Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Mechanical Behavior Related Abstracts

17 Effect of Hot Equal Channel Angular Pressing Process on Mechanical Properties of Commercial Pure Titanium

Authors: Seyed Ata Khalkhkali Sharifi, Gholamhossein Majzoubi, Farhad Abroush

Abstract:

Developing mechanical properties of pure titanium has been reviewed in this paper by using ECAP process. At the first step of this article, the experimental samples were prepared as mentioned in the standards. Then pure grade 2 Ti was processed via equal-channel angular pressing (ECAp) for 2 passes following route-A at 400°C. After processing, the microstructural evolution, tensile, fatigue, hardness properties and wear behavior were investigated. Finally, the effect of ECAP process on these samples was analyzed. The results showed improvement in strength values with a slight decrease in ductility. The analysis on 30 points within the sample showed hardness increase in each pass. Also, it was concluded that fatigue properties were increased too.

Keywords: Titanium, Mechanical Behavior, equal-channel angular pressing, engineering materials and applications

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16 The Effect of the Low Plastic Fines on the Shear Strength and Mechanical Behavior of Granular Classes of Sand-Silt Mixtures

Authors: El Metmati Abdelhaq

Abstract:

Shear strength of sandy soils has been considered as the important parameter to study the stability of different civil engineering structures when subjected to monotonic, cyclic and earthquake loading conditions. The objective of this laboratory investigation is to study the influence of the fraction of low plastic fines and gradation on the mechanical behavior of sand-silt mixtures reconstituted in the laboratory. For this purpose, a series of Casagrande shear box tests were carried out on different reconstituted samples of sand-silt mixtures with various gradations at two initial relative densities (Dr = 20 and 91 %) with different fines content ranging from 0 to 40 %. The soil samples were tested under different normal stresses (100, 200 and 300 kPa). The evaluation of the data indicates that the fines content and the gradation have significant influence on the friction angle and the cohesion.

Keywords: Mechanical Behavior, Cohesion, silty sand, friction angle, fines content

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15 The Effect of Grading Characteristics on the Shear Strength and Mechanical Behavior of Granular Classes of Sand-Silt

Authors: Youssouf Benmeriem

Abstract:

Shear strength of sandy soils has been considered as the important parameter to study the stability of different civil engineering structures when subjected to monotonic, cyclic and earthquake loading conditions. The proposed research investigated the effect of grading characteristics on the shear strength and mechanical behavior of granular classes of sands mixed with silt in loose and dense states (Dr = 15% and 90%). The laboratory investigation aimed at understanding the extent or degree at which shear strength of sand-silt mixture soil is affected by its gradation under static loading conditions. For the purpose of clarifying and evaluating the shear strength characteristics of sandy soils, a series of Casagrande shear box tests were carried out on different reconstituted samples of sand-silt mixtures with various gradations. The soil samples were tested under different normal stresses (100, 200 and 300 kPa). The results from this laboratory investigation were used to develop insight into the shear strength response of sand and sand-silt mixtures under monotonic loading conditions. The analysis of the obtained data revealed that the grading characteristics (D10, D50, Cu, ESR, and MGSR) have significant influence on the shear strength response. It was found that shear strength can be correlated to the grading characteristics for the sand-silt mixture. The effective size ratio (ESR) and mean grain size ratio (MGSR) appear as pertinent parameters to predict the shear strength response of the sand-silt mixtures for soil gradation under study.

Keywords: Mechanical Behavior, Shear Strength, grading characteristics, granular classes of sands, sand-silt

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14 Absorption Kinetic and Tensile Mechanical Properties of Swollen Elastomer/Carbon Black Nanocomposites using Typical Solvents

Authors: F. Elhaouzi, H. Lahlali, M. Zaghrioui, I. El Aboudi A. BelfKira, A. Mdarhri

Abstract:

