Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

maximum power point tracking Related Abstracts

19 Comparison between the Conventional Methods and PSO Based MPPT Algorithm for Photovoltaic Systems

Authors: Ramdan B. A. Koad, Ahmed F. Zobaa

Abstract:

Since the output characteristics of Photovoltaic (PV) system depends on the ambient temperature, solar radiation and load impedance, its maximum Power Point (MPP) is not constant. Under each condition PV module has a point at which it can produce its MPP. Therefore, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method is needed to uphold the PV panel operating at its MPP. This paper presents comparative study between the conventional MPPT methods used in (PV) system: Perturb and Observe (P&O), Incremental Conductance (IncCond), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm for (MPPT) of (PV) system. To evaluate the study, the proposed PSO MPPT is implemented on a DC-DC converter and has been compared with P&O and INcond methods in terms of their tracking speed, accuracy and performance by using the Matlab tool Simulink. The simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm is simple, and is superior to the P&O and IncCond methods.

Keywords: Photovoltaic systems, maximum power point tracking, perturb and observe method, incremental conductance, methods and practical swarm optimization algorithm

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18 Maximum Power Point Tracking Using FLC Tuned with GA

Authors: Mohamed Amine Haraoubia, Abdelaziz Hamzaoui, Najib Essounbouli

Abstract:

The pursuit of the MPPT has led to the development of many kinds of controllers, one of which is the Fuzzy Logic Controller, which has proven its worth. To further tune this controller this paper will discuss and analyze the use of Genetic Algorithms to tune the Fuzzy Logic Controller. It will provide an introduction to both systems, and test their compatibility and performance.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Genetic Algorithm, Fuzzy Logic Controller, maximum power point tracking, maximum power point

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17 Design and Simulation of Low Cost Boost-Half- Bridge Microinverter with Grid Connection

Authors: P. Bhavya, P. R. Jayasree

Abstract:

This paper presents a low cost transformer isolated boost half bridge micro-inverter for single phase grid connected PV system. Since the output voltage of a single PV panel is as low as 20~50V, a high voltage gain inverter is required for the PV panel to connect to the single-phase grid. The micro-inverter has two stages, an isolated dc-dc converter stage and an inverter stage with a dc link. To achieve MPPT and to step up the PV voltage to the dc link voltage, a transformer isolated boost half bridge dc-dc converter is used. To output the synchronised sinusoidal current with unity power factor to the grid, a pulse width modulated full bridge inverter with LCL filter is used. Variable step size Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method is adopted such that fast tracking and high MPPT efficiency are both obtained. AC voltage as per grid requirement is obtained at the output of the inverter. High power factor (>0.99) is obtained at both heavy and light loads. This paper gives the results of computer simulation program of a grid connected solar PV system using MATLAB/Simulink and SIM Power System tool.

Keywords: grid connection, maximum power point tracking, Matlab/Simulink, boost-half-bridge, micro-inverter

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16 Optimizing Operation of Photovoltaic System Using Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic

Authors: N. Drir, L. Barazane, M. Loudini

Abstract:

It is well known that photovoltaic (PV) cells are an attractive source of energy. Abundant and ubiquitous, this source is one of the important renewable energy sources that have been increasing worldwide year by year. However, in the V-P characteristic curve of GPV, there is a maximum point called the maximum power point (MPP) which depends closely on the variation of atmospheric conditions and the rotation of the earth. In fact, such characteristics outputs are nonlinear and change with variations of temperature and irradiation, so we need a controller named maximum power point tracker MPPT to extract the maximum power at the terminals of photovoltaic generator. In this context, the authors propose here to study the modeling of a photovoltaic system and to find an appropriate method for optimizing the operation of the PV generator using two intelligent controllers respectively to track this point. The first one is based on artificial neural networks and the second on fuzzy logic. After the conception and the integration of each controller in the global process, the performances are examined and compared through a series of simulation. These two controller have prove by their results good tracking of the MPPT compare with the other method which are proposed up to now.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Photovoltaic, maximum power point tracking, P&O

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15 Analysis and Modeling of Photovoltaic System with Different Research Methods of Maximum Power Point Tracking

