Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

matrix Related Abstracts

12 Studying the Influence of Stir Cast Parameters on Properties of Al6061/Al2O3 Composite

Authors: Anuj Suhag, Rahul Dayal


Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) refer to the class of metal matrix composites that are lightweight but high performance aluminum centric material systems. The reinforcement in AMCs could be in the form of continuous/discontinuous fibers, whisker or particulates, in volume fractions. Properties of AMCs can be altered to the requirements of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. This work focuses on the fabrication of aluminum alloy (Al6061) matrix composites (AMCs) reinforced with 5 and 3 wt% Al2O3 particulates of 45µm using stir casting route. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of process parameters, determined by design of experiments, on microhardness, microstructure, Charpy impact strength, surface roughness and tensile properties of the AMC.

Keywords: Composite Materials, reinforcement, surface roughness, metal matrix composite, aluminium matrix composite, Charpy impact strength test, matrix

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11 Preparation of Alumina (Al2O3) Particles and MMCS of (Al-7% Si– 0.45% Mg) Alloy Using Vortex Method

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi


The aim of this research is to study the manner of alumina (Al2O3) particles dispersion with (2-10) mm size in (Al-7%Si-0.45% Mg) base of alloy melt employing of classical casting method. The mechanism of particles diffusions by melt turning and stirring that makes vortexes help the particles entrance in the matrix of base alloy also has been studied. The samples of metallic composites (MMCs) with dispersed particles percentages (4% - 6% - 8% - 10% - 15% and 20%) are prepared. The effect of the particles dispersion on the mechanical properties of produced samples were carried out by tension & hardness tests. It is found that the ultimate tensile strength of the produced composites can be increased by increasing the percentages of alumina particles in the matrix of the base alloy. It becomes (232 Mpa) at (20%) of added particles. The results showed that the average hardness of prepared samples increasing with increases the alumina content. Microstructure study of prepared samples was carried out. The results showed particles location and distribution of it in the matrix of base alloy. The dissolution of Alumina particles into liquid base alloy was clear in some cases.

Keywords: Hardness, Thermal Properties, matrix, base alloy, base metal MMCs

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10 The Conservation of the Roman Mosaics in the Museum of Sousse, Tunisia: Between Doctrines and Practices

Authors: Zeineb Yousse, Fakher Kharrat


Mosaic is a part of a broad universal cultural heritage; sometimes it represents a rather essential source for the researches on the everyday life of some of the previous civilizations. Tunisia has one of the finest and largest collections of mosaics in the world, which is essentially exhibited in the Museums of Bardo and Sousse. Restored and reconstituted, they bear witnesses to hard work. Our paper deals with the discipline of conservation of Roman mosaics based on the proceedings of the workshop of the Museum of Sousse. Thus, we highlight two main objectives. In the first place, it is a question of revealing the techniques adopted by professionals to handle mosaics and to which school of conservation these techniques belong. In the second place, we are going to interpret the works initiated to preserve the archaeological heritage in order to protect it in present time and transmit it to future generations. To this end, we paid attention to four Roman mosaics currently exhibited in the Museum of Sousse. These Mosaics show different voids or gaps at the level of their surfaces and the method used to fill these gaps seems to be interesting to analyze. These mosaics are known under the names of: Orpheus Charming the Animals, Gladiator and Bears, Stud farm of Sorothus and finally Head of Medusa. The study on the conservation passes through two chained phases. We start with a small historical overview in order to gather information related to the original location, the date of its composition as well as the description of its image. Afterward, the intervention process is analyzed by handling three complementary elements which are: diagnosis of the existing state, the study of the medium processing and the study of the processing of the tesselatum surface which includes the pictorial composition of the mosaic. Furthermore, we have implemented an evaluation matrix with six operating principles allowing the assessment of the appropriateness of the intervention. These principles are the following: minimal intervention, reversibility, compatibility, visibility, durability, authenticity and enhancement. Various accumulated outcomes are pointing out the techniques used to fill the gaps as well as the level of compliance with the principles of conservation. Accordingly, the conservation of mosaics in Tunisia is a practice that combines various techniques without really arguing about the choice of a particular theory.

Keywords: Conservation, Principles, matrix, museum of Sousse, operating particular theory, Roman mosaics

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9 Effect of Surface Treatment on Physico-Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fiber-Unsaturated Polyester Composites

Authors: A. H. Birniwa, A. A. Salisu, M. Y. Yakasai, A. Sabo, K. Aujara, A. Isma’il


Sisal fibre was extracted from Sisal leaves by enzymatic retting method. A portion of the fibre was subjected to treatment with alkali, benzoyl chloride and silane compounds. Sisal fibre composites were fabricated using unsaturated polyester resin, by hand lay-up technique using both the treated and untreated fibre. Tensile, flexural and water absorption tests were conducted and evaluated on the composites. The results obtained were found to increase in the treated fibre compared to untreated fibre. Surface morphology of the fibre was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the result obtained showed variation in the morphology of the treated and untreated fibre. FT-IR results showed inclusion of benzoyl and silane groups on the fibre surface. The fibre chemical modification improves its adhesion to the matrix, mechanical properties of the composites were also found to improve.