The effect of physico chemical properties of solvents on the transport process and mechanical properties in elastomeric nano composite materials is reported. The investigated samples are formed by a semi-crystalline ethylene-co-butyl acrylate polymer filled with hard spherical carbon black (CB) nano particles. The swelling behavior was studied by immersion the dried samples in selected solvents at room temperature during 2 days. For this purpose, two chemical compounds methyl derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons of benzene, i.e. toluene and xylene, are used to search for the mass and molar volume dependence on the absorption kinetics. Mass gain relative to the mass of dry material at specific times was recorded to probe the absorption kinetics. The transport of solvent molecules in these filled elastomeric composites is following a Fickian diffusion mechanism. Additionally, the swelling ratio and diffusivity coefficient deduced from the Fickian law are found to decrease with the CB concentration. These results indicate that the CB nano particles increase the effective path length for diffusion and consequently limit the absorption of the solvent by occupation free volumes in the material. According to physico chemical properties of the two used solvents, it is found that the diffusion is more important for the toluene molecules solvent due to their low values of the molecular weight and volume molar compared to those for the xylene. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photo electron (XPS) were also used to probe the eventual change in the chemical composition for the swollen samples. Mechanically speaking, the stress-strain curves of uniaxial tensile tests pre- and post- swelling highlight a remarkably decrease of the strength and elongation at break of the swollen samples. This behavior can be attributed to the decrease of the load transfer density between the matrix and the CB in the presence of the solvent. We believe that the results reported in this experimental investigation can be useful for some demanding applications e.g. tires, sealing rubber.

Keywords: Modelling, nanocomposite, Mechanical Behavior, diffusion, DSC, XPS, absorption kinetics

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13 A Comparative Study Mechanical Properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene Materials Synthesized by Non-Conventional and Conventional Techniques

Authors: A. Mdarhri, H. Lahlali F. El Haouzi, A.M.Al-Baradi, I. El Aboudi, M. El Azhari

Abstract:

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a high performance thermoplastic polymer with exceptional physical and chemical properties, such as a high melting temperature, high thermal stability, and very good chemical resistance. Nevertheless, manufacturing PTFE is problematic due to its high melt viscosity (10 12 Pa.s). In practice, it is by now well established that this property presents a serious problem when the classical methods are used to synthesized the dense PTFE materials in particularly hot pressing, high temperature extrusion. In this framework, we use here a new process namely spark plasma sintering (SPS) to elaborate PTFE samples from the micro metric particles powder. It consists in applying simultaneous electric current and pressure directly on the sample powder. By controlling the processing parameters of this technique, a series of PTFE samples are easy obtained and associated to remarkably short time as is reported in an early work. Our central goal in the present study is to understand how the non conventional SPS affects the mechanical properties at room temperature. For this end, a second commercially series of PTFE synthesized by using the extrusion method is investigated. The first data according to the tensile mechanical properties are found to be superior for the first set samples (SPS). However, this trend is not observed for the results obtained from the compression testing. The observed macro-behaviors are correlated to some physical properties of the two series of samples such as their crystallinity or density. Upon a close examination of these properties, we believe the SPS technique can be seen as a promising way to elaborate the polymer having high molecular mass without compromising their mechanical properties.

Keywords: Physical Properties, Mechanical Behavior, PTFE, spark plasma sintering, extrusion

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12 Damage Micromechanisms of Coconut Fibers and Chopped Strand Mats of Coconut Fibers

Authors: Rios A. S., Hild F., Deus E. P., Aimedieu P., Benallal A.

Abstract:

The damage micromechanisms of chopped strand mats manufactured by compression of Brazilian coconut fiber and coconut fibers in different external conditions (chemical treatment) were used in this study. Mechanical analysis testing uniaxial traction were used with Digital Image Correlation (DIC). The images captured during the tensile test in the coconut fibers and coconut fiber mats showed an uncertainty of measurement in order centipixels. The initial modulus (modulus of elasticity) and tensile strength decreased with increasing diameter for the four conditions of coconut fibers. The DIC showed heterogeneous deformation fields for coconut fibers and mats and the displacement fields showed the rupture process of coconut fiber. The determination of poisson’s ratio of the mat was performed through of transverse and longitudinal deformations found in the elastic region.

