Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Mathematical Models Related Abstracts

10 Formal Models of Sanitary Inspections Teams Activities

Authors: Jerzy Bertrandt, Robert Waszkowski, Tadeusz Nowicki, Radosław Pytlak, Anna Kłos


This paper presents methods for formal modeling of activities in the area of sanitary inspectors outbreak of food-borne diseases. The models allow you to measure the characteristics of the activities of sanitary inspection and as a result allow improving the performance of sanitary services and thus food security.

Keywords: Mathematical Models, epidemic, food-borne disease, sanitary inspection

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9 Characterization of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Created by Multiple Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

Authors: Clement Temaneh-Nyah, Josiah Makiche, Josephine Nujoma


This paper considers the characterisation of a complex electromagnetic environment due to multiple sources of electromagnetic radiation as a five-dimensional surface which can be described by a set of several surface sections including: instant EM field intensity distribution maps at a given frequency and altitude, instantaneous spectrum at a given location in space and the time evolution of the electromagnetic field spectrum at a given point in space. This characterization if done over time can enable the exposure levels of Radio Frequency Radiation at every point in the analysis area to be determined and results interpreted based on comparison of the determined RFR exposure level with the safe guidelines for general public exposure given by recognised body such as the International commission on non-ionising radiation protection (ICNIRP), Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), the National Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA).

Keywords: Mathematical Models, complex electromagnetic environment, electric field strength, multiple sources

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8 Statistical Design of Central Point for Evaluate the Combination of PH and Cinnamon Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Activity Using the ABTS Technique

Authors: H. Minor-Pérez, A. M. Mota-Silva, S. Ortiz-Barrios


Substances of vegetable origin with antioxidant capacity have a high potential for application on the conservation of some foods, can prevent or reduce for example oxidation of lipids. However a food is a complex system whose wide variety of components wich can reduce or eliminate this antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant activity can be determined with the ABTS technique. The radical ABTS+ is generated from the acid 2, 2´ - Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). This radical is a composite color bluish-green, stable and with a spectrum of absorption into the UV-visible. The addition of antioxidants causes discoloration, value that can be reported as a percentage of inhibition of the cation radical ABTS+. The objective of this study was evaluated the effect of the combination of the pH and the essential oil of cinnamon (EOC) on inhibition of the radical ABTS+, using statistical design of central point (Design Expert) to obtain mathematical models that describe this phenomenon. Were evaluated 17 treatments with combinations of pH 5, 6 and 7 (citrate-phosphate buffer) and the concentration of essential oil of cinnamon (C): 0 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL and 200 µg/mL. The samples were analyzed using the ABTS technique. The reagent was dissolved in methanol 80% to standardized the absorbance to 0.7 +/- 0.1 at 754 nm. Then samples were mixed with reagent standardized ABTS and after 1 min and 7 min absorbance was read for each treatment at 754 nm. Was used a curve pattern with vitamin C and reported the values as inhibition (%) of radical ABTS+. The statistical analysis shows the experimental results were adjusted to a quadratic model, to the times of 1 min and 7 min. This model describes the influence of the factors investigated independently: pH and cinnamon essential oil (µg/mL) and the effect of the interaction between pH*C, as well as the square of the pH2 and C2. The model obtained was Y = 10.33684 - 3.98118*pH + 1.17031*C + 0.62745*pH2 - 3.26675*10-3*C2 - 0.013112*pH*C, where Y is the response variable. The coefficient of determination was 0.9949 for 1 min. The equation was obtained at 7 min and = - 10.89710 + 1.52341*pH + 1.32892*C + 0.47953*pH2 - 3.56605*10- *C2 - 0.034687*pH*C. The coefficient of determination was 0.9970. This means that only 1% of the total variation is not explained by the developed models. At 100 µg/mL of EOC was obtained an inhibition percentage of 80%, 84% and 97% for the pH values of 5,6 and 7 respectively, while a value of 200 µg/mL the inhibition (%) was very similar for the treatments. In these values of pH was obtained an inhibition close 97%. In conclusion the pH does not have a significant effect on the antioxidant capacity, while the concentration of EOC was decisive for the antioxidant capacity. The authors acknowledge the funding provided by the CONACYT for the project 131998.