Authors: Tamou Nasser, Mehdi Ameur, Ahmed Essakdi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is the analysis and modeling of the photovoltaic system with MPPT techniques. This system is developed by combining the models of established solar module and DC-DC converter with the algorithms of perturb and observe (P&O), incremental conductance (INC) and fuzzy logic controller(FLC). The system is simulated under different climate conditions and MPPT algorithms to determine the influence of these conditions on characteristic power-voltage of PV system. According to the comparisons of the simulation results, the photovoltaic system can extract the maximum power with precision and rapidity using the MPPT algorithms discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic Controller, MPPT, maximum power point tracking, incremental conductance, hill climbing, P&O, photovoltaic array, perturb and observe, INC, FLC

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14 Evaluation of Photovoltaic System with Different Research Methods of Maximum Power Point Tracking

Authors: Ahmed Essadki, Tamou Nasser, Mehdi Ameur

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is the evaluation of photovoltaic system with MPPT techniques. This system is developed by combining the models of established solar module and DC-DC converter with the algorithms of perturbing and observing (P&O), incremental conductance (INC) and fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The system is simulated under different climate conditions and MPPT algorithms to determine the influence of these conditions on characteristic power-voltage of PV system. According to the comparisons of the simulation results, the photovoltaic system can extract the maximum power with precision and rapidity using the MPPT algorithms discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic Controller, MPPT, maximum power point tracking, maximum power point, hill climbing, FLC, incremental conductance (INC), perturb and observe (P&O), MPP

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13 Optimal Tuning of RST Controller Using PSO Optimization for Synchronous Generator Based Wind Turbine under Three-Phase Voltage Dips

Authors: T. Allaoui, K. Tahir, C. Belfedal, C. Gerard, M. Doumi

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented an optimized RST controller using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) meta-heuristic technique of the active and reactive power regulation of a grid connected wind turbine based on a wound field synchronous generator. This regulation is achieved below the synchronous speed, by means of a maximum power point tracking algorithm. The control of our system is tested under typical wind variations and parameters variation, fault grid condition by simulation. Some results are presented and discussed to prove simplicity and efficiency of the WRSG control for WECS. On the other hand, according to simulation results, variable speed driven WRSG is not significantly impacted in fault conditions.

Keywords: Wind energy, Power Control, Particle Swarm Optimization, maximum power point tracking, wound rotor synchronous generator, RST controller

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12 Application of the DTC Control in the Photovoltaic Pumping System

Authors: A. Dib, M. N. Amrani, H. Abanou

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a strategy for optimizing the performance for a pumping structure constituted by an induction motor coupled to a centrifugal pump and improving existing results in this context. The considered system is supplied by a photovoltaic generator (GPV) through two static converters piloted in an independent manner. We opted for a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control method based on the Neuro - Fuzzy, which is well known for its stability and robustness. To improve the induction motor performance, we use the concept of Direct Torque Control (DTC) and PID controller for motor speed to pilot the working of the induction motor. Simulations of the proposed approach give interesting results compared to the existing control strategies in this field. The model of the proposed system is simulated by MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: Solar energy, maximum power point tracking, pumping photovoltaic system, direct torque Control (DTC), PID regulator

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11 Maximization of Generated Power from Wind Energy Conversion Systems Using a Doubly Fed Induction Generator with Active Disturbance Rejection Control

Authors: Ahmed Essadki, Tamou Nasser, Ali Boukhriss

Abstract:

This paper presents the control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in the wind energy conversion systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) strategy is used to extract the maximum of power during the conversion and taking care that the system does not exceed the operating limits. This is done by acting on the pitch angle to control the orientation of the turbine's blades. Having regard to its robustness and performance, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based on the extended state observer (ESO) is employed to achieve the control of both rotor and grid side converters. Simulations are carried out using matlab simulink.

Keywords: maximum power point tracking, extended state observer, active disturbance rejection control, doubly fed induction generator

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10 Active Disturbance Rejection Control for Maximization of Generated Power from Wind Energy Conversion Systems using a Doubly Fed Induction Generator

Authors: Ahmed Essadki, Tamou Nasser, Ali Boukhriss

Abstract:

This paper presents the control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in the wind energy conversion systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) strategy is used to extract the maximum of power during the conversion and taking care that the system does not exceed the operating limits. This is done by acting on the pitch angle to control the orientation of the turbine's blades. Having regard to its robustness and performance, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based on the extended state observer (ESO) is employed to achieve the control of both rotor and grid side converters. Simulations are carried out using matlab simulink.