Keywords: Mechanical Behavior, digital image correlation, coconut fiber, micromechanism

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11 Thermal Ageing Effect on Mechanical Behavior of Polycarbonate

Authors: H. Babou, S. Ridjla, B. Amerate, R. Ferhoum, M. Aberkane

Abstract:

This work is devoted to the experimental study of thermal ageing effect on the mechanical and micro structural behavior of polycarbonate (PC). A simple compression tests, micro hardness and an IRTF analysis were completed in order to characterize the response of material on specimens after ageing at a temperature of order 100 C° and for serval maintain duration 72, 144 and 216 hours. These investigations showed a decrease of the intrinsic properties of polycarbonate (Young modulus, yield stress, etc.); the superposition of spectra IRTF shows that the intensity of chemical connections C=C, C-O, CH3 and C-H are influenced by the duration of thermal ageing; in addition, an increase of 30 % of micro hardness was detected after 216 hour of ageing.

Keywords: Mechanical Behavior, compression test, amorphous polymer, polycarbonate, thermal ageing

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10 The Effect of Grading Characteristics on the Shear Strength and Mechanical Behavior of Granular Classes of Sands

Authors: Salah Brahim Belakhdar, Tari Mohammed Amin, Rafai Abderrahmen, Amalsi Bilal

Abstract:

Shear strength of sandy soils has been considered as the important parameter to study the stability of different civil engineering structures when subjected to monotonic, cyclic, and earthquake loading conditions. The proposed research investigated the effect of grading characteristics on the shear strength and mechanical behaviour of granular classes of sands mixed with salt in loose and dense states (Dr=15% and 90%). The laboratory investigation aimed at understanding the extent or degree at which shear strength of sand-silt mixture soil is affected by its gradation under static loading conditions. For the purpose of clarifying and evaluating the shear strength characteristics of sandy soils, a series of Casagrande shear box tests were carried out on different reconstituted samples of sand-silt mixtures with various gradations. The soil samples were tested under different normal stresses (100, 200, and 300 kPa). The results from this laboratory investigation were used to develop insight into the shear strength response of sand and sand-silt mixtures under monotonic loading conditions. The analysis of the obtained data revealed that the grading characteristics (D10, D50, Cu, ESR, and MGSR) have a significant influence on the shear strength response. It was found that shear strength can be correlated to the grading characteristics for the sand-silt mixture. The effective size ratio (ESR) and mean grain size ratio (MGSR) appear as pertinent parameters to predict the shear strength response of the sand-silt mixtures for soil gradation under study.

Keywords: Mechanical Behavior, Cohesion, silty sand, friction angle, fines content

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9 Physico-Mechanical Behavior of Indian Oil Shales

Authors: K. S. Rao, Ankesh Kumar

Abstract:

The search for alternative energy sources to petroleum has increased these days because of increase in need and depletion of petroleum reserves. Therefore the importance of oil shales as an economically viable substitute has increased many folds in last 20 years. The technologies like hydro-fracturing have opened the field of oil extraction from these unconventional rocks. Oil shale is a compact laminated rock of sedimentary origin containing organic matter known as kerogen which yields oil when distilled. Oil shales are formed from the contemporaneous deposition of fine grained mineral debris and organic degradation products derived from the breakdown of biota. Conditions required for the formation of oil shales include abundant organic productivity, early development of anaerobic conditions, and a lack of destructive organisms. These rocks are not gown through the high temperature and high pressure conditions in Mother Nature. The most common approach for oil extraction is drastically breaking the bond of the organics which involves retorting process. The two approaches for retorting are surface retorting and in-situ processing. The most environmental friendly approach for extraction is In-situ processing. The three steps involved in this process are fracturing, injection to achieve communication, and fluid migration at the underground location. Upon heating (retorting) oil shale at temperatures in the range of 300 to 400°C, the kerogen decomposes into oil, gas and residual carbon in a process referred to as pyrolysis. Therefore it is very important to understand the physico-mechenical behavior of such rocks, to improve the technology for in-situ extraction. It is clear from the past research and the physical observations that these rocks will behave as an anisotropic rock so it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior under high pressure at different orientation angles for the economical use of these resources. By knowing the engineering behavior under above conditions will allow us to simulate the deep ground retorting conditions numerically and experimentally. Many researchers have investigate the effect of organic content on the engineering behavior of oil shale but the coupled effect of organic and inorganic matrix is yet to be analyzed. The favourable characteristics of Assam coal for conversion to liquid fuels have been known for a long time. Studies have indicated that these coals and carbonaceous shale constitute the principal source rocks that have generated the hydrocarbons produced from the region. Rock cores of the representative samples are collected by performing on site drilling, as coring in laboratory is very difficult due to its highly anisotropic nature. Different tests are performed to understand the petrology of these samples, further the chemical analyses are also done to exactly quantify the organic content in these rocks. The mechanical properties of these rocks are investigated by considering different anisotropic angles. Now the results obtained from petrology and chemical analysis are correlated with the mechanical properties. These properties and correlations will further help in increasing the producibility of these rocks. It is well established that the organic content is negatively correlated to tensile strength, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity.