Keywords: Composite, sisal fibre, flexural strength, matrix

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8 Estimating the Effect of Fluid in Pressing Process

Authors: A. Movaghar, R. A. Mahdavinejad


To analyze the effect of various parameters of fluid on the material properties such as surface and depth defects and/or cracks, it is possible to determine the affection of pressure field on these specifications. Stress tensor analysis is also able to determine the points in which the probability of defection creation is more. Besides, from pressure field, it is possible to analyze the affection of various fluid specifications such as viscosity and density on defect created in the material. In this research, the concerned boundary conditions are analyzed first. Then the solution network and stencil used are mentioned. With the determination of relevant equation on the fluid flow between notch and matrix and their discretion according to the governed boundary conditions, these equations can be solved. Finally, with the variation creations on fluid parameters such as density and viscosity, the affection of these variations can be determined on pressure field. In this direction, the flowchart and solution algorithm with their results as vortex and current function contours for two conditions with most applications in pressing process are introduced and discussed.

Keywords: vortex, notch, matrix, pressing, flow function

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7 Prospects of Low Immune Response Transplants Based on Acellular Organ Scaffolds

Authors: Inna Kornienko, Svetlana Guryeva, Anatoly Shekhter, Elena Petersen


Transplantation is an effective treatment option for patients suffering from different end-stage diseases. However, it is plagued by a constant shortage of donor organs and the subsequent need of a lifelong immunosuppressive therapy for the patient. Currently some researchers look towards using of pig organs to replace human organs for transplantation since the matrix derived from porcine organs is a convenient substitute for the human matrix. As an initial step to create a new ex vivo tissue engineered model, optimized protocols have been created to obtain organ-specific acellular matrices and evaluated their potential as tissue engineered scaffolds for culture of normal cells and tumor cell lines. These protocols include decellularization by perfusion in a bioreactor system and immersion-agitation on an orbital shaker with use of various detergents (SDS, Triton X-100) and freezing. Complete decellularization – in terms of residual DNA amount – is an important predictor of probability of immune rejection of materials of natural origin. However, the signs of cellular material may still remain within the matrix even after harsh decellularization protocols. In this regard, the matrices obtained from tissues of low-immunogenic pigs with α3Galactosyl-tranferase gene knock out (GalT-KO) may be a promising alternative to native animal sources. The research included a study of induced effect of frozen and fresh fragments of GalT-KO skin on healing of full-thickness plane wounds in 80 rats. Commercially available wound dressings (Ksenoderm, Hyamatrix and Alloderm) as well as allogenic skin were used as a positive control and untreated wounds were analyzed as a negative control. The results were evaluated on the 4th day after grafting, which corresponds to the time of start of normal wound epithelization. It has been shown that a non-specific immune response in models treated with GalT-Ko pig skin was milder than in all the control groups. Research has been performed to measure technical skin characteristics: stiffness and elasticity properties, corneometry, tevametry, and cutometry. These metrics enabled the evaluation of hydratation level, corneous layer husking level, as well as skin elasticity and micro- and macro-landscape. These preliminary data may contribute to development of personalized transplantable organs from GalT-Ko pigs with significantly limited potential of immune rejection. By applying growth factors to a decellularized skin sample it is possible to achieve various regenerative effects based on the particular situation. In this particular research BMP2 and Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor have been used. Ideally, a bioengineered organ must be biocompatible, non-immunogenic and support cell growth. Porcine organs are attractive for xenotransplantation if severe immunologic concerns can be bypassed. The results indicate that genetically modified pig tissues with knock-outed α3Galactosyl-tranferase gene may be used for production of low-immunogenic matrix suitable for transplantation.