Keywords: Mathematical Models, antioxidant activity, ABTS technique, essential oil of cinnamon

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7 Mathematical Models for GMAW and FCAW Welding Processes for Structural Steels Used in the Oil Industry

Authors: Carlos Alberto Carvalho Castro, Nancy Del Ducca Barbedo, Edmilsom Otoni Côrrea


With increase the production oil and lines transmission gases that are in ample expansion, the industries medium and great transport they had to adapt itself to supply the demand manufacture in this fabrication segment. In this context, two welding processes have been more extensively used: the GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) and the FCAW (Flux Cored Arc Welding). In this work, welds using these processes were carried out in flat position on ASTM A-36 carbon steel plates in order to make a comparative evaluation between them concerning to mechanical and metallurgical properties. A statistical tool based on technical analysis and design of experiments, DOE, from the Minitab software was adopted. For these analyses, the voltage, current, and welding speed, in both processes, were varied. As a result, it was observed that the welds in both processes have different characteristics in relation to the metallurgical properties and performance, but they present good weldability, satisfactory mechanical strength e developed mathematical models.

Keywords: Mathematical Models, Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Design of Experiments (DOE)

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6 The Promotion Effects for a Supply Chain System with a Dominant Retailer

Authors: Tai-Yue Wang, Yi-Ho Chen


In this study, we investigate a two-echelon supply chain with two suppliers and three retailers among which one retailer dominates other retailers. A price competition demand function is used to model this dominant retailer, which is leading market. The promotion strategies and negotiation schemes are integrated to form decision-making models under different scenarios. These models are then formulated into different mathematical programming models. The decision variables such as promotional costs, retailer prices, wholesale price, and order quantity are included in these models. At last, the distributions of promotion costs under different cost allocation strategies are discussed. Finally, an empirical example used to validate our models. The results from this empirical example show that the profit model will create the largest profit for the supply chain but with different profit-sharing results. At the same time, the more risk a member can take, the more profits are distributed to that member in the utility model.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Mathematical Models, price promotion, dominant retailer

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5 Sustainability of Photovoltaic Recycling Planning

Authors: Jun-Ki Choi


The usage of valuable resources and the potential for waste generation at the end of the life cycle of photovoltaic (PV) technologies necessitate a proactive planning for a PV recycling infrastructure. To ensure the sustainability of PV in large scales of deployment, it is vital to develop and institute low-cost recycling technologies and infrastructure for the emerging PV industry in parallel with the rapid commercialization of these new technologies. There are various issues involved in the economics of PV recycling and this research examine those at macro and micro levels, developing a holistic interpretation of the economic viability of the PV recycling systems. This study developed mathematical models to analyze the profitability of recycling technologies and to guide tactical decisions for allocating optimal location of PV take-back centers (PVTBC), necessary for the collection of end of life products. The economic decision is usually based on the level of the marginal capital cost of each PVTBC, cost of reverse logistics, distance traveled, and the amount of PV waste collected from various locations. Results illustrated that the reverse logistics costs comprise a major portion of the cost of PVTBC; PV recycling centers can be constructed in the optimally selected locations to minimize the total reverse logistics cost for transporting the PV wastes from various collection facilities to the recycling center. In the micro- process level, automated recycling processes should be developed to handle the large amount of growing PV wastes economically. The market price of the reclaimed materials are important factors for deciding the profitability of the recycling process and this illustrates the importance of the recovering the glass and expensive metals from PV modules.

