Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

MDD Related Abstracts

2 Cognitive Functioning and Cortisol Suppression in Major Depression in a Long-Term Perspective

Authors: Pia Berner Hansson, Robert Murison Anders Lund, Hammar Åsa

Abstract:

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is often associated with high levels of stress and disturbances in the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) system, yielding high levels of cortisol, in addition to cognitive dysfunction. Previous studies in this patient group have shown a relationship between cortisol profile and cognitive functioning in the acute phase of MDD and that the patients had significantly less suppression after dexamethasone administration. However, few studies have investigated this relationship over time and in phases of symptom reduction. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between cortisol levels after the Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) and cognitive function in a long term perspective in MDD patients. Patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for a MDD were included in the study and tested in symptom reduction. A control group was included. Cortisol was measured in saliva collected with Salivette sampling devices. Saliva samples were collected 4 times during a 24 hours period over two consecutive days: at awakening, after 45 minutes, after 7 hours and at 11 pm. Dexamethasone (1.0 mg) was given on Day 1 at 11 pm. The neuropsychological test battery consisted of standardized tests measuring memory and Executive Functioning (EF). Cortisol levels did not differ significantly between patients and controls on Day 1 or Day 2. Both groups showed significant suppression after Dexamethasone. There were no correlations between cortisol levels or suppression after Dexamethasone and cognitive measures. The results indicate that the HPA-axis functioning normalizes in phases of symptom reduction in MDD patients and that there no relation between cortisol profile and cognitive functioning in memory or EF.

Keywords: Depression, MDD, cortisol, suppression, cognitive functioning

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1 The Proportion of Dysthymia Prevailing in Men and Women With Anxiety as Comorbidity

Authors: Yashvi Italiya

Abstract:

Dysthymia (DD) is a much-overlooked soft mood disorder and mostly confused with other forms of chronic depression. This research paper gives a spotlight to the DD prevailing in men and women. It also focuses on one of the comorbidities of Dysthymia, i.e., Anxiety. The comorbidities, hurdles in diagnosis, the ubiquity of the disorder, and the relation of Anxiety and DD are briefly described. Gender was the main focus here because the researcher of this paper found it as a research gap while doing the literature review. The study was done through secondary data obtained primarily from a questionnaire having Alpha 0.891 reliability. T-test method of data analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The result shows that the researcher failed to accept alternative hypothesis 1 (M1 > M2), while the alternative hypothesis 2 (M1 > M2) was accepted. The ratio of DD in women (M1) is not higher than that of men (M2) (hypothesis 1). But, women are more anxious than men (hypothesis 2). It was found that comorbid Anxiety is more widespread in one gender. It further plays a significant role in mixing up the symptoms. It was concluded that the dividing line between Dysthymia and MDD is still unclear for an accurate diagnosis. There is an essential need for spreading knowledge concerning the differences between the symptoms of DD and MDD so that the actual disorder can be identified, and proper help can be received from/provided by professionals.

Keywords: Gender, Anxiety, Comorbidity, Dysthymia, MDD

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