Keywords: Scaffolds, matrix, decellularization, low-immunogenic, transplants

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6 Development of Noninvasive Method to Analyze Dynamic Changes of Matrix Stiffness and Elasticity Characteristics

Authors: Elena Petersen, Inna Kornienko, Svetlana Guryeva, Sergey Dobdin, Anatoly Skripal, Andrey Usanov, Dmitry Usanov


One of the most important unsolved problems in modern medicine is the increase of chronic diseases that lead to organ dysfunction or even complete loss of function. Current methods of treatment do not result in decreased mortality and disability statistics. Currently, the best treatment for many patients is still transplantation of organs and/or tissues. Therefore, finding a way of correct artificial matrix biofabrication in case of limited number of natural organs for transplantation is a critical task. One important problem that needs to be solved is development of a nondestructive and noninvasive method to analyze dynamic changes of mechanical characteristics of a matrix with minimal side effects on the growing cells. This research was focused on investigating the properties of matrix as a marker of graft condition. In this study, the collagen gel with human primary dermal fibroblasts in suspension (60, 120, 240*103 cells/mL) and collagen gel with cell spheroids were used as model objects. The stiffness and elasticity characteristics were evaluated by a semiconductor laser autodyne. The time and cell concentration dependency of the stiffness and elasticity were investigated. It was shown that these properties changed in a non-linear manner with respect to cell concentration. The maximum matrix stiffness was observed in the collagen gel with the cell concentration of 120*103 cells/mL. This study proved the opportunity to use the mechanical properties of matrix as a marker of graft condition, which can be measured by noninvasive semiconductor laser autodyne technique.

Keywords: Regenerative medicine, matrix, graft, noninvasive method, semiconductor laser autodyne

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5 An Efficient Book Keeping Strategy for the Formation of the Design Matrix in Geodetic Network Adjustment

Authors: O. G. Omogunloye, J. B. Olaleye, O. E. Abiodun, J. O. Odumosu, O. G. Ajayi


The focus of the study is to proffer easy formulation and computation of least square observation equation’s design matrix by using an efficient book keeping strategy. Usually, for a large network of many triangles and stations, a rigorous task is involved in the computation and placement of the values of the differentials of each observation with respect to its station coordinates (latitude and longitude), in their respective rows and columns. The efficient book keeping strategy seeks to eliminate or reduce this rigorous task involved, especially in large network, by simple skillful arrangement and development of a short program written in the Matlab environment, the formulation and computation of least square observation equation’s design matrix can be easily achieved.

Keywords: Differential, Design, Network, Geodetic, matrix, station

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4 Spatial Organization of Cells over the Process of Pellicle Formation by Pseudomonas alkylphenolica KL28

Authors: Kyoung Lee


Numerous aerobic bacteria have the ability to form multicellular communities on the surface layer of the air-liquid (A-L) interface as a biofilm called a pellicle. Pellicles occupied at the A-L interface will benefit from the utilization of oxygen from air and nutrient from liquid. Buoyancy of cells can be obtained by high surface tension at the A-L interface. Thus, formation of pellicles is an adaptive advantage in utilization of excess nutrients in the standing culture where oxygen depletion is easily set up due to rapid cell growth. In natural environments, pellicles are commonly observed on the surface of lake or pond contaminated with pollutants. Previously, we have shown that when cultured in standing LB media an alkylphenol-degrading bacteria Pseudomonas alkylphenolia KL28 forms pellicles in a diameter of 0.3-0.5 mm with a thickness of ca 40 µm. The pellicles have unique features for possessing flatness and unusual rigidity. In this study, the biogenesis of the circular pellicles has been investigated by observing the cell organization at early stages of pellicle formation and cell arrangements in pellicle, providing a clue for highly organized cellular arrangement to be adapted to the air-liquid niche. Here, we first monitored developmental patterns of pellicle from monolayer to multicellular organization. Pellicles were shaped by controlled growth of constituent cells which accumulate extracellular polymeric substance. The initial two-dimensional growth was transited to multilayers by a constraint force of accumulated self-produced extracellular polymeric substance. Experiments showed that pellicles are formed by clonal growth and even with knock-out of genes for flagella and pilus formation. In contrast, the mutants in the epm gene cluster for alginate-like polymer biosynthesis were incompetent in cell alignment for initial two-dimensional growth of pellicles. Electron microscopic and confocal laser scanning microscopic studies showed that the fully matured structures are highly packed by matrix-encased cells which have special arrangements. The cells on the surface of the pellicle lie relatively flat and inside longitudinally cross packed. HPLC analysis of the extrapolysaccharide (EPS) hydrolysate from the colonies from LB agar showed a composition with L-fucose, L-rhamnose, D-galactosamine, D-glucosamine, D-galactose, D-glucose, D-mannose. However, that from pellicles showed similar neutral and amino sugar profile but missing galactose. Furthermore, uronic acid analysis of EPS hydrolysates by HPLC showed that mannuronic acid was detected from pellicles not from colonies, indicating the epm-derived polymer is critical for pellicle formation as proved by the epm mutants. This study verified that for the circular pellicle architecture P. alkylphenolica KL28 cells utilized EPS building blocks different from that used for colony construction. These results indicate that P. alkylphenolica KL28 is a clever architect that dictates unique cell arrangements with selected EPS matrix material to construct sophisticated building, circular biofilm pellicles.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, Biofilm, matrix, pellicle

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3 Place-Based Practice: A New Zealand Rural Nursing Study

Authors: Jean Ross


Rural nursing is not an identified professional identity in the UK, unlike the USA, Canada, and Australia which recognizes rural nursing as a specialty scope of practice. In New Zealand rural nursing is an underrepresented aspect of nursing practice, is misunderstood and does not fit easily within the wider nursing profession and policies governing practice. This study situated within the New Zealand context adds to the international studies’ aligned with rural nursing practice. The study addresses a gap in the literature by striving to identify and strengthen the awareness of and increase rural nurses’ understanding and articulation of their changing and adapting identity and furthermore an opportunity to appreciate their contribution to the delivery of rural health care. In addition, this study adds to the growing global rural nursing knowledge and theoretical base. This research is a continuation of the author’s academic involvement and ongoing relationships with the rural nursing sector, national policy analysts and health care planners since the 1990s. These relationships have led to awareness, that despite rural nurses’ efforts to explain the particular nuances which make up their practice, there has been little recognition by profession to establish rural nursing as a specialty. The research explored why nurses’ who practiced in the rural Otago region of New Zealand, between the 1990s and early 2000s moved away from the traditional identity as a district, practice or public health nurse and looked towards a more appropriate identity which reflected their emerging practice. This qualitative research situated within the interpretive paradigm embeds this retrospective study within the discipline of nursing and engages with the concepts of place and governmentality. National key informant and Otago regional rural nurse interviews generated data and were analyzed using thematic analysis. Stemming from the analyses, an analytical diagrammatic matrix was developed demonstrating rural nursing as a ‘place–based practice’ governed both from within and beyond location presenting how the nurse aligns the self in the rural community as a meaningful provider of health care. Promoting this matrix may encourage a focal discussion point within the international spectrum of nursing and likewise between rural and non-rural nurses which it is hoped will generate further debate in relation to the different nuances aligned with rural nursing practice. Further, insights from this paper may capture key aspects and issues related to identity formation in respect to rural nurses, from the UK, New Zealand, Canada, USA, and Australia.

Keywords: Nursing, Rural, place, matrix

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2 Generation of Research Ideas Through a Matrix in the Field of International Comparative Education

Authors: Saleh Alzahrani


The studies in the field of International Comparative Education in the Arabic world and the middle east are scarcity. However, some International Comparative Education Researchers and post graduates face a challenge concerning of a selection of a distinguished study to improve their national education system. It requires a considerable effort. According to that, the matrix of scientific research in comparative and international education is designed to help specialists, researchers and graduate students in generating a variety of research ideas in a short time in this field. The matrix is built by using content analysis method of comparative education research published in the Arab journals from 1980 to 2017. Then, qualitative input with the in-depth focus analysis tool is utilized according to the root theory. The matrix consists of two axes; vertical (X) and horizontal (Y). The number of fields in the vertical axis are 6 domains, including 105 variables. The horizontal axis is two fields which are pre-university education that incorporate educational stages and contemporary formulations including (23) variables. The second field is the university education in its public universities and contemporary formulas including (15) variables. The researcher can access topics, ideas and research points through the matrix of scientific research in comparative and international education by selecting of any subject on the vertical axis (X) from (1) to (105) and selecting of any subject on the horizontal axis (Y) from (B) to (U). The cell where the axes intersect with the chosen fields can generate an idea or a research point conveniently and easily through the words that have been monitored by the user. These steps can be repeated to generate new ideas and research points. Many graduate researchers have been trained on using of this matrix which gave them more potential to generate an appropriate study serving the national education.

Keywords: Comparative Education, International Education, matrix, content analysis method, root theory

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1 Micromechanics of Stress Transfer across the Interface Fiber-Matrix Bonding

Authors: Fatiha Teklal, Bachir Kacimi, Arezki Djebbar


The study and application of composite materials are a truly interdisciplinary endeavor that has been enriched by contributions from chemistry, physics, materials science, mechanics and manufacturing engineering. The understanding of the interface (or interphase) in composites is the central point of this interdisciplinary effort. From the early development of composite materials of various nature, the optimization of the interface has been of major importance. Even more important, the ideas linking the properties of composites to the interface structure are still emerging. In our study, we need a direct characterization of the interface; the micromechanical tests we are addressing seem to meet this objective and we chose to use two complementary tests simultaneously. The microindentation test that can be applied to real composites and the drop test, preferred to the pull-out because of the theoretical possibility of studying systems with high adhesion (which is a priori the case with our systems). These two tests are complementary because of the principle of the model specimen used for both the first "compression indentation" and the second whose fiber is subjected to tensile stress called the drop test. Comparing the results obtained by the two methods can therefore be rewarding.

Keywords: Micromechanics, Interface, Fiber, pull-out, matrix

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