Keywords: maximum power point tracking, extended state observer, active disturbance rejection control, doubly fed induction generator

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9 A Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control for Maximization of Generated Power from Wind Energy Conversion Systems Using a Doubly Fed Induction Generator

Authors: Ahmed Essadki, Tamou Nasser, Ali Boukhriss

Abstract:

This paper presents the control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in the wind energy conversion systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) strategy is used to extract the maximum of power during the conversion and taking care that the system does not exceed the operating limits. This is done by acting on the pitch angle to control the orientation of the turbine's blades. Having regard to its robustness and performance, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based on the extended state observer (ESO) is employed to achieve the control of both rotor and grid side converters. Simulations are carried out using MATLAB simulink.

Keywords: maximum power point tracking, extended state observer, active disturbance rejection control, doubly fed induction generator

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8 Sliding Mode Control of Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems

Authors: Zine Souhila Rached, Mazari Benyounes Bouzid, Mohamed Amine, Allaoui Tayeb

Abstract:

Wind energy has many advantages, it does not pollute and it is an inexhaustible source. However, its high cost is a major constraint, especially on the less windy sites. The purpose of wind energy systems is to maximize energy efficiency, and extract maximum power from the wind speed. In other words, having a power coefficient is maximum and therefore the maximum power point tracking. In this case, the MPPT control becomes important.To realize this control, strategy conventional proportional and integral (PI) controller is usually used. However, this strategy cannot achieve better performance. This paper proposes a robust control of a turbine which optimizes its production, that is improve the quality and energy efficiency, namely, a strategy of sliding mode control. The proposed sliding mode control strategy presents attractive features such as robustness to parametric uncertainties of the turbine; the proposed sliding mode control approach has been simulated on three-blade wind turbine. The simulation result under Matlab\Simulink has validated the performance of the proposed MPPT strategy.

Keywords: Energy Conversion Systems, Wind turbine, maximum power point tracking, sliding mode

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7 Maximum Power Point Tracking for Small Scale Wind Turbine Using Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network Implementation without Mechanical Sensor

Authors: Piyangkun Kukutapan, Siridech Boonsang

Abstract:

The article proposes maximum power point tracking without mechanical sensor using Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN). The aim of article is to reduce the cost and complexity but still retain efficiency. The experimental is that duty cycle is generated maximum power, if it has suitable qualification. The measured data from DC generator, voltage (V), current (I), power (P), turnover rate of power (dP), and turnover rate of voltage (dV) are used as input for MLPNN model. The output of this model is duty cycle for driving the converter. The experiment implemented using Arduino Uno board. This diagram is compared to MPPT using MLPNN and P&O control (Perturbation and Observation control). The experimental results show that the proposed MLPNN based approach is more efficiency than P&O algorithm for this application.

Keywords: maximum power point tracking, multilayer perceptron netural network, optimal duty cycle, DC generator

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6 Control Scheme for Single-Stage Boost Inverter for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ebrahimi, Behnaz Mahdaviani

Abstract:

Increasing renewable sources such photovoltaic are the reason of environmental pollution. Because photovoltaic generates power in low voltage, first, generated power should increase. Usually, distributed generation injects their power to AC-Grid, hence after voltage increasing an inverter is needed to convert DC power to AC power. This results in utilization two series converter that grows cost, complexity, and low efficiency. In this paper a single stage inverter is utilized to boost and invert in one stage. Control of this scheme is easier, and its initial cost decreases comparing to conventional double stage inverters. A simple control scheme is used to control active power as well as minimum total harmonic distortion (THD) in injected current. Simulations in MATLAB demonstrate better outputs comparing with conventional approaches.

