numerically by using the finite element method with an application of CFD&FSI package of ADINA R&D, Inc. 9.4 solver. In the case of flows in the microchannels with sequences of thin rectangular obstacles placed on the bottom and the top wall of a microchannel, the influence of distances s (s is the distance between two thin obstacles) and heights of obstacles on the fluid and heat transfer was investigated. Thermal and flow conditions of the application area of microchannels in electronic cooling systems, i.e., wall temperature of 60 °C, the fluid temperature of 20°C were used to solve equations. Additionally, the distance s between the thin obstacles in microchannels as a multiple of the amount of the channel height was determined. Results show that placing thin obstacles on microchannel walls increase the length of recirculation zones of the flow and improves the heat transfer.

Keywords: Mechanical Engineering, Heat Transfer, Finite Element Method, microchannel

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