Keywords: Sustainability, Mathematical Models, Recycling, Photovoltaic

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4 Multiscale Model of Blast Explosion Human Injury Biomechanics

Authors: Raj K. Gupta, X. Gary Tan, Andrzej Przekwas


Bomb blasts from Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) account for vast majority of terrorist attacks worldwide. Injuries caused by IEDs result from a combination of the primary blast wave, penetrating fragments, and human body accelerations and impacts. This paper presents a multiscale computational model of coupled blast physics, whole human body biodynamics and injury biomechanics of sensitive organs. The disparity of the involved space- and time-scales is used to conduct sequential modeling of an IED explosion event, CFD simulation of blast loads on the human body and FEM modeling of body biodynamics and injury biomechanics. The paper presents simulation results for blast-induced brain injury coupling macro-scale brain biomechanics and micro-scale response of sensitive neuro-axonal structures. Validation results on animal models and physical surrogates are discussed. Results of our model can be used to 'replicate' filed blast loadings in laboratory controlled experiments using animal models and in vitro neuro-cultures.

Keywords: Mathematical Models, Injury Biomechanics, traumatic brain injury, blast waves, improvised explosive devices

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3 Effects of the Fractional Order on Nanoparticles in Blood Flow through the Stenosed Artery

Authors: Mohammed Abdulhameed, Sagir M. Abdullahi


In this paper, based on the applications of nanoparticle, the blood flow along with nanoparticles through stenosed artery is studied. The blood is acted by periodic body acceleration, an oscillating pressure gradient and an external magnetic field. The mathematical formulation is based on Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative without singular kernel. The model of ordinary blood, corresponding to time-derivatives of integer order, is obtained as a limiting case. Analytical solutions of the blood velocity and temperature distribution are obtained by means of the Hankel and Laplace transforms. Effects of the order of Caputo-Fabrizio time-fractional derivatives and three different nanoparticles i.e. Fe3O4, TiO4 and Cu are studied. The results highlights that, models with fractional derivatives bring significant differences compared to the ordinary model. It is observed that the addition of Fe3O4 nanoparticle reduced the resistance impedance of the blood flow and temperature distribution through bell shape stenosed arteries as compared to TiO4 and Cu nanoparticles. On entering in the stenosed area, blood temperature increases slightly, but, increases considerably and reaches its maximum value in the stenosis throat. The shears stress has variation from a constant in the area without stenosis and higher in the layers located far to the longitudinal axis of the artery. This fact can be an important for some clinical applications in therapeutic procedures.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Mathematical Models, blood flow, stenosed artery

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2 Design and Study of a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector for Generating Electricity

Authors: A. A. A. Aboalnour, Ahmed M. Amasaib, Mohammed-Almujtaba A. Mohammed-Farah, Abdelhakam, A. Noreldien


This paper presents a design and study of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector (PTC). Mathematical models were used in this work to find the direct and reflected solar radiation from the air layer on the surface of the earth per hour based on the total daily solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Also mathematical models had been used to calculate the radiation of the tilted surfaces. Most of the ingredients used in this project as previews data required on several solar energy applications, thermal simulation, and solar power systems. In addition, mathematical models had been used to study the flow of the fluid inside the tube (receiver), and study the effect of direct and reflected solar radiation on the pressure, temperature, speed, kinetic energy and forces of fluid inside the tube. Finally, the mathematical models had been used to study the (PTC) performances and estimate its thermal efficiency.

Keywords: Experimental, Radiation, Mathematical Models, CFD, parabolic trough

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1 Mathematics Model Approaching: Parameter Estimation of Transmission Dynamics of HIV and AIDS in Indonesia

Authors: Firman Riyudha, Endrik Mifta Shaiful


Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the world's deadliest diseases caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that infects white blood cells and cause a decline in the immune system. AIDS quickly became a world epidemic disease that affects almost all countries. Therefore, mathematical modeling approach to the spread of HIV and AIDS is needed to anticipate the spread of HIV and AIDS which are widespread. The purpose of this study is to determine the parameter estimation on mathematical models of HIV transmission and AIDS using cumulative data of people with HIV and AIDS each year in Indonesia. In this model, there are parameters of r ∈ [0,1) which is the effectiveness of the treatment in patients with HIV. If the value of r is close to 1, the number of people with HIV and AIDS will decline toward zero. The estimation results indicate when the value of r is close to unity, there will be a significant decline in HIV patients, whereas in AIDS patients constantly decreases towards zero.

Keywords: Mathematical Models, HIV, AIDS, Parameter Estimation

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