Keywords: maximum power point tracking, control strategy, boost inverter, three phase inverter

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5 BLDC Motor Driven for Solar Photo Voltaic Powered Air Cooling System

Authors: D. Shobha Rani, M. Muralidhar

Abstract:

Solar photovoltaic (SPV) power systems can be employed as electrical power sources to meet the daily residential energy needs of rural areas that have no access to grid systems. In view of this, a standalone SPV powered air cooling system is proposed in this paper, which constitutes a dc-dc boost converter, two voltage source inverters (VSI) connected to two brushless dc (BLDC) motors which are coupled to a centrifugal water pump and a fan blower. A simple and efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique based on Silver Mean Method (SMM) is utilized in this paper. The air cooling system is developed and simulated using the MATLAB / Simulink environment considering the dynamic and steady state variation in the solar irradiance.

Keywords: boost converter, maximum power point tracking, voltage source inverter, solar irradiance, solar photovoltaic array, brushless DC motor, silver mean method

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4 Design, Control and Implementation of 3.5 kW Bi-Directional Energy Harvester for Intelligent Green Energy Management System

Authors: Aby Joseph, P. Ramesh, Arya G. Lal, U. S. Aji

Abstract:

Integration of distributed green renewable energy sources in addition with battery energy storage is an inevitable requirement in a smart grid environment. To achieve this, an Intelligent Green Energy Management System (i-GEMS) needs to be incorporated to ensure coordinated operation between supply and load demand based on the hierarchy of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), battery energy storage and distribution grid. A bi-directional energy harvester is an integral component facilitating Intelligent Green Energy Management System (i-GEMS) and it is required to meet the technical challenges mentioned as follows: (1) capability for bi-directional mode of operation (buck/boost) (2) reduction of circuit parasitic to suppress voltage spikes (3) converter startup problem (4) high frequency magnetics (5) higher power density (6) mode transition issues during battery charging and discharging. This paper is focused to address the above mentioned issues and targeted to design, develop and implement a bi-directional energy harvester with galvanic isolation. In this work, the hardware architecture for bi-directional energy harvester rated 3.5 kW is developed with Isolated Full Bridge Boost Converter (IFBBC) as well as Dual Active Bridge (DAB) Converter configuration using modular power electronics hardware which is identical for both solar PV array and battery energy storage. In IFBBC converter, the current fed full bridge circuit is enabled and voltage fed full bridge circuit is disabled through Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) pulses for boost mode of operation and vice-versa for buck mode of operation. In DAB converter, all the switches are in active state so as to adjust the phase shift angle between primary full bridge and secondary full bridge which in turn decides the power flow directions depending on modes (boost/buck) of operation. Here, the control algorithm is developed to ensure the regulation of the common DC link voltage and maximum power extraction from the renewable energy sources depending on the selected mode (buck/boost) of operation. The circuit analysis and simulation study are conducted using PSIM 9.0 in three scenarios which are - 1.IFBBC with passive clamp, 2. IFBBC with active clamp, 3. DAB converter. In this work, a common hardware prototype for bi-directional energy harvester with 3.5 kW rating is built for IFBBC and DAB converter configurations. The power circuit is equipped with right choice of MOSFETs, gate drivers with galvanic isolation, high frequency transformer, filter capacitors, and filter boost inductor. The experiment was conducted for IFBBC converter with passive clamp under boost mode and the prototype confirmed the simulation results showing the measured efficiency as 88% at 2.5 kW output power. The digital controller hardware platform is developed using floating point microcontroller TMS320F2806x from Texas Instruments. The firmware governing the operation of the bi-directional energy harvester is written in C language and developed using code composer studio. The comprehensive analyses of the power circuit design, control strategy for battery charging/discharging under buck/boost modes and comparative performance evaluation using simulation and experimental results will be presented.

Keywords: Renewable Energy Sources, maximum power point tracking, bi-directional energy harvester, dual active bridge, isolated full bridge boost converter, intelligent green energy management system

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3 Analysing Maximum Power Point Tracking in a Stand Alone Photovoltaic System

Authors: Osamede Asowata

Abstract:

Optimized gain in respect to output power of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems is one of the major focus of PV in recent times. This is evident in its low carbon emission and efficiency. Power failure or outage from commercial providers, in general, does not promote development to public and private sector; these basically limit the development of industries. The need for a well-structured PV system is of importance for an efficient and cost effective monitoring system. The purpose of this paper is to validate the maximum power point of an off-grid PV system taking into consideration the most effective tilt and orientation angles for PV's in the southern hemisphere. This paper is based on analyzing the system using a solar charger with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) from a pulse width modulation (PWM) perspective. The power conditioning device chosen is a solar charger with MPPT. The practical setup consists of a PV panel that is set to an orientation angle of 0°N, with a corresponding tilt angle of 36°, 26°, and 16°. Preliminary results include regression analysis (normal probability plot) showing the maximum power point in the system as well the best tilt angle for maximum power point tracking.