Keywords: Petrology, Mechanical Behavior, oil shale, producibility, hydro-fracturing, kerogen

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8 Finite Element Modeling of the Mechanical Behavior of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash with the Mohr-Coulomb Model

Authors: Abriak Nor Edine, Le Ngoc Hung, Binetruy Christophe, Benzerzour Mahfoud, Shahrour Isam, Patrice Rivard

Abstract:

Bottom ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) can be viewed as a typical granular material because these industrial by-products result from the incineration of various domestic wastes. MSWI bottom ashes are mainly used in road engineering in substitution of the traditional natural aggregates. As the characterization of their mechanical behavior is essential in order to use them, specific studies have been led over the past few years. In the first part of this paper, the mechanical behavior of MSWI bottom ash is studied with triaxial tests. After analysis of the experiment results, the simulation of triaxial tests is carried out by using the software package CESAR-LCPC. As the first approach in modeling of this new class material, the Mohr-Coulomb model was chosen to describe the evolution of material under the influence of external mechanical actions.

Keywords: Simulation, Mechanical Behavior, triaxial test, bottom ash, granular material, Mohr-Coulomb model, CESAR-LCPC

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7 Effect of Upper Face Sheet Material on Flexural Strength of Polyurethane Foam Hybrid Sandwich Material

Authors: M. Atef Gabr, M. H. Abdel Latif, Ramadan El Gamsy

Abstract:

Sandwich panels comprise a thick, light-weight plastic foam such as polyurethane (PU) sandwiched between two relatively thin faces. One or both faces may be flat, lightly profiled or fully profiled. Until recently sandwich panel construction in Egypt has been widely used in cold-storage buildings, cold trucks, prefabricated buildings and insulation in construction. Recently new techniques are used in mass production of Sandwich Materials such as Reaction Injection Molding (RIM) and Vacuum bagging technique. However, in recent times their use has increased significantly due to their widespread structural applications in building systems. Structural sandwich panels generally used in Egypt comprise polyurethane foam core and thinner (0.42 mm) and high strength about 550 MPa (yield strength) flat steel faces bonded together using separate adhesives and By RIM technique. In this paper, we will use a new technique in sandwich panel preparation by using different face sheet materials in combination with polyurethane foam to form sandwich panel structures. Previously, PU Foam core with same thin 2 faces material was used, but in this work, we use different face materials and thicknesses for the upper face sheet such as Galvanized steel sheets (G.S),Aluminum sheets (Al),Fiberglass sheets (F.G) and Aluminum-Rubber composite sheets (Al/R) with polyurethane foam core 10 mm thickness and 45 Kg/m3 Density and Galvanized steel as lower face sheet. Using Aluminum-Rubber composite sheets as face sheet is considered a hybrid composite sandwich panel which is built by Hand-Layup technique by using PU glue as adhesive. This modification increases the benefits of the face sheet that will withstand different working environments with relatively small increase in its weight and will be useful in several applications. In this work, a 3-point bending test is used assistant professor to measure the most important factor in sandwich materials that is strength to weight ratio(STW) for different combinations of sandwich structures and make a comparison to study the effect of changing the face sheet material on the mechanical behavior of PU sandwich material. Also, the density of the different prepared sandwich materials will be measured to obtain the specific bending strength.

Keywords: Mechanical Behavior, flexural strength, sandwich panel, hybrid sandwich panel, PU foam

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6 Experimental Investigation on the Mechanical Behaviour of Three-Leaf Masonry Walls under In-Plane Loading

Authors: Osama Amer, Yaser Abdel-Aty, Mohamed Abd El Hady

Abstract:

The present paper illustrates an experimental approach to provide understanding of the mechanical behavior and failure mechanisms of different typologies of unreinforced three-leaf masonry walls of historical Islamic architectural heritage in Egypt. The main objective of this study is to investigate the propagation of possible cracking, ultimate load, deformations and failure mechanisms. Experimental data on interface-shear and compression tests on large scale three-leaf masonry wallets are provided. The wallets were built basically of Egyptian limestone and modified lime mortar. External wallets were built of stone blocks while the inner leaf was built of rubble limestone. Different loading conditions and dimensions of core layer for two types of collar joints (with and without shear keys) are considered in the tests. Mechanical properties of the constituent materials of masonry were tested and a database of characteristic properties was created. The results of the experiments will highlight the properties, force-displacement curves, stress distribution of multiple-leaf masonry walls contributing to the derivation of rational design rules and validation of numerical models.

Keywords: Masonry, Testing, Mechanical Behavior, Architectural Heritage, three-leaf walls

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5 Rheological Model for Describing Spunlace Nonwoven Behavior

Authors: Sana Ridene, Soumaya Sayeb, Houda Helali, Mohammed Ben Hassen

Abstract:

Nonwoven structures have a range of applications which include Medical, filtration, geotextile and recently this unconventional fabric is finding a niche in fashion apparel. In this paper, a modified form of Vangheluwe rheological model is used to describe the mechanical behavior of nonwovens fabrics in uniaxial tension. This model is an association in parallel of three Maxwell elements characterized by damping coefficients η1, η2 and η3 and E1, E2, E3 elastic modulus and a nonlinear spring C. The model is verified experimentally with two types of nonwovens (50% viscose /50% Polyester) and (40% viscose/60% Polyester) and a range of three square weights values. Comparative analysis of the theoretical model and the experimental results of tensile test proofs a high correlation between them. The proposed model can fairly well replicate the behavior of nonwoven fabrics during relaxation and sample traction. This allowed us to predict the mechanical behavior in tension and relaxation of fabrics starting only from their technical parameters (composition and weight).

Keywords: Mechanical Behavior, relaxation, Tensile Strength, rheological model

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4 An Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Behaviour of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composite Laminates Used for Pipe Applications

Authors: Tasnim Kallel, Rim Taktak

Abstract:

In this experimental work, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite laminates were manufactured using hand lay-up technique. The unsaturated polyester (UP) and vinylester (VE) were considered as resins reinforced with different woven fabrics (bidirectional and quadriaxial rovings). The mechanical behaviour of the resulting composites was studied and then compared. A focus was essentially done on the evaluation of the effect of E-Glass fiber and ply orientation on the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, and hardness of the studied composite laminates. Also, crack paths and fracture surfaces were examined, and failure mechanisms were analyzed. From the main results, it was found that the quadriaxial composite laminates (QA/VE and QA/UP) with stacking sequences of [0°, +45°, 90°, -45°] present a very ductile tensile behaviour. The other laminate samples (R500/VE, RM/VE, R500/UP and RM/UP) show a very brittle behaviour whatever the used resin. The intrinsic toughness KIC of QA/VE laminate, obtained in fracture tests, are found more important than that of RM/VE composite. Thus, the QA/VE samples, as multidirectional laminate, presents the highest interlaminar fracture resistance.

Keywords: Mechanical Behavior, Fiber Orientation, crack growth, laminate composite, fracture behavior, e-glass fiber fabric

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3 Effect of Strains and Temperature on the Twinning Behavior of High Purity Titanium Compressed by Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar

Authors: Ping Zhou, Dawu Xiao, Chunli Jiang, Ge Sang

Abstract:

Deformation twinning plays an important role in the mechanical properties of Ti which has high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance ability. To investigate the twinning behavior of Ti under high strain rate compression, the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was adopted to deform samples to different strains at room temperature. In addition, twinning behaviors under varied temperatures of 373K, 573K and 873K were also investigated. The cylindrical-shaped samples with purity 99.995% were annealed at 1073K for 1 hour in vacuum before compression. All the deformation twins were identified by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The mechanical behavior showed three-stage work hardening in stress-strain curves for samples deformed at temperature 573K and 873K, while only two stages were observed for those deformed at room temperature. For samples compressed at room temperature, the predominant twin types are {10-12}<10-11> (E1), {11-21}<11-26> (E2) and {11-21}<11-23> (C1). The secondary and tertiary twinning was observed inside some E1, E2 and C1 twins. Most of the twin boundaries of E2 acted as the nucleate sites of E1. The densities of twins increase remarkably with increment of strains. For samples compressed at relatively higher temperatures, the migration of twin boundaries of E1, E2 and C1 was observed. All the twin lamellas shorten with temperature, and nearly disappeared at 873K except some remaining E1 twins. Polygonizations of grain boundaries were observed above 573K. The microstructure intended to have a texture with c-axes parallel to compression direction with temperature increment. Factors affecting the dynamic recovery and re-crystallization were discussed.

Keywords: Titanium, Mechanical Behavior, EBSD, deformation twins, high strain rate

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2 Analysis of Mechanical Properties for AP/HTPB Solid Propellant under Different Loading Conditions

Authors: Walid M. Adel, Liang Guo-Zhu

Abstract:

To investigate the characterization of the mechanical properties of composite solid propellant (CSP) based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) at different temperatures and strain rates, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted over a range of temperatures -60 °C to +76 °C and strain rates 0.000164 to 0.328084 s-1 using a conventional universal testing machine. From the experimental data, it can be noted that the mechanical properties of AP/HTPB propellant are mainly dependent on the applied strain rate and the temperature condition. The stress-strain responses exhibited an initial yielding followed by the viscoelastic phase, which was strongly affected by the strain rate and temperature. It was found that the mechanical properties increased with both increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. Based on the experimental tests, the master curves of the tensile properties are drawn using predetermined shift factor and the results were discussed. This work is a first step in preliminary investigation the nonlinear viscoelasticity behavior of CSP.

Keywords: Mechanical Behavior, strain rate, tensile test, AP/HTPB composite solid propellant, nonlinear viscoelastic

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1 An Analysis of the Relations between Aggregates’ Shape and Mechanical Properties throughout the Railway Ballast Service Life

Authors: Daianne Fernandes Diogenes

Abstract:

Railway ballast aggregates’ shape properties and size distribution can be directly affected by several factors, such as traffic, fouling, and maintenance processes, which cause breakage and wearing, leading to the fine particles’ accumulation through the ballast layer. This research aims to analyze the influence of traffic, tamping process, and sleepers’ stiffness on aggregates' shape and mechanical properties, by using traditional and digital image processing (DIP) techniques and cyclic tests, like resilient modulus (RM) and permanent deformation (PD). Aggregates were collected in different phases of the railway service life: (i) right after the crushing process; (ii) after construction, for the aggregates positioned below the sleepers and (iii) after 5 years of operation. An increase in the percentage of cubic particles was observed for the materials (ii) and (iii), providing a better interlocking, increasing stiffness and reducing axial deformation after 5 years of service, when compared to the initial conditions.

Keywords: Digital Image Processing, Mechanical Behavior, railway ballast, shape properties

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