Keywords: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), MPPT, maximum power point tracking, poly-crystalline PV panels, tilt and orientation angles, solar chargers

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2 Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Fuzzy Logic Control for a Stand-Alone PV System with PI Controller for Battery Charging Based on Evolutionary Technique

Authors: Mohamed A. Moustafa Hassan, Omnia S .S. Hussian, Hany M. Elsaved

Abstract:

This paper introduces the application of Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) to extract the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) from the PV panel. In addition, the proportional integral (PI) controller is used to be the strategy for battery charge control according to acceptable performance criteria. The parameters of the PI controller have been tuned via Modified Adaptive Accelerated Coefficient Particle Swarm Optimization (MAACPSO) technique. The simulation results, using MATLAB/Simulink tools, show that the FLC technique has advantages for use in the MPPT problem, as it provides a fast response under changes in environmental conditions such as radiation and temperature. In addition, the use of PI controller based on MAACPSO results in a good performance in terms of controlling battery charging with constant voltage and current to execute rapid charging.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic control, PI controller, maximum power point tracking, PV system, battery charging, evolutionary technique

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1 Model-Based Global Maximum Power Point Tracking at Photovoltaic String under Partial Shading Conditions Using Multi-Input Interleaved Boost DC-DC Converter

Authors: Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Seyed Majid Hashemzadeh

Abstract:

Solar energy is one of the remarkable renewable energy sources that have particular characteristics such as unlimited, no environmental pollution, and free access. Generally, solar energy can be used in thermal and photovoltaic (PV) types. The cost of installation of the PV system is very high. Additionally, due to dependence on environmental situations such as solar radiation and ambient temperature, electrical power generation of this system is unpredictable and without power electronics devices, there is no guarantee to maximum power delivery at the output of this system. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) should be used to achieve the maximum power of a PV string. MPPT is one of the essential parts of the PV system which without this section, it would be impossible to reach the maximum amount of the PV string power and high losses are caused in the PV system. One of the noticeable challenges in the problem of MPPT is the partial shading conditions (PSC). In PSC, the output photocurrent of the PV module under the shadow is less than the PV string current. The difference between the mentioned currents passes from the module's internal parallel resistance and creates a large negative voltage across shaded modules. This significant negative voltage damages the PV module under the shadow. This condition is called hot-spot phenomenon. An anti-paralleled diode is inserted across the PV module to prevent the happening of this phenomenon. This diode is known as the bypass diode. Due to the performance of the bypass diode under PSC, the P-V curve of the PV string has several peaks. One of the P-V curve peaks that makes the maximum available power is the global peak. Model-based Global MPPT (GMPPT) methods can estimate the optimal point with higher speed than other GMPPT approaches. Centralized, modular, and interleaved DC-DC converter topologies are the significant structures that can be used for GMPPT at a PV string. there are some problems in the centralized structure such as current mismatch losses at PV sting, loss of power of the shaded modules because of bypassing by bypass diodes under PSC, needing to series connection of many PV modules to reach the desired voltage level. In the modular structure, each PV module is connected to a DC-DC converter. In this structure, by increasing the amount of demanded power from the PV string, the number of DC-DC converters that are used at the PV system will increase. As a result, the cost of the modular structure is very high. We can implement the model-based GMPPT through the multi-input interleaved boost DC-DC converter to increase the power extraction from the PV string and reduce hot-spot and current mismatch error in a PV string under different environmental condition and variable load circumstances. The interleaved boost DC-DC converter has many privileges than other mentioned structures, such as high reliability and efficiency, better regulation of DC voltage at DC link, overcome the notable errors such as module's current mismatch and hot spot phenomenon, and power switches voltage stress reduction.

Keywords: Solar energy, Photovoltaic systems, maximum power point tracking, interleaved boost converter, model-based method, partial shading